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Curriculum and course design


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Curriculum and course design

  3. 3.  The original Latin meaning of curriculum was a course, but of the kind that one runs around (it came from currere, to run), or perhaps traverses in a racing chariot, a transferred sense. The first borrowing of the Latin word into English — in the late seventeenth century — was for a light, two-wheeled, twin-horsed carriage, the curricle, the sports car of carriage days -Latin curriculum; a running, course, current (as of life)
  6. 6.  Shaws (1975) brings out the following distinction between "curriculum" and "syllabus". He says "... The curriculum includes the goals, objectives, content, processes, resources, and means of evaluation of all the learning experiences planned for pupils both in and out of the school and community, through classroom instruction and related programs..." He then defines "syllabus" as "a statement of the plan for any part of the curriculum, excluding the element of curriculum evaluation itself."
  7. 7.  "Curriculum" as defined by Allen (1984) is a very general concept. It involves consideration of philosophical, social and administrative factors which contribute to the planning of an educational program. "Syllabus" then refers to that subpart of a curriculum which is concerned with the specification of what units will be taught.
  8. 8.  In defining a language "syllabus", Noss and Rodgers (1976) refer to it as "a set of justifiable, educational objectives specified in terms of linguistic content". Here the specification of objectives must have something to do with language form or substance, with language-using situations, or with language as a means of communication.
  9. 9.  Strevens (1977) says that the syllabus is "partly an administrative instrument, partly a day-to-day guide to the teacher, partly a statement of what is to be taught and how, sometimes partly a statement of an approach ... The syllabus embodies that part of the language which is to be taught, broken down into items, or otherwise processed for teaching purposes."
  10. 10.  Wilkins (1981) words, syllabuses are "specifications of the content of language teaching which have been submitted to some degree of structuring or ordering with the aim of making teaching and learning a more effective process."
  11. 11.  Johnson (1982) explains syllabus as an "organized syllabus inventory" where "syllabus inventory" refers to the items to be taught. Crombie (1985) also defines "syllabus" as a list or inventory of items or units with which learners are to be familiarized. But Corder (1975) points out that it is more than just an inventory of items. In addition to specifying the content of learning, a syllabus provides a rationale of how that content should be selected and ordered (Mackey, 1980).
  12. 12.  Candlin (1984) takes a different stand when he says that syllabuses are "social constructions, produced interdependently in classrooms by teachers and learners ... They are concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescriptions for action by teachers and learners."
  13. 13.  Basically, a syllabus can be seen as "a plan of what is to be achieved through our teaching and our students learning" (Breen, 1984) while its function is "to specify what is to be taught and in what order" (Prabhu, 1984).
  14. 14. 1. Who participates in writing a curriculum? It may be partly or entirely determined by an external, authority body. CURRICULUM SCHOOL DISTRICTS PERU S T A T E DEPARTMENT U.S.A SCHOOLS
  15. 15. Instancias de gestión educativadescentralizadaen las que se diversifica el DCN-PeruInstancia Responsable Documentos Documentos Referenciales Curriculares Direcciones Diseño Curricular Nacional Lineamientos para EBRRegional Regionales de • Lineamientos la Educación • Proyecto Educativo diversificación Nacional • Proyecto Educativo curricular regional Regional Diseño Curricular Nacional- Orientaciones para EBRLocal Direcciones de • Proyecto Educativo la diversificación Unidades de Regional curricular • Proyecto Educativo Local Gestión local • Lineamientos para la diversificación curricular regional Diseño Curricular Nacional- Proyecto Curricular EBRII.EE Director de la • Lineamientos para la de Institucióno II.EE. diversificación Educativa curricular regional.Red Educativa a o • Orientaciones para la diversificación curricular Programaciónnivel local Coordinador de • Proyecto Educativo curricular Anual
  16. 16. DECISIONS IN A SYLLABUS1. Decisions about the objectives of the program2. Decisions about the content3. Decisions about the method4. Decisions about how the program is evaluated
  18. 18. 1. APPROACH.-theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language.2. METHOD.-a generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives.3. DESIGN.- a style, pattern4. PROCEDURE.- a set of social actions or accepted way of teaching.
  19. 19. TIMETABLE Teachers need to plan different activities to keep VARIETY students´ interest from lesson to lesson. To avoid the excesses of COHESION variety The work should provide COVERAGE direct attention to all areas targeted in the syllabus.
  20. 20. Let´s work thecomponents of lessonplan decision-making proposed by Harmer (1991)
  21. 21. Teacher´s knowledge of students -who they are -what they bring to class -what their needs are Teacher´s knowledge of the syllabusactivities Language skills Language type Subject and content The institution and its restrictions The plan Could you explain the lesson plan given by Harmer?
  22. 22. TWO PARADIGMS PARADIGM KNOWLEDGE-CENTRED PERSON-CENTRED The natural science Humanistic paradigm paradigm: Positivism Phenomenology “external” perspective: “internal” perspective: behavior is determined by behavior is self- environment determined View of person Focus on objective knowing Focus on personal knowing View of teacher Person as input-output Person with self-agency system View of L learning Transmitter of knowledge Facilitator of learning View of curriculum Intellectual process Natural process (learning) (acquisition) Ends-focused Process-focusedLook at the pages taken from 3 different books and on evidence you have inthe chart above, tell the class how you would characterize each book.Is itsituated on a a k-c or p-c paradigm?
  23. 23. TYPE A TYPE B Pre-selects the  Respects ―natural‖ language to be way taught  Language is T. presents- acquired through practices-tests doing rather than learned (rules) WHAT?  HOW? PROCESS  PRODUCT
  24. 24. II.- WAYS OF APPROACHING CURRICULUM THEORY AND PRACTICE1. Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted.2. Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students - product.3. Curriculum as process.4. Curriculum as praxis. Homework
  25. 25. 1. Curriculum as a body ofknowledge to be transmitted. Body ofknowledge - Subjects content through Education SSTUDENTS
  26. 26. . Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students - product.•Objectives are Education that preparesset learners for life is one that•Plan is drawn up prepares definitely for•They are applied different activities/roles.•Outcomes aremeasured Answer the questions – page 19
  27. 27.  Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students pattern of behavior. It becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students. (Tyler 1949: 44)
  28. 28. PROCEDURE Step 1: Diagnosis of need Step 2: Formulation of objectives Step 3: Selection of content Step 4: Organization of content Step 5: Selection of learning experiences Step 6: Organization of learning experiences Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it.
  29. 29.  Curriculum as a process is driven by general principles and places an emphasis on judgment and meaning
  30. 30. PLANNING ANDDESIGNING A COURSE 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  31. 31.  Whenever we want to design a course,we need to gather information during a needs analysis.Then deciding on the objectives is next. 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  33. 33. Terms Curriculum: a broad description of general goals by indicating an overall educational- cultural philosophy which applies across subjects together with a theoretical orientation to language and language learning with respect to the subject matter at hand. Syllabus: a more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning elements which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into a series of planned steps leading towards more narrowly defined objectives at each level.
  34. 34. What is a Curriculum? The word curriculum comes from the Latin word meaning "a course for racing." Its interesting how closely this metaphor fits the way in which educators perceive the curriculum in schools. Teachers often speak about "covering" concepts as one would speak about "covering" ground. And that coverage is often a race against the testing clock. 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  35. 35. SELECTING MATERIALS  The advantage is that books save ESP practitioners a lot of work.  Books provide a solidBooks are partof a package: framework to work with,AudioVideos which is very useful forworkbook less experienced practitioners. 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  36. 36. Tailor-made materials 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  37. 37.  They are designed to meet specific needs and produced by training department or institute which commissions materials for specific projects or clients. A disadvantage: they can be very time-consuming to prepare,and need skills and experience in materials writing,word- processing,graphic design,etc. 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  38. 38. 1. Learner´s need2. Identify and analyze language item3. Work pedagogical approaches4. Decide what sorts of activities to use5. Make decisions about layout,etc. 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  39. 39. CORPORA: We do not creat Collections ofsomething NEW,but real labguage adapt ideas and data resources to suit •They give particular teachers situations. opportunity to acess real language: both spoken and written 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  40. 40. The learner as a resource  The approach is to use learners themselves as a resource.  With job-experienced learners, we can get more about the job andWe get theCONTENT but its requirements thanthe T remainsthe language working 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  41. 41.  Ask questions to develop content Invite them to role-play Ask them to write key words that can be used as references Let´s collaborate with the learner to generate the language use 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  42. 42. Authentic materialsLettersMemosReportsMagazinesLablesPrescriptionsInternet/websites 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  43. 43. EVALUATING ANDASSESSING Evaluating is of critical importance in supporting how teaching is done. It involves asking questions,collecting relevant information and making judgements. A needs analysis is a form of evaluation,too. Placement tests involve evaluation,as does decisions about materials 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  44. 44. How do we know if our course wassuccessful? Formative learner assessment Summative learner assessment Course Evaluations by stakeholders Poll 6
  45. 45. TESTS FOR LEARNERS Multiple choice Matching Gap fill Information tranfer Comprehension Error correction Open ended 8/30/2012 santyna-12
  46. 46. Poll Question 6Do you have Course Evaluations done by all stakeholders at the end of your current courses? a. Yes, and I have access to the results. b. Yes, but I don’t have access to the results. c. No. d. I don’t know.
  47. 47. LET´S ANSWER What could be specific about E learning process, both in general and particularly in the Peruvian context? How should this specificity be reflected in terms of curricula content, its general aims and objectives? How should this specificity affect the assessment criteria to evaluate the benefits of learning? In what way and to what extent should the curricula reflect the above mentioned specificity? What, if any, are the special problems of Peruvian learners? How can the curriculum provide for systematic language build-up on the level of creative language use? What aspects of language learning seem to be common to all students within vocational education? What is the relationship among individual language skills within language use in different disciplines? Is it possible to establish common core frameworks for the curricula according to different disciplines? 8/30/2012 santyna-12