Medieval feudalism 4

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Medieval feudalism 4

  1. 1. The Middle Ages “The dArk Ages” #26 World History Ch 13 &
  2. 2. Europe in the 6 Century AD th
  3. 3. Changes in W. Europe due to Germanic Invasions • Disruption of Trade /Economic Centers • Downfall of Cities - abandoned - dwindling population moved to the countryside • Decline of Learning - besides clergy /few were educated • Loss of Common Language - Cultural Unity is Destroyed
  4. 4. FeudAlisM • System of Govt. / Military that began after the fall of the Franks from power • Small kingdoms developed / ex. 350 counties • In order to maintain control a relationship between kings and lesser nobles was needed • This was the Feudal Contract Two Important Aspects: 1. Land Grants from Lords 2. Exchanged for Protection & Loyalty
  5. 5. (Serfs) Peasants who worked the land
  6. 6. The Road to KNIGHT Knighthood Age 21 SQUIRE Age 14 PAGE Age 7
  7. 7. Knight in Full Armor - Jousting
  8. 8. Chivalry A Code of Honor and Behavior
  9. 9. Knights Ruled the Battlefield From Charlemagne to the Hundred Years War
  10. 10. Age of Knights Ends with Development of the Welsh • Up to six feet long Longbow - Cheap to make - Easy to Carry - Quick to Fire 12-15 shots per min • Deadly from 200yd “The Middle Finger” - Capture/Fr. Cut M.F. Bodkin - Battle of Agincourt (Eng. Showed Finger)
  11. 11. Feudalism political, economic & social system based on loyalty and military service
  12. 12. Key words/Concepts • Lords – nobles who make a grant of land (kings / barons / counts, etc) • Vassals – nobles who received the land (knights could be included here) • Fief – the land that was granted (hereditary) - Could be Both a lord & vassal - couldn’t divide the fief within the family - Law of Primogeniture (eldest son) - Obligations were only for lord above & vassal below
  13. 13. The Manor System within Feudalism • Economic System of the Dark Ages (agricultural based) • Large fief’s might have several manors - stewards ran them if lords were away • Centered around the Manor (estate) - manor house(castle), pastures, fields village, church, mill, forests,etc. • Manors were Self-Sufficient –very little trade during this period
  14. 14. Social Structure 1. Nobility – Kings/Lords/Knights – inherited 2. Clergy – each manor had a priest 3. Free Men (Few) – had certain valuable skills – Blacksmith,etc. - rented land from nobility 4. Serfs – peasants bound to the land
  15. 15. Serfs lived a hard life • Forced to work land they were born on - farmed the Domain (1/3 of Land) for the lord: 1 or 2 days of week - farmed land assigned to them(2/3) paid taxes on what was produced In exchange for protection in the Castle • Denied Marriage or leaving land w/out consent of the lord • Standard of living was very low
  16. 16. Manor in the Middle Ages examples
  17. 17. The Medieval Manor / p.362
  18. 18. Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work on the manor
  19. 19. Castles were the best example of Power in the Medieval World
  20. 20. Medieval Castle – In France
  21. 21. Akershus Castle in Oslo
  22. 22. View from the Top
  23. 23. Trebuchet
  24. 24. Small model
  25. 25. Making a trebuchet • Nova – 5 min Film / Two types of Trebuchets are shot at a stone wall -- accurate from about ¼ mile -shot up to 500 pd. boulders The Trebuchet ruled the Medieval battlefield for more than 200 years • The Cannon Ultimately Ended the Age of the Castle & Feudalism
  26. 26. The Roman Catholic Church Ch 13.4
  27. 27. A Medieval Monastery -Spread the word of God-Keep alive the memories of the past-
  28. 28. Illuminated Manuscripts
  29. 29. A Medieval Monk’s Day
  30. 30. The Medieval Catholic  filled the power vacuum left from the Churchworld. collapse of the classical  monasticism:  St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. (giving up free will) – No Speaking, etc  provided schools for the children of the upper class.(later Middle Ages)  inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.  libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.  monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
  31. 31. The Power of the  bishops and abbots played a large part in Medieval the feudal system. Church  the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.  tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40 days a year for combat.  curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition  tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.  Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
  32. 32. The Middle Age ChurCh Feudalism/Manor system – fragmented Europe The Church was the glue (stability) LATIN CHRISTIANDOM • Religious Events Marked a Person’s Life • Eventually the Church devised a uniform path for all Christians to follow – 7 Sacraments 1. Baptism – enter church community 2. Holy Eucharist – communion 3. Confirmation – church membership 4. Penance – repentance of sins 5. Holy Orders – admitted to priesthood 6. Matrimony – marriage 7. Extreme Unction – anointing the sick/dying “last rights”
  33. 33. Beginning of Modern States • Ch 14.3 & .4 • • • • England absorbs waves of Invaders England’s evolving govt. France / Capetian Dynasty The Hundred Years’ War / Joan of Arc
  34. 34. Feudalism and the Mounted Knight comes to England -Battle of Hastings 1066 Angles & Saxons Harold Godwinson William of Normandy
  35. 35. William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)
  36. 36. Modern States Emerge 1. England – After the Norman Conquest Kings begin to unify but lose their power to a Great Council of Nobles & The Church 2. France – Charlemagne's old land Kings used a Council to control the Nobles & Clergy 3. Holy Roman Empire – German & Italy(800 yrs) Power struggle between the Emperors & the Clergy – power is divided(no one side wins)
  37. 37. Evolution of England’s Political System  Henry I:  William’s son.  set up a court system.  Exchequer  dept. of royal finances.  Henry II:  established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.  grand jury.  trial by jury.
  38. 38. Magna Carta, 1215  King John I  Runnymeade  “Great Charter”  monarchs were not above the law.  kings had to consult a council of advisors.  kings could not tax arbitrarily.
  39. 39. The Beginnings of the British Parliament  Great Council:  middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.  eventually called Parliament.  by 1400, two chambers evolved: o House of Lords  nobles & clergy. o House of Commons  knights and burgesses.
  40. 40. The Rise of European Monarchies:
  41. 41. The Beginnings of European Transformation
  42. 42. Gothic Architectural Style  Pointed arches.  High, narrow vaults.  Thinner walls.  Flying buttresses.  Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.  Stained-glass windows. “Flying” Buttresses
  43. 43. Oxford University
  44. 44. Medieval Universities
  45. 45. Late Medieval Town Dwellings
  46. 46. Medieval Guilds Guild Hall  Commercial Monopoly- (Trade Associations)  Controlled membership apprentice  journeyman  master craftsman  Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].  Controlled prices
  47. 47. Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmith’s Shop
  48. 48. Medieval Trade
  49. 49. Possible Three-Field System
  50. 50. Film – Knights & Armor • • • • • • • Knights / William Marshall Squires Tournaments Events - Running of the Rings Joust Quatrain Castles Coat of Arms / Order of the Garter Chivalry (Chivalary) King Arthur
  51. 51. Medieval Life & Times http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/inde Assignment: 1. From within selected Topic pick two sub categories for your paper Ex. – Medieval Clothing /Chain Mail & Hair Styles 2. Discuss or Define its purpose 3. Compare or Contrast to Modern Times 4. Short Presentation to Class

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