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  1. 2. D rug A buse R esistance E ducation <ul><li>L.A.P.D & L.A.U.S.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary Schools </li></ul><ul><li>17 week program </li></ul><ul><li>80% of all districts now offer it </li></ul>
  2. 3. Research Question: Does the D.A.R.E. program really deter future drug use among its participants Why is this an important area to research? <ul><li>Tax dollars $$ </li></ul><ul><li>If truly an effective program.. </li></ul><ul><li>If NOT as effective as it claims to be… </li></ul>Dependent Variable: Participants’ drug use before and after the D.A.R.E. program Independent Variable: D.A.R.E. Program
  3. 4. Measurement and Data Collection <ul><li>Survey - will be under approval of parent(s) </li></ul><ul><li>surveys prior and after completion of D.A.R.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 yrs. / 16 yrs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ surveys for Non-D.A.R.E. participants as well </li></ul><ul><li>focus is on recreational drugs </li></ul><ul><li>attendance is a key element (Signing in/out) </li></ul><ul><li>reliability… </li></ul><ul><li>fear of confidentiality & honesty factor </li></ul><ul><li>results are solely dependent on surveys </li></ul>
  4. 5. Subjects and Sampling Methods <ul><li>LAUSD School Districts </li></ul><ul><li>Randomly selecting 10 Elementary Schools within the school district </li></ul><ul><li>From the 10 chosen, we then select 1 class enrolled in DARE and 1 class not enrolled in DARE from each of the 10 schools. Total of 20 classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Then randomly selecting 5 students from the 30 or so enrolled in each class </li></ul><ul><li>Participants chosen will be asked to fill out a survey before and after the D.A.R.E. program. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Research Design Null Hypothesis The D.A.R.E. Program (A) does not affect the subject(s) drug use (B). There are other factors that will influence drug use Research Hypothesis When D.A.R.E. participation (A) increases, drug use (B) will decrease. D.A.R.E. participation may have a temporary influence on the subject(s) drug use.
  6. 7. Experimental, Pre/Post test Randomized 2 group design O 1 X 1 O 2 R O 1 O 2 R = Random Assignment (schools with DARE as well as schools without it) O = Observation (surveying DARE participants and Non-DARE participants, regarding their drug use history) X = Treatment (DARE program)
  7. 8. <ul><li>This design is the best for our project because it will allow us to: </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish between 2 groups (D.A.R.E. and Non-D.A.R.E. participants) </li></ul><ul><li>measure the level of drug use (how much drugs are consumed) </li></ul><ul><li>If treatment makes a difference </li></ul><ul><li>Random assignment </li></ul>Strengths <ul><li>Random assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment process will be unbiased and equivalent </li></ul>Weaknesses <ul><li>Sensitive topic: not all participants are willing to disclose their drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Some participants may exaggerate drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul>
  8. 9. Alternative hypothesis Other factors for the correlation between A and B Spurious Causation A C B C = Prior drug convictions C = Prior drug convictions C = Lack of participation C = Lack of participation A = Drug Use B = Unsuccessful DARE program A = Drug Use B = Unsuccessful DARE program C = Family C = Family A = Drug Use B = Unsuccessful DARE program
  9. 10. Alternative Hypothesis continued… Ruling out internal validity <ul><li>Testing: no control over post-test (2 nd survey); participants may become more sensitive and provide different answers anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality (Attrition): If subjects began to drop out before the experiment has terminated. </li></ul>External validity Drug use may be influenced by peer pressure and living in Los Angeles
  10. 11. Results <ul><li>Data helped us determine that DARE…. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason why DARE IS NOT effective…. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing DARE with non-DARE students </li></ul><ul><li>What if DARE was long-term? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Ethics and Human Subjects <ul><li>Risk to participants? </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing risk(s) and protecting confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of performing this research? </li></ul><ul><li>Other ethical dilemmas? </li></ul>