Teaching and learning with web 2.0
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Teaching and learning with web 2.0

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My M.A. thesis on the use of Web 2.0 applications as didactic tools.

My M.A. thesis on the use of Web 2.0 applications as didactic tools.

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  • 1. ENGINYERIA I ARQUITECTURA LA SALLE FACULTAT DE PSICOLOGIA, CIÈNCIES DEL’EDUCACIÓ I DE LESPORT BLANQUERNA (UNIVERSITAT RAMON LLULL) Màster en Formació del Professorat d’Educació Secundària, Batxillerat,Formació Professional i Ensenyament d’Idiomes TREBALL FINAL DE MÀSTER Curs 2009-2010 Francesca Ferrante
  • 2. ESCOLA TÈCNICA SUPERIOR D’ENGINYERIA ELECTRÒNICA I INFORMÀTICA LA SALLE FACULTAT DE PSICOLOGIA, CIÈNCIES DEL’EDUCACIÓ I DE LESPORT BLANQUERNA TREBALL FINAL DE MÀSTER Teaching and Learning with Web 2.0 ALUMNE PROFESSOR PONENT
  • 3. ACTA DE LEXAMENDEL TREBALL FINAL DE MÀSTER Reunit el Tribunal qualificador en el dia de la data, lalumne D. va exposar el seu Projecte de Fi de Carrera, el qual va tractar sobre el tema següent: Acabada lexposició i contestades per part de lalumne les preguntes formulades pels membres del tribunal, aquest valorà lesmentat Treball amb la qualificació de Barcelona, VOCAL DEL TRIBUNAL VOCAL DEL TRIBUNAL PRESIDENT DEL TRIBUNAL
  • 4. AcknowledgementsThere are a lot of persons I would like to thank for their help and assistance duringthis incredible year. First, I want to express my deep and immense gratitude tomy boyfriend Sebastiano who constantly encouraged and inspired me with all hisenthusiasm and positivity. I am very grateful to my family for all the supportthey gave me - despite the distance - with their patience and their contagiouscheerfulness. I would also like to thank Angelo and Sonia Zaniol for their kindnessand their precious suggestions. A special thank goes also to my friend Istri whofound the time to help me even when he was on the other side of the world. Iwould like to pay a special tribute to all the professors of the Master for theknowledge they gave me and for enhancing my creativity. Also, I extend mygratitude to all my colleagues who shared with me this great experience. Francesca
  • 5. ii
  • 6. ContentsAbstract 1Introduction 31 Exploring Web 2.0 5 1.1 A Definition of Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Transition from 1.0 to 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3 A brief Overview of Web 2.0 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Teaching and Learning with 2.0 11 2.1 Changing the Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Connectivism: a Learning Theory for Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3 Bloom’s Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.4 Motivating with Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.5 Risks and Disadvantages of Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Didactic Use of Web 2.0 19 3.1 Didactic Use of Wikis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2 Didactic Use of Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.3 Teaching with Media-sharing Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.3.1 Photosharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.3.2 Videosharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.3.3 Audiosharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3.4 Slidesharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.4 Tagging and Social Bookmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 A Web 2.0 Experience 29 4.1 Wiking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 iii
  • 7. Contents 4.1.1 Create your own recipe!!! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1.2 Analysis and Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Conclusion 33A Examples of Educational Web 2.0 35 A.1 Motivating with Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 A.1.1 Duck Diaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 A.1.2 Trout Blog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 A.1.3 Videopoesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A.2 Wikis for Didactic Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 A.2.1 Francesca Escola Pia Balmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 A.2.2 Interculture Wiki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.2.3 Taller 2.0 in Aulawiki21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.2.4 Web 2.0 in Aulawiki21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.2.5 Wiki Plastica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A.2.6 Wiki Almeraya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 A.2.7 Wiki in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 A.3 Blogs for didactic use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 A.3.1 Call Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 A.3.2 Blogging English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 A.3.3 ISB IB Fine Arts Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A.3.4 Paris-Normandy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 A.4 Audiosharing resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 A.4.1 Stanford on iTunes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 A.4.2 Sandaig Primary School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A.5 Social bookmarking resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A.5.1 PennTags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A.5.2 H2O Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53B Programming with 2.0 55References 61iv
  • 8. Abstract ICT applications are largely used in education nowadays. Schools and ed-ucational centres are aware of the fact that nowadays learners have new needssince they are born during the digital era. For that reason, schools are tryingto adapt their educational projects to the new demand in order to engage andmotivate digital students. This innovative change is related to a wider revolu-tion the Web is undergoing in the last few years. As a matter of fact, the Webis becoming more interactive connecting people of all generations and countries.The new Web, also known as Web 2.0, is labelled as democratic since it gives allusers the power to create and share contents. Web 2.0 applications like Wikis,Blogs, media-sharing services and other interactive resources are spaces where theinformation is entirely created by users. My thesis wants to introduce Web 2.0and speculate about its possible use for didactic purposes showing how it fosterscommunication, collaboration, creativity and motivation.
  • 9. 2
  • 10. Introduction The use of technologies for didactic purposes is becoming more and morepresent in educational environments nowadays. Educational institutions are awareof the fact that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are signif-icant resources of the learning process. This is probably due to the fact thattechnologies and the virtual world resulting from them are currently changingour perception of reality and consequently our way of thinking and learning. Asa consequence of that, the educational system needs to adapt its didactic re-sources to these new demands. Present day learners are digital learners and theyneed to receive a formation that gives them the possibility to improve their digitalcompetences. Moreover, they need to know how to select, organize and managethe amount of information they receive everyday (Redecker, 2009). This adaptation process may sound a bit challenging because it requires a bigeffort not only from teachers but also from educational centres. If on one handteachers need to change their way of managing and organizing classes, on theother hand schools should provide suitable facilities as technical support, teacherICT trainings, wi-fi connection and so on. Catalonia is in the right way to accom-plish this important technological switch. The Spanish region is implementing anumber of measures aimed to enhance and promote digital learning. As a matterof fact, according to the LEC (Lllei d’educaci´ de Catalunya, 2009), students oshould be competent in the use of technologies. In particular, article 57 statesthat students should acquire basic competences and that the ICT competenceis one of them. Moreover, articles 58, 59 and 60 explain how students shouldbe able to use technologies both in primary and in secondary school. Abouteducational centres, article 87 states that they should provide suitable spaces,equipments and installations in order to integrate digital technologies. For what 3
  • 11. Introductionconcerns teachers, article 104 states that they should master and use technologiesas a methodological tool. Finally, according to article 109, all the teachers shouldreceive training in order for them to know and use ICT effectively. Another important aspect of the digital revolution is the way it is changinglearning paradigms. In particular, the learning process is becoming more andmore social and interactive because of the rise of Blogs, Wikis and media shar-ing resources which are spaces where knowledge is achieved through communitycollaboration. These new ICT tools are collectively known as Webs 2.0. Ac-cording to Redecker, “Learning in the digital era is fundamentally collaborativein nature; social networks arise around common (learning) interests and aimsand facilitate the learning process by providing social and cognitive guidance andsupport (2009)”. As a consequence of that, digital learners have become the pro-tagonists of the learning process. As Redecker states, “The learner plays a centralrole in the learning process not as a passive recipient of information, but as anactive author, co-creator, evaluator and critical commentator (2009)”. Further-more teachers’ function is also undergoing a transformation: ICT teachers havebecome classroom dynamizers, guides and organizers; they are no more the onlysource of learners’ knowledge. My thesis is aimed to introduce Web 2.0 and to analyze its didactic usesshowing how it fosters collaboration, creativity, motivation and critical thinking.In chapter 1 I will present Web 2.0 and compare it with Web 1.0. In Chapter 2 Iwill deal with the didactic uses of Web 2.0 presenting Connectivism as a learningtheory, speculating about motivation and talking about possible risks related touser generated information. In chapter 3 I will introduce different examples ofWeb 2.0 applied to educational environments. Finally, in chapter 4 I will talkabout my personal experience with Web 2.0.4
  • 12. Chapter 1Exploring Web 2.0 ICT are recognized as fundamental tools of the new generation’s learningprocess. The Web is one of the most powerful ICT resources and it is becomingmore and more interactive and “social”. In the last decade, the Web is switchingfrom 1.0 to 2.0. This change affects the way users conceive the Internet and ofcourse ICT learning and teaching. In the next two paragraphs I will introduceWeb 2.0 and then eventually explain on what this web shift consists.1.1 A Definition of Web 2.0 “Web 2.0” or “social computing” is a term commonly associated with a rangeof digital applications which facilitate interaction, information sharing amongusers and collaboration on the World Wide Web. This definition originated in aconference brainstorming session run in 2004 by O’Reilly Media Inc., a famousAmerican media company that publishes books on computer technology topics.According to O’Reilly, “Web 2.0 is a set of economic, social and technology trendsthat collectively form the basis for the next generation of the Internet a moremature, distinctive medium characterized by user participation, openness, andnetwork effects (2004)”. Participation, collaboration, co-working, user centrality, de-professionalizationof contents, usability, user friendliness and immediacy are some of the key words 5
  • 13. Exploring Web 2.0which characterize this complex revolution and that are present in a wide vari-ety of existing network services. Nevertheless, the 2.0 phenomenon is somethingthat goes beyond the reality strictly linked to the global network and the virtualworld. As a matter of fact, Web 2.0 are affecting social dynamics, culture andeducation in a more radical way. These changes revolve around a new paradigm of user, called “prosumer ”(Toffler, 1980). Users are no longer either producers or consumers of informationand contents, but both producers and consumers simultaneously, with all the pos-sible consequences. According to O’Reilly, the new paradigm of social computingcan be identified by the following features: • “Power to user” (O’Reilly, 2005): whereas prior web was characterized by content provided in static pages, Web 2.0 has democratized the web by giving priority to users. Thus, user created content and connectivity have become a central factor. According to Murdoch, “to find something com- parable, you have to go back 500 years to the printing press, the birth of mass mediaTechnology is shifting power away from the editors, the publish- ers, the establishment, the media elite. Now it’s the people who are taking control (Rupert Murdoch, 2006)”. • “Web as a platform” (O’Reilly, 2005): users of Web 2.0 can run internet applications in their browsers. These applications such as Wikis, Blogs and media-sharing encourage users to collaborate by adding, editing or reworking content thanks to their participative element. Along with the raise of Web 2.0 appears the concept of micro-content, which refers to small information chunks that can stand alone or be used in different contexts like Podcasts, Wiki edits, news feeds, Blog posts and so on. • “Harnessing collective intelligence” (O’Reilly, 2005): Web 2.0 appli- cations rely on user-generated content and interactivity. Drawing on James Surowiecki’s “wisdom of crowds” theory, Web 2.0 applications leverage the power of the masses (O’Reilly, 2005). In other words, the activities of users producing content in the form of videos, photos, texts of simply ideas are “harnessed” by social applications to create value.6
  • 14. 1.2 Transition from 1.0 to 2.0 In the early 90s the Internet became more and more popular and it waswidely used by users looking for information. Users could only consult web pageswithout having the possibility to interact with the content or to cooperate withother users. Creating a web page required strong technical knowledge and wasquite expensive. This first kind of “Read Only Web” has been later defined as“Web 1.0”. In the last few years, a new paradigm has emerged. Web pagesoffer the users the opportunity to insert comments, pictures, video and all kindof personal contributions. Users can even easily create their own Web pages,propose discussion topics on their Blogs, share videos, power point presentations,pictures, links and so on. In other words, users are creating the web. They areno more information consumers but information producers. The new web is nowcalled the “Read-Write Web” or Web 2.0. In figure 1.1 the difference between Web 1.0 and 2.0 is exemplified. As wecan see Web 1.0 is almost unidirectional since users have not the opportunity tocontribute to its creations and expansion. On the contrary, Web 2.0 is stronglybi-directional and it reaches more than 1 billion of global users (L´pez. Palmero, oRodr´ ıguez, 2008). The table 1.1 shows the main differences between 1.0 and 2.0. One of themost important differences is that Web 2.0 changes the way users conceive theweb.1.3 A brief Overview of Web 2.0 Applications The list of Web 2.0 applications could be endless, considering the fact thatapplications continue to grow, to change and to be improved. New services arecontinuously created and it is often difficult to navigate in the world of Web-mediated communication. However, we can distinguish between four main cate-gories that will allow us to define the most popular existing services and that willbe analysed in detail in the following chapters: 7
  • 15. Exploring Web 2.0Figure 1.1: Evolution from 1.0 to 2.0, adaptation to An´ ıbal de la Torre (L´pez. oPalmero, Rodr´ ıguez, 2008) • Wikis: online application for creating and editing interlinked web pages using a simplified text editor. The term was coined by Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki application, and derives from the Hawaiian word “wiki” which means “fast” and makes reference to a quick-web. The main characteristic of these applications is to support the collaborative writing between different users. While Blogs tend to be written by a single person, and as a direct consequence are mainly personal, Wikis are more likely to be the result of a collaborative effort. The aim of the Wiki web sites is to be a shared repository of knowledge (Godwin-Jones, 2003). The structure of Wiki pages is usually simple since the main focus is in the content and collaboration rather than in the design. The most well-known example of this kind of application is Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org), created in 2001 and attracting at least 684 million visitors yearly by 2008. Wikipedia8
  • 16. Table 1.1: Adaptation to Slideshare presentation by Silvia I. N´nez (2009) u˜ Web 1.0 Web 2.0 • Non-collaborative web • Collaborative web • Passive users • Active users creating contents • Few content producers • A large number of producers and contributors • Static pages • Dynamic pages • Infrequent updates • Really frequent page updates • Unidirectional and non- • Multi-directional and collabora- collaborative web pages tive web which help the publica- tion, the research and the consul- tation of web contents • Only expert users can create • Publishing information and edit pages and publish contents pages do not require advanced technological knowledge • Minimum interaction reduced • Promote and stimulate interac- to registration on mailing lists, tions bulletins, etc • Interaction and collaboration • Contents are organized through are not encouraged the use of tags • Web pages and content are flex- ible and in constant change project has more than 75.000 active contributors working on more than 10.000.000 articles in more than 250 languages (Redecker, 2009).• Blogs: web applications that display a series of text, video and image entries in reverse chronological order, usually created and maintained by an individual. The term is a contraction of web log, introduced for the first time by Barger (1999). Blogs typically include a tool that allows other users to respond to posts using comments. Blogs are organized by tags, keywords associated with the posts which permit to sort them by topic. For nearly 10 years a set of free blogging applications has been appearing on the web, 9
  • 17. Exploring Web 2.0 allowing any user to write a Blog without the need of specific programming skills. Famous examples of blogging tools are blogger (www.blogger.com) and wordpress (www.wordpress.com). • Media sharing services: set of applications which allow users to upload, aggregate, distribute and host texts, images, videos, audio files and other kinds of media contents. An important characteristic of these applications is the possibility to search contents uploaded from other users and of to add comments. The most relevant websites are YouTube for video shar- ing (www.youtube.com), Flickr for image hosting (www.flickr.com), Scribd (www.scribd.com) and Slideshare (www.slideshare.com) for documents and presentations sharing and Itunes, a digital media player application for pod- cast and vodcast hosting (www.apple.com/itunes/). • Other collaborative resources: within this category we can find ap- plications based on tagging and social bookmarking. In particular, social bookmarking is a web tool to manage, share and search bookmarks of web resources. The main difference with file sharing tools is that only the re- sources references are shared and not the resources themselves. In a so- cial bookmarking system, users save a list of Internet resources which they consider useful, and share it so that other users with common interests can look at the links by category. These tools categorize resources using tags, which are words topic-related assigned by users. Most of social book- marking services allow users to search bookmarks linked with specific tags and to sort the search result depending on how many users have marked them. Del.icio.us is one of the most used social bookmarking applications (www.delicious.com).10
  • 18. Chapter 2Teaching and Learning with 2.0 This chapter is aimed to introduce the four essential learning aspects enhancedby Web 2.0, that are communication, collaboration, creativity and critical think-ing. Later on it will be shown how Bloom’s taxonomy can be applied to Web 2.0.Then learning aspects such us theory and motivation will be anlaysed. Finally abrief speculation will look at the disadvantages and risks related to their use.2.1 Changing the Paradigm According to Veen and Vrakking, the new generation of learners is changingfrom homo sapiens to homo zappiens since new learners are born using com-puters, acquiring knowledge through screens, icons, sounds, games and they areconstantly communicating with pairs (2006). The values of new learners are: • Expression of the self-identity and self-individuality; • Personalization; • Constant sharing of information; • Constant reference to peers. 11
  • 19. Teaching and Learning with 2.0 The new generation of learners works in multi-tasking and resists the tradi-tional and obsolete way of teaching (Besana, 2008). The new learners or digitalnatives -individuals born during the Information Era - are exploring the newinformation and communication sources in a non-linear way. Web 2.0 is an enriching tool for learning and teaching processes and it trans-forms students in content producers and multimedia creators. This implies atransformation of students’ role that was previously passive since students wereconsidered consumers of presentations and videos (Crescenzi and Olmedo, 2009). Web 2.0 transforms students form passive to active or, better yet, interactive.Teachers’ role is also undergoing a transformation from being the absolute protag-onist of classes to a mediator of contents, a promoter of autonomous learning anda guide of information research, analysis, selection and interpretation (Crescenziand Olmedo, 2009). However, teachers should not only teach how to use Web2.0 tools: their most important contribution should be developing critical skillsin students. Web 2.0 is an effective tool to develop four essential learning aspects: com-munication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking (web2teachingtools,2009). Web 2.0 can help learners to develop effective communication skills by: • The use of digital media that support personal and collaborative learning; • Sharing information by the use of appropriate digital media; • Communicating personal concepts and ideas to different audiences. Web 2.0 is useful to promote collaboration among learners so that they can: • Work with people, including people from different environments and cul- tures; • Negotiate meaning and contents in order to reach a common goal; • Show other learners their responsibility as a team member.12
  • 20. Web 2.0 can be effective to develop learners’ creativity by making them: • Create useful contributions based on original ideas; • Think about and develop new ideas to be shared with other people; • Be aware and accept others’ points of view. Finally, Web 2.0 tools are excellent to develop critical thinking because theylead learners to: • Gather information and select elements they are interested in; • Use different kinds of reasoning to interpret a situation; • Analyse, compare and structure information; • Take decisions by following different criteria.2.2 Connectivism: a Learning Theory for Web 2.0 Connectivism is a theory developed by Siemens that considers learning as aprocess of creating knowledge through networks. As for connectivists, knowledgeis reached by a strong interdependence between individuals, groups and commu-nities and follows the same dynamics of socialization and interaction. Connec-tivism considers learning as networked, occurring in complex and chaotic spacesand increasingly supported by technology (2005). According to him, the main principles of Connectivism are: • Learning is a process based on networking; • Learning rests in considering diverse, often opposing, views; • Connections, not content, are the beginning point of the learning process; 13
  • 21. Teaching and Learning with 2.0 • Knowledge can rest within our networks not only internally in ourselves; Web 2.0 can be strictly related to Connectivism since it refers to interactiveWeb and promotes communication, collaboration, sharing data and creativity.2.3 Bloom’s Taxonomy As we have seen so far, teaching with Web 2.0 can be effective not just becauseit offers a new learning paradigm that follows digital learners needs, but alsobecause it helps learners to develop their thinking skills. In the 50s, BenjaminBloom developed his taxonomy based on cognitive skills. He classified them asa continuum from Low Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to High Order ThinkingSkills (HOTS). Figure 2.1: Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy14
  • 22. Bloom’s taxonomy is an excellent classification of learners’ thinking processesand it can of course be applied to the use of Web 2.0. The cognitive map belowis an adaptation of Bloom taxonomy to Web 2.0 tools and it clearly shows howthese webs develop highest thinking skills. Figure 2.2: Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy Concept map. 15
  • 23. Teaching and Learning with 2.02.4 Motivating with Web 2.0 Motivation is a psychological variable that influences individuals’ behaviours.In educational contexts, motivation plays a key role because it is responsible forlearners’ involvement. According to Celaya, “Motivation refers to the reasonsthat the learner has which determine his engagement in learning (2005).” Oneof the most hard challenges teachers face in their everyday life is to find ways tostimulate and foster students’ motivation. Recent studies show how a Web 2.0 based learning environment enhancesstudents’ motivation, engagement and social skills. In 2006, Cavallaro and Tanpublished an article showing that collaborative online writing between two dif-ferent universities showed positive results in students’ motivation and quality ofwriting. Students from the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) of Singa-pore were supposed to comment and assess the reports written by students fromthe Singapore Polytechnic (SP) and vice versa. The fact that the lecturer wasnot the only one evaluating the reports enhanced motivation (Cavallaro & Tan,2006). Similarly, in 2008 Lee et al. describe how podcasting activities promote collab-oration and students’ involvement in negotiation of meaning. Another example ofhow podcasting can effectively motivate students is the study carried out by Cruz& Carvalho (2007). They asked 27 pupils from a Portuguese school to developa Podcasts project where students were supposed to create their own Podcastepisodes. The study showed that students were really involved in the task andthat the majority of them not only considered podcasting as motivating but alsopreferred listening to Podcasts than reading books. Furthermore, in 2006 Langhorst proposed the use of Blogs to develop twoschools projects on historic novels. The project was supposed to involve not onlystudents but also their parents and the author of the novel. Students were somotivated that they created a Blog about “Daisy the Duck” (see appendix A.1.1)and another one called “Trout Diary” (see appendix A.1.2). Both of them includewritten stories, Podcasts and interviews. A further example of the motivationalfunction of Web 2.0 is the Italian Videopoesia, a project that enhances student’screation of poetry through the creation of Youtube videos (see appendix A.1.3).16
  • 24. 2.5 Risks and Disadvantages of Web 2.0 Web 2.0 allows users to spread ideas and, consequently, represents the demo-cratization of the online information. Furthermore, it has a great potential sinceit offers unlimited alternatives. However, behind such attractive and positivedepiction we can find the other side of the coin. In fact, despite its innumerableadvantages, Web 2.0 can also imply risks and disadvantages. The openness ofWeb 2.0 makes necessary to rethink a number of concepts like ownership, controland security. • As regard ownership, it refers to the rights an individual has on his own creations. The great amount of contents present on Web 2.0 makes difficult the recognition of authorship. Some of the Web 2.0 applications allow users to protect and register their creations with the Creative Commons License (www.creativecommons.org/education). Creative Commons is a non profit corporation that allows users to have rights of authorship. Creative com- mon license offers users the possibility to copy, share, re-use and distribute artefacts only if they acknowledge their author’s worth. For these reasons, Creative Commons is widely used in education. As a matter of fact, since teachers and learners can access contents and participate to their elabora- tion, they not only need to be recognised as authors but also to acknowledge others’ creations. • About control, Web 2.0 users have an unlimited freedom to publish and comment on every field or topic. This sort of democratization of the web entails a massive production of contents that are not often reliable. More- over, the great amount of contents published on the social webs is not always subject to linguistic revision and it consequently lacks of accuracy. Most of the users do not check the spelling and ignore morfo-syntactic rules; in addition, there is a huge tendency to create neologisms and abbreviations. Teachers should be aware of this aspect and work in this direction in order to make students publish only reliable and accurate materials. In 2007, Andrew Keen published “The Cult of the Amateur: How Today’s Internet Is Killing Our Culture”, a controversial book where he accuses Web 2.0 and the contents generated by users of being damaging culture. According to 17
  • 25. Teaching and Learning with 2.0 Keen, “The consequences of Web 2.0 are inherently dangerous for the vital- ity of culture and the arts...Instead of Mozart, Van Gogh, or Hitchcock, all we get with the Web 2.0 revolution is more of ourselves (2006).” As it is ev- ident, Keen’s view is too radical and elitist. It is true that users can publish information without any limit or control, but at the same time users can use their critical thinking to select contents and prove their authenticity. • In the world of social webs, security has become more and more vulnerable. Users can subscribe to an unlimited amount of websites and most of the time they release personal information without knowing who can manipulate it. For this reason it is important to educate users and make them aware of the possible risks that giving personal details implies. Web 2.0 is not dangerous in itself as long as users are able to pick out in-formation. Of course, teachers using Web 2.0 for didactic purposes should takeinto account this potential risks and train students to be not only reliable contentauthors but also critical information receivers.18
  • 26. Chapter 3Didactic Use of Web 2.0 As we have seen so far, Web 2.0 can face the needs of the new generationof learners offering them the possibility to communicate, collaborate, create andthink critically. In the following sections I will introduce and analyse differentdidactic examples of Web 2.0 tools such as Wikis, Blogs, media-sharing servicesand other collaborative resources.3.1 Didactic Use of Wikis A Wiki is a collection of pages that can be easily edited by any kind ofuser. It is an online space that allows users to add, remove and edit contents.A Wiki can host all kind of contents and as such it can effectively be used fordidactic purposes. As a matter of fact, Wikis are ideal tools for collaborativewriting and group projects involving web resources. Moreover, they can be usedas alternative to scholar closed platforms since a broader audience can have accessand collaborate on them. Wikis are also a valid scaffolding resource for teachersthat can easily supervise student’s contributions. So, using Wikis for education has many advantages because: • It enhances collaborative work; • It is easy to understand and use; 19
  • 27. Didactic Use of Web 2.0 • It is assessable, easy to track; • It offers learners the possibility to be creative. There are different online resources that allow teachers to create catchy andmotivating Wikis for their students: Wikispaces (www.wikispaces.com), PBwiki(www.pbwiki.com) and Wetpaint (www.wetpaint.com). Wikis can offer a huge range of possibilities both for classroom and for edu-cators. In a classroom context a Wiki can be used to: • Create a classroom website with notes and interesting activities carried out by the group (see appendix A.2.1); • Write a story, a diary or a report; • Develop collaborative and individual projects; • Foster communication among learners, parents and teachers; • Organize and promote school events; • Collaborate with other schools anywhere fostering inter cultural collabora- tions (see appendix A.2.2); • Create a digital magazine; • Give support to teacher training (see appendix A.2.3); • Provide educational resources (see appendix A.2.4); • Be teachers’ personal page (see appendix A.2.5); • Be schools’ main pages (see appendixes A.2.6 and A.2.7).3.2 Didactic Use of Blogs Blogs are online public writing environments which enable users to easily dis-play articles listed in chronological order (Ellison & Wu, 2008; Anderson, 2007).20
  • 28. Blogs can contain video and audio clips, other users’ comments, links to otherBlogs and so on. From the end of the 90s onwards, an extremely large and in-creasing amount of Blogs has been populating the web. According to OECDdata, in 2007, there were up to 200 million Blogs (2007). Bloggers (Blog editors)can be people of different ages and backgrounds which use Blogs for several pur-poses. Obviously, Blogs are also popular in the educational environments, sincethey offer teachers and educators a large amount of suitable possibilities. Blogsare useful to: • Provide a space where students and teachers can share opinions and infor- mation. In those spaces students can learn to express their opinions and be critical, analytical and creative; • Help students to consider knowledge as a set of interconnections rather than a static amount of notions; • Make students aware of the importance of the authorship and ownership of their opinions; • Learn within the community. Students can read and comment their class- mates contributions, meet new people and develop their social skills; • Give students the possibility to connect with experts and have their opin- ions; • Enhance student’s motivation because of its interactive nature; • Engage students in conversation and learning; • Give the opportunity to teach responsible public writing since students become conscious of the responsibility they have when publishing contents. There are several web spaces that allow teachers to create interesting andengaging blogs: Blogger (www.blogger.com), Wordpress (www.wordpress.com),Edublog (www.edublog.org) and Ning (www.ning.com). Blogs offer a wide range of educational possibilities: 21
  • 29. Didactic Use of Web 2.0 • Students digital portfolio, where projects and works are collected; • Schools’ spaces to publish news, announcements and articles; • Tutor Blogs which provide students with class information and resources for self-study (see appendix A.3.1); • Class Blogs organized by teachers that inform students about events, home- work and activities (see appendix A.3.2); • Autobiographical journal edited by students and commented by pairs; • Book journals though which students makes their commentaries about a book proposed by the teacher; • Science reports, to give students the opportunity to comment their scientific investigations; • Art Blogs, a space where learners can comment and interpret artistic cre- ations (see appendix A.3.3); • NarraBlogs or creative writing Blogs, a space where students publish their original and creative narrations or poetries; • TravelBlog, a space where students talk about their schools trips (see ap- pendix A.3.4).3.3 Teaching with Media-sharing Resources Media-sharing resources are online devices that allow users to store and sharetheir own creations. Through the use of media-sharing users can upload files,collect them in a group, share them with a massive audience, open a Forum or aBlog for discussions, display and comment others’ media and so on. Media-sharingservices offer unlimited possibilities for teaching since they provide students thepossibility to be creative and critical. There is a vast quantity of media-sharingresources available on the Web. Most of them have completely changed users’lives.22
  • 30. 3.3.1 Photosharing Posting pictures on the Web has become one of the most popular activity inthe last few years. This phenomenon has been driven by the growing fame ofdigital cameras and of mobile phones with cameras (Redecker, 2009). On theweb, there are many sharing services that provide users with the possibility toupload their pictures, organize them in albums and eventually share them. One of the most popular web-sharing services for posting photographs is Flickr(www.flickr.com), an online device that enables users not only to upload andorganize pictures, but also to edit them. Flickr has a enormous social potentialsince it can be a place where photo amateur meet, a gallery for exhibitions and away of sharing experiences and initiatives. Since pictures easily catch students’attention and engage them, Flickr can be widely used in education. It is easy toaccess, it offers quality products and it frees teacher and students to rely just ontextbooks and photocopies. Among the unlimited possibilities of using Flickr for teaching there are: • Oral presentations (about a city or a place in particular, hobbies, interests, school’s excursions); • Vocabulary (tagging pictures); • Grammar (what are they doing? Use of present continuous); • Writing (impressions, comparisons, conclusions, reflections or descriptions); • Oral discussions (culture, events, pop stars); • Competitions (best pictures, best gallery). A part from Flickr, there are other online spaces where people not onlyshare pictures but can also create nice slideshows and posters such as Smilebox(www.smilebox.com) and Glogster (www.glogster.com). 23
  • 31. Didactic Use of Web 2.03.3.2 Videosharing Sharing videos has become more and more popular since 2005 when ChadHurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim founded YouTube (www.youtube.com), aweb page where people can upload, share and comment videos (L´pez, Palmero oand Rodr´ ıguez, 2009). Since YouTube was created, it has been possible to findan unlimited amount of videos online. Of course, there are many other web pageswhere videos are shared and commented, but the peculiarity of Youtube is thatvideos are uploaded by users. YouTube can extensively be used for educationalpurposes since it is a huge video database where is it possible to find every kindof topic. Moreover, both teachers and students can upload their own videos. In classrooms, YouTube can be used to: • Introduce a topic; • Stimulate students to give opinions; • Show trailers, documentaries, plays and so on; • Help students to work on listening and comprehension; • Make students take notes to retain information • Ask them questions on what they have just watched; • Make students create and upload their own video. Websites with similar characteristics that can be used for educational pur-poses are TeachersTV (www.teachers.tv), TeachersTube (www.teachertube.com),Videojug (www.videojug.com), Zimmertwins (www.zimmertwins.com), Classroom-Clips (www.classroomclips.org/), YoutubeEDU (www.youtube.com/education),Neok12 (www.neok12.com), ScholarSpot (http://scholarspot.com/), CosmoLearn-ing (www.cosmolearning.com/) and Lectr (www.lectr.com).24
  • 32. 3.3.3 Audiosharing Sharing audio files is a powerful way to allow the communication and thedistribution of contents. Audiosharing enable users no only to listen to a widevariety of audio-files, but also to collect, create and share them. The device usedto share audio-files is the Podcast, a recorded file available on the Internet thatusers can easily download and listen to either with their iPod or with other mediaplayers. Thus, users can download entire audio broadcastings and listen to themwherever and whenever they want. There is a wide range of Podcasts available online and they range from generalto specific topics (music, art, science, culture). Podcasts can also be useful toolsin education since they provide teachers and educators with a large variety ofpossibilities. Moreover, they are attractive to learners because they can listen tothe recorded file as many times as they want and learn by their own. Podcastscan be used either inside or outside classrooms and they can be created not onlyby professionals but also by students and teachers. In educational contexts, Pod-casts can be either a short story to be uploaded on the school website or a weeklyradio show that students should organize and record. Podcasts are used by a largerange of institutions. For example, the University of Stanford has created a web-site where students can find and download useful Podcats (see appendix A.4.1).Furthermore, there are many schools that publish their students’ recordings toshow contributions and achievements. An example can be a Scottish Primaryschool that produces Podcasts with jokes, games and competitions (see appendixA.4.2). In order to create a Podcast it is necessary to download the software Audacity(www.audacity.sourceforge.net) that allows users to record and edit audio-files.Listening and creating Podcasting offer a wide variety of educational benefits like: • Introducing topics that will be eventually developed by the teacher; • Allowing students to develop their listening and speaking skills; • Making students familiar with ICT devices; • Giving students a potential audience for their creations; 25
  • 33. Didactic Use of Web 2.0 • Developing students’ literacy skills for the creation of scripts, interviews and so on; • Promoting collaboration and teamwork. Among the websites that provide useful Podcasts for education we can findiTunes (www.apple.com/itunes/podcasts/), Librivox (www.librivox.org), Inter-net Archive (www.archive.org), Jamendo (www.jamendo.com), Education Pod-cast Network (www.epnweb.org) Radiowaves (www.radiowaves.co.uk) and Pinky’sPaperhaus (www.paperhaus.typepad.com).3.3.4 Slidesharing Power point presentations and slides are more and more used by professionalssince they offer the possibility to present contents in an easy and catchy way.Those tools are also widely employed in educational contexts both by teachersand students since they can be used to: • Present contents; • Engage students by the use of images or animations; • Develops student’s speaking skills and their capability to be communicative; • Summarize key points previously developed; • Give students the possibility to be creative and critical; • Engage students in conversation, debates and opinion sharing. Many websites enable users to upload their own presentations, share themor download others’ presentations. Some of these online tools are Sliseshare(www.slideshare.net), Scribd (www.scribd.com), Storybird (www.storybird.com)and authorSTREAM (www.authorstream.com). A part from the basic functionsof uploading and downloading presentations, those Web resources give users thepossibility to include their comments and browse presentations by topics. More-over, uploading presentations in these Web pages allow users to share their cre-ations with a vast audience and to have them available everywhere.26
  • 34. 3.4 Tagging and Social Bookmarking Tags are short descriptions that denote the content of specific resources andmakes possible the classification and information searching based on keywords.Tags can be considered as labels usually chosen by the creator of the contentaccording to personal and informal criteria. Since they are useful to organizeusers’ web creations, tags are widely used in many Web 2.0 services. Tags canalso be represented in charts called tag clouds which are visual representations ofuser-generated tags and are typically used to draw the content of web pages. Anexample of tag clouds generator is Wordle (www.wordle.net), a web applicationthat creates word clouds from arbitrary texts highlighting those words that appearmore frequently. Tags are directly related with the concept of social bookmarking service, adevice that gives users the ability to organize, search and publish references ofweb resources. According to Franklin & van Harmelen, “A social bookmarkingservice allows users to record (bookmark) web pages, and tag those records withsignificant words (tags) that describe the pages being recorded (2007).” Tagshelp users to know web pages contents even before accessing them. The processof organising information with keywords (tags) generated by users has been giventhe definition of folksonomy. Examples of web pages based on social bookmarkingare Del.icio.us (www.delicious.com), Bibsonomy (www.bibsonomy.org) and Digg(www.digg.com). The popularity of such services is growing constantly as they are easy andintuitive tools to identify, classify, sort and share Internet resources. Moreover,concerning the quality of the information provided, they have several advantagesover traditional search engines. This is because the classification is based on tagscreated by users who understand the content of the resource, and not extractedby an algorithm trying to determine the meaning of the resource itself. Another relevant characteristic of tag is that users can look for other userswho possibly share the same interests because they have tagged their resourceswith similar keywords, and add them to an own network of contacts. This allowsan easy monitoring of contacts’ tagging activities for interesting bookmarks. 27
  • 35. Didactic Use of Web 2.0 Thanks to its characteristics, social bookmarking can be used in educationalcontexts through the creation of pedagogical applications based on the conceptof collaborative information discovery. Below are listed some of the possibleeducational uses: • Teachers and students can build up collections of bookmarks by sharing their personal links to web pages and collaborative filtering of digital content (Alexander, 2006). • Groups of users with a common interest can team together to use the same bookmarking service to bookmark items of common interest. If they have individual bookmarking accounts, they all need to use the same tag to identify their resources (Franklin & van Harmelen, 2007). • Teachers and learners can recommend, rate and comment on certain re- sources they found and post their bookmarks to an individual’s blog or a common websites focusing on a given subject area, thus supporting each others’ research efforts (Vuorikari, 2007). • With the use of multiple tags and tag clouds, these collections can be used to build up reading and resource lists (Franklin & van Harmelen, 2007). Alternatively, teachers and librarians can create pre-selected and tagged lists of resources for learners to browse and extend (Vuorikari, 2007). The University of Pennsylvania for example has promoted the Penntags project(see appendix A.5.1), a social bookmarking tool for locating, organizing, andsharing members’ favourite online resources. Similarly, the Harvard Law Schoolstarted the Haward’s H2O project (see appendix A.5.2) to promote the concept ofcommunity-based development of educational software and encourage the growthof a more open set of intellectual communities than those spawned by the tradi-tional academic system.28
  • 36. Chapter 4A Web 2.0 Experience As we have seen so far, Web 2.0 can be used for didactic purposes and be partof educational projects. During my teacher training - carried out in Escola PiaBalmes (Barcelona) from February to May 2010 - I designed different activitieswith 2.0 applications and I eventually proposed them to my students. The aimof my intervention was not just to get students familiar with ICT applications,but also to stimulate their creativity, their communication skills and their criticalthinking. The idea of applying Web 2.0 tools to my lessons came from my atten-dance at the APAC (Associaci´ de Professors d’Angl`s de Catalunya) convention o ein February 2010. During those three days I learnt a lot about technologies andlearning innovations by participating to different interesting workshops. In par-ticular, I met some of the teachers that are currently using Web 2.0 in theirclassrooms and that strongly believe in their potential. They showed me howWeb 2.0 applications can become an unlimited source of ideas and how they pro-vide teachers with a wide range of possibilities to design and carry out activities.During their explanations about the modality of use of Web 2.0, I was not onlysurprised by the enormous potentiality of these technologies but above all fasci-nated by the energy those teachers were transmitting me. After the meetings Iwas so enthusiastic that I started gathering information and collecting materialsabout Web 2.0. Nevertheless, the most exciting moment came when I starteddesigning my own activities on my Wikispace. The idea of teaching using mypersonal resources stimulated me and I could feel the same energy the APACteachers had. So, the creation of my Wiki has been a process of discovering, 29
  • 37. A Web 2.0 Experienceexperimenting and above all experiencing.4.1 Wiking When I started ideating my Wiki I thought it was going to be a complextask. As I discovered later on there are different online applications enablingusers to create catchy and interactive spaces where teachers can upload activitiesand students can create and collaborate. To build up my Wiki I used PBworks(www.pbworks.com), a 2.0 application especially designed for online collabora-tion. It is a very user-friendly space where it is possible to upload videos, photos,Slideshare, Google gadgets and even talking Avatars. It is easy and simple tostructure and edit. Moreover, PBworks helps teachers to organize their students’accounts providing automatically both usernames and passwords.4.1.1 Create your own recipe!!! This task consists in the creation of an original and delicious recipe thatstudents would eventually publish on their Wikispace. It is aimed to get pupilsfamiliar with web 2.0 technologies and prepare them to share information andcollaborate both with their classmates and with peers from abroad. In order tofulfill the assignment students should work in groups and look for informationand pictures on the web pages I suggest them. Objectives: • To achieve the communicative oral, written and audiovisual competences of English language. • To use with autonomy and critical spirit the social media and the informa- tion and communication technologies (TIC). • To listen to and understand both general and specific information and to be able to express in a foreign language.30
  • 38. Figure 4.1: Francesca Escola Pia Balmes - PBworksSteps:1. Students should get in groups and think about their recipe. It has to be original and follow the modalities and steps present in the example provided by the teacher.2. After having drafted their recipe, students should think about an original and creative title.3. In order to give directions, students should use the imperatives. The following web pages offer examples of imperative forms: British Council 31
  • 39. A Web 2.0 Experience (www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-grammar-imperatives.htm) and ESLCafe (www.eslcafe.com/idea/index.cgi?display:1028675430-25901.txt). 4. Students should include at least 10 ingredients with quantities (use grams, liters and teaspoons). 5. In order to find a specific words for ingredients and kitchen utensils, stu- dents should use Visual dictionaries: ingredients (http://visual.merriam- webster.com/food-kitchen/food.php) and utensils (http://visual.merriam- webster.com/food-kitchen/kitchen.php). 6. Finally, students should find and upload imaged representing ingredients using the following applications: Flickr (www.flickr.com) and Google images (http://images.google.com).4.1.2 Analysis and Observations The first aspect I was concerned about when I started designing my Wikiwas how I would manage to control and efficiently guide students. At the sametime, I was convinced that creating catchy and innovative activities would havehelped me to capture students’ interest and in some way their attention. Mygood expectations have been confirmed once I proposed the class the project ofbuilding a Wikispace. They clearly showed me their enthusiasm and the majorityof them immediately started creating their own contribution. Nevertheless, someproblems arose during the fulfillment of the task due to its complexity and alsobecause using Web 2.0 tools was somehow completely new for my students. Theymanaged to use visual dictionaries and photosharing applications like Flickr butthe rhythm of the class was chaotic. I couldn’t follow all the students at the sametime and that was making me feel that they weren’t learning. At the end of thesession, I saw that despite my negative feelings the majority of the class acquired agood knowledge of some Web 2.0 resources and that most of the students enjoyeda lot the experience of collaborating with effort and originality. I realized that thefact that I did not have the control does not mean that students are not learningand that the knowledge they acquired was generated by their collaborations andby the connections they established.32
  • 40. Chapter 5Conclusion Web 2.0 applications can be used in educational environments to foster col-laboration, creativity, motivation and critical thinking. They empower studentsas content producers and give them the opportunity to share their creations witha large audience. Thanks to Web 2.0 students can collaborate either with theirclassmates or with peers from other institutions. Moreover, Web 2.0 can beextremely useful to promote innovation and to foster collaboration among insti-tutions. Since we are part of a world community, connections are fundamentalto trigger collaboration and content sharing. Web 2.0 is a highly effective toolto create connections and to stimulate confrontation. Furthermore, it seems thatWeb 2.0 is motivating students and this is demonstrated by several researches wehave seen above. The adoption of Web 2.0 for didactic purposes implies a radical change inboth teaching and learning processes. Information is no more just transmittedby the teacher to students, but it can also come from the students or selectedthrough the web. The role of 2.0 teachers is to guide and scaffold students duringtheir process of selection and creation of the contents. Teachers should makestudents aware that when they publish opinions or tag a picture they are notjust diffusing information or establishing connections but they are creating theWeb. The great potential of Web 2.0 is clear, but more research is needed toprovide teachers with instructions and to ensure the appropriate integration ofthese revolutionary applications. 33
  • 41. Conclusion34
  • 42. Appendix AExamples of Educational Web 2.0 This appendix is aimed to present practical and real examples of educationalWeb 2.0. The following pages will show how schools and educational centres areusing applications like Wikis, Blogs, Podcasts and social bookmarking resourceseffectively. 35
  • 43. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.1 Motivating with Web 2.0A.1.1 Duck Diaries Figure A.1: duckdiaries.edublogs.org36
  • 44. A.1.2 Trout Blog Figure A.2: www.mcdsblogs.org/trout 37
  • 45. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.1.3 Videopoesia Figure A.3: www.videopoesia.it38
  • 46. A.2 Wikis for Didactic UseA.2.1 Francesca Escola Pia Balmes Figure A.4: francescaescolapiabalmes.pbworks.com 39
  • 47. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.2.2 Interculture Wiki Figure A.5: interculturewiki.pbworks.com40
  • 48. A.2.3 Taller 2.0 in Aulawiki21 Figure A.6: aulablog21.wikispaces.com/Taller+2.0 41
  • 49. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.2.4 Web 2.0 in Aulawiki21 Figure A.7: aulablog21.wikispaces.com/Web+2.042
  • 50. A.2.5 Wiki Plastica Figure A.8: educacionplasticayvisual.wikispaces.com 43
  • 51. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.2.6 Wiki AlmerayaFigure A.9: www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/ 04001205/pmwiki/pmwiki.php44
  • 52. A.2.7 Wiki in Education Figure A.10: wikisineducation.wetpaint.com 45
  • 53. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.3 Blogs for didactic useA.3.1 Call Lessons Figure A.11: call05-06.motime.com46
  • 54. A.3.2 Blogging English Figure A.12: bloggingenglish1.blogspot.com 47
  • 55. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.3.3 ISB IB Fine Arts Network Figure A.13: isbibarts.ning.com48
  • 56. A.3.4 Paris-Normandy Figure A.14: mgsonline.blogs.com/paris2006 49
  • 57. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.4 Audiosharing resourcesA.4.1 Stanford on iTunes Figure A.15: www.itunes.stanford.edu50
  • 58. A.4.2 Sandaig Primary School Figure A.16: www.sandaigprimary.co.uk/radio sandaig/index.php 51
  • 59. Examples of Educational Web 2.0A.5 Social bookmarking resourcesA.5.1 PennTags Figure A.17: tags.library.upenn.edu52
  • 60. A.5.2 H2O Project Figure A.18: h2o.law.harvard.edu/index.jsp 53
  • 61. Examples of Educational Web 2.054
  • 62. Appendix BProgramming with 2.0 Here follows a didactic programming of “Create your own recipe!!!”, thetask I carried out during my teacher training experience in Escola Pia Balmes(Barcelona). 55
  • 63. 56 Didactic Unit UNIT 6 TIMING: 60’ CLASS: 1st year of ESO SCHOOL YEAR: 2009-2010 TEACHER: Francesca Ferrante Introduction: This unit provides students with the possibility to build up and work on their Wiki where they can be part of an interactive and cooperative project. In this way students would not only improve their linguistic and social competences but they would also get familiar with technologies and Web 2.0 resources. Subjects involved: Geography, History, Maths, Cultural habits, Literature. Teaching Objectives: Basic competences: Evaluation criteria: 1. To achieve the 1.1 Linguistic and audiovisual competence 1. Participation in oral communicative oral, - Students should be aware of how to use languages in different contexts (formal interactions written and and informal). 2. Understanding of the audiovisual - Students should know how to write a short composition following the teacher’s general idea competences of guidelines. 3. Recognizing of the main English language. - Students should be able to express concepts orally. ideas of specific written, 2. To use with - Students should be able to understand written and oral messages. oral and digital documents autonomy and critical - Students should be able to interpret and understand audio and visual files. 4. Production of brief oral or spirit the social 1.2 Artistic and cultural competence written compositions media and the - Students should know how to read critically and analyze a literary text. 5. Observation of some information and 2.1 Mathematical competence regularities of the foreign communication - Students have a mathematical sense of quantities (numbers, feet, measures, language technologies (TIC) pauses, etc.). 6. Use of TIC for the searching, 3. To listen to and - Students create and develop logical and coherent speeches, compositions and organization, exchange and understand both logical representations. presentation of information general and specific 2.2 Digital competence 7. Respectful attitude of information and to - Students should be familiar with Web 2.0 resources such as Wikis, Flickr, interest and of discovery be able to express in Slideshare, YouTube etc. towards different languages a foreign language - Students should know how to use Power Point and Slideshow. 8. Predisposition for the 4. To interoperate, 2.3 Learn how to learn collaborative work express and - At the end of each session students should evaluate themselves in order to have a 9. Self-evaluation understand orally, by sort of meta-cognitive diary of their activities. writing or through - Students should apply learning strategies both consciously and unconsciously. audiovisuals. 3.1 Sense of initiative - Students should be active. - Students should be flexible and be able to change their attitude if required. Programming with 2.0 - Students should be autonomous and not only base their works on the teacher
  • 64. 4.1 Knowledge and interaction within the world - Students should know how to cooperate in a workgroup. - Students should negotiate all he time the contents present in their tasks. 4.2 Social and civic competence - Students should respect the diversity. - Students should respect others’ opinions and know when to intervene. CONTENTS Communication: Literary & Aesthetic: Multilingual & Intercultural: 1.1 Participation in oral, written and audiovisual interactions. 2.1 Developing aesthetic and 3.1 Awareness that languages are elements 1.2 Participation in guided conversations both in couple and in literary dimension. defining the personal and the collective groups, in the classroom or in the school environment and in Interest towards the identity and that they are important to simulations (role-plays) related with experiences and personal knowledge of written, strengthen communication and learning. interests, with good pronunciation and intonation. oral and audiovisual 3.2 Awareness of belonging to a linguistic, 1.3 Participation in guided conversations related with contents of materials of the foreign social and cultural community. other areas of knowledge, formulating questions and suitable language (rhymes, stories, 3.3 Awareness that there is not any language answers to the needs of the activities and using strategies to solve songs, legends). that or inherently superior or inferior - problems during the interaction. 2.2 Reading, understanding independently from the speakers of each one- 1.4 Expression of oral, written and audiovisual messages. and enjoyment of literary and that all are adapted to the needs of the 1.5 Production of short oral texts, with logical structure and with texts adapted at the persons who speak them. suitable pronunciation. reading capacity and the 3.4 Knowledge and respect for the persons who 1.6 Guided elaboration of coherent short texts with orthographic interests of the students. speak a language or different linguistic correction and suitable punctuation. variety to what is spoken in the own 1.7 Production of texts both on paper and on digital support that they linguistic community, especially the ones of eventually show in the presentation. (Power Point presentations, the nearest environment, starting from the Word documents etc.). school or neighborhood. 1.8 Knowledge language functioning and its learning processes. 1.9 Use of basic learning strategies for remembering, organizing and revising linguistic contents (lexicon, functions and concepts) placed in communicative contexts.57
  • 65. 58 Activities, tasks and projects Skill Timi Gro Resources Diversity Eval Aim Co H s ng up uatio s mpe wo n t. rk Session 1 Create your own recipe!!! Initial Warm up activity: stand up and be counted based on food. L 5’ A PPT, VS, VL, 1,2,3 1,3, 1.1, Student should stand up or sit down according to teacher’s Slideshow BK, IA 4 3.1 questions. This activity is aimed to introduce students with the main topic of the unit: food. The use of images, voice speaking and movements has the aim to involve students with different learning styles (Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic). Presentation of the activity and of the main topic: “Create your L 10’ I PPT, VL, LM, 1,2,3 1,3 1.1 own recipe!!!” and Imperatives. Slideshow IE, IA The Power Point presentation is a tool for the teacher to introduce both the topic and the grammar. In this way students would start t get familiar with food vocabulary and also they would know what a recipe is. Moreover a detailed and clear explanation on Imperative will give them the opportunity to start thinking about this verb tense and also to know his main functions: give orders, instructions etc. Once again the use of catchy images, the teacher’ voice and movements will involve students with different learning styles. Developmental Working on a Wiki following instructions and using grammar: L, W, 35’ W PBworks, VL, VS, 1,2,3, 1,2, 1.1, C students should create an original recipe to be published on their R, S Visual LM, BK, 4 3,4, 2.1, Wiki using web resources. Online MR, N, 5,6, 2.2, This activity is aimed to make students familiar with web 2.0 dictionarie IE, IA 7,8 3.1, technologies and prepare them to share information and s, Flickr, 4.1, collaborate both with their classmates and with students from British 4.2 abroad. The creation of a Wikispace is a challenging and Council motivating activity that will involve students in an innovative Grammar, project. Slideshare Synthesis Feedback on activity: after finishing the main activity the teacher L 10’ L Student’s IA give students a general feedback showing them common mistakes feedback and also positive aspects in order to encourage them. Programming with 2.0
  • 66. LegendSkills: S (speaking), W (writing), R (reading), L (listening)Group: W (group work), I (individual), P (pairs), A (all class)Diversity: Visual-spatial VS, Verbal-linguistic VL, Logical-mathematical LM,Bodily-kinesthetic BK, Musical-rhythmic MR, Naturalist N, Interpersonal IE,Intrapersonal IA.Evaluation: Participation P, Interest I, Task T, Questions Q, Presentation EHomework: Workbook exercises W, Complete the task C 59
  • 67. Programming with 2.060
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