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Syllabus desig nindice[1]

  1. 1. SYLLABUS DESIGN Màster en formació del professorat 2009/2010 Formació avançada per a l'ensenyament d'Anglès Professora: Cristina Malloll Alumna: Francesca Ferrante 1
  2. 2. Index 1 Contextualization.......................................................................................3 1.1 Reasons to learn a foreign language.....................................................................3 1.2 Common European Framework ............................................................4 1.2.1 Approaches to foreign language syllabus design ...................................................4 1.3 Escola Pia Balmes................................................................................................5 1.3.1 Projecte Educatiu or comprehensive education plan of the school ........................6 1.3.2 RRI or school policies ...........................................................................................9 1.3.3 PLC or Linguistic project ....................................................................................12 1.3.4 PMQCE or Project to improve the quality of the school .....................................13 1.3.5 Resources.............................................................................................................14 2 Classroom dynamics................................................................................17 2.1 Grouping ..........................................................................................................18 2.2 Timing .............................................................................................................18 2.3 Objectives, Contents, Competences and Evaluation Criteria.............................19 2.3.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................20 2.3.2 Contents...............................................................................................................22 2.3.3 Competences........................................................................................................25 Communicative competences ....................................................................................25 Methodological competences.....................................................................................26 Personal competences.................................................................................................27 Cohabitation competences..........................................................................................27 2.3.4 Evaluation criteria ...............................................................................................28 2.4 Methodological and psycho pedagogical frame.................................................29 2.5 Sequencing Criteria ...........................................................................................31 2.6 Activities, tasks and projects .............................................................................32 2.7 Attention to diversity ........................................................................................34 2
  3. 3. 1 Contextualization 1.1 Reasons to learn a foreign language Why to learn a foreign language? This is the question many people ask themselves when they start learning a new language or when they see others to do that. Nowadays the answer to this question seems quite obvious because there are plenty of reasons to learn a foreign language and above all English. The first reason would be to communicate because, generally speaking, knowing a new code of communication gives speakers the possibility to have more possibility to achieve a successful communication. Also, learning a new language does not only give the learner the possibility to communicate but also to know a new culture and as a consequence a new point of view. Getting in contact with a new culture gives people the possibility to be aware of their own culture and to observe it from another perspective. Another good reason to learn a foreign language is to improve language ability, we know more about our language and about how languages work when we are learning a new one and also in this way we develop and acquire new cognitive skills. Moreover, an excellent reason for students to learn a foreign language is to have the possibility to study and eventually to live abroad, to be immersed in a new culture. Also knowing another language helps to enjoy foreign literature, music and help people to travel abroad enjoying their time without communication troubles. To sum up, learning a foreign language is an opportunity to improve our skills, to grow up personally, to enrich our knowledge and our life and also a pragmatic help to achieve a good communication. 3
  4. 4. 1.2 Common European Framework The reference I used to build up my Syllabus Design is the Common European Framework for Languages. The CEFR is a fundamental tool for teachers and educators, because it provides with a clear description of teaching and learning objectives and methodologies. The approach on which it based is the action-oriented because it considers learners as “social agents”, individuals who have a task to solve in a dynamic and active environment. Moreover, the CEFR gives a complete definition of: • The communication competences; • The related knowledge and skills; • The situation and domain of communication. The CEFR also provides a list of criteria to describe the levels of proficiency in order to give a homogeneous form of evaluation in the European Community. There are 6 main levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2. Those six levels furnish a complete explanation of which are the competences and skills the students should have to attain a level. 1.2.1 Approaches to foreign language syllabus design Following the Common European Framework I think I will be oriented to choose a task-based and action oriented syllabus where contents are presented through tasks that students need to solve using the foreign language they are learning. I think that students can learn facing up situations they could find in their lives and also that they will learn more effectively working with language and not only on language. Thanks to the task, student will be able to use the language in order to over come given problematic situations and even if the focus will not be the language itself but the task, students will use language as in real situations. Everyday life situation will stimulate them to intervene and participate in the task solving using their L2 and trying to achieve a successful communication. 4
  5. 5. 1.3 Escola Pia Balmes The Escola Pia Balmes is a state-subsidized school placed in the center of Barcelona. It is a huge institution that takes part into the global project of Escola Pia, a Catalan foundation whose principles and values are inspired by the gospel with clear and effective objectives. The objectives the school wants to achieve are based on the main target of helping people to grow up and be able to contribute to the society wealth. As for the Calassanç’s (the school founder) principles, it is important to advance and to be aware that advancing always results from complicity, from mutual confidence and from the acceptance of the error like an instrument of improvement. 5
  6. 6. 1.3.1 Projecte Educatiu or comprehensive education plan of the school The Escola Pia Balmes works through: • A project that respects people and that takes into account the participation to the best initiatives within the framework of a Christian, open, attractive and dynamic proposal. • An educational action that considers the pupil as the protagonist and that ponders the teacher-pupil relationship as the central element. • An academic, consistent, realistic and innovative formation based on the pupil needs and situation. • A gradual orientation towards the world of the work that takes into account the social environment. • An organization that concentrates resources, formation and efforts for the future and promotes the initiatives and the responsible autonomy of the schools rooted in its environment. The Escola Pia Balmes focus its attention on three basic components of the educational system: • The student who should to be capable of developing his personality, of collaborating to improve the society and of constructing knowledge. • The educator who should be capable to imply himself personally with the Institution and with the team, to guide the students and to design activities of education-learning. • The organization of the classroom and of the school has to provide a model of management based on fair, accurate and respectful resources. 6
  7. 7. Mission, Vision and Values The Escola Pia is a school rooted in the environment of the city of Barcelona, drawing attention to the diversity of the students with a personalized treatment in the tutorial attention and guiding. The Escola Pia works to: • To look for the excellence in a pedagogic model in which the attention will be addressed to the singularity of the persons and that will search to complete the academic and professional preparation of the pupils with a complete human formation. • To be a center recognized by its quality in the service provided to students. The Escola Pia Balmes is: OPEN → To offer a service of public interest that offers the type of education people wants to have. WELCOMING → To promote a close and familiar relationship among the persons and an environment that makes it possible. INNOVATOR → To adopt didactic methods that are practical and motivating. PARTICIPATIVE → To promote the corresponsibility and the implication of the persons in the decision making. ROOTED → To promote the sense of belonging, the knowledge and the estimation of the culture itself. TRANSFORMING → To not limit people to replay social and cultural models, but to generate a progress of the persons and of the society. 7
  8. 8. Main guidelines for teaching/learning As regards the kind of educational approach, it is important for teachers of Escola Pia to guide learners and help them understand the way in which they learn and the purpose of learning. There are three main aspects to take into account: Quality vs. Quantity The Escol Pia prioritizes the contents (knowledge, skills and attitudes) with the purpose that students attain the basic and specific competences. It gives also emphasis to a useful and practical learning and at the same time it searches the coherence among the pupil and the attitudes and values considered. Didactic sequence Every didactic process has a sequence. Thinking on it and plan it with care helps the teacher and the trainee to be conscious of the learning process. In order to achieve a good didactic sequence the teacher should: - Plan the activities depending on the capacities which it is wanted to make the pupil attain; - Achieve that the pupil understand completely the goals at the beginning of each unit didactic, subject or lesson; - Make a clear reference to the goals previously established for any activity of evaluation (collection of information, analysis, reflection, synthesis...); - Include activities of self-regulation and moments of reflection (meta-cognition) so that the pupil can learn from the errors and take decisions of improvement. Group activity People get in groups to achieve goals that cannot be attained only with the individual effort. The main objective of working in groups is for students to share the knowledge they have acquired individually. Their activities are based on the research methodology that allows projects to begin reality. A for the Escola Pia diversity is a rich resource to work with, and in the group activity diversity play a fundamental role. It is a common knowledge that people working in groups put in common their different perspectives and that they work to negotiate their meanings in order to achieve the most consensual agreement. 8
  9. 9. 1.3.2 RRI or school policies The Escola Pia conceives the school not only as a place of academic learning but also as a space of cohabitation and public spirit, in accordance with its Educational Project. The school wants the dialogue to be the fundamental tool of resolution of conflicts in the case the good communal life is broken. However, because of the huge amount of pupils that are part of the school a few rules have been created in order for the school to achieve an ideal educational community. The school is a place of communal life that is based in the respect of all persons being part of the school community: students, teaching staff and staff of administration. General organization Entries, exits, movements in the school • The entries and exits will be made in the following way: 1st and 2nd of ESO: Balmes street, 208 • The movements in the school have to be made with order and discretion. It is not allowed to run neither for the corridors, nor for the stairs. • The change of class will be made the fastest possible and the displacements in far classrooms will be carried out with diligence and shortness. Rights and duties 9
  10. 10. Students • The assistance to class is a right and a duty of the pupils and, a consequence of that, it is compulsory. All the absences will be registered by the teachers of each subject, who will make it evident in the qualification report. • The pupils can not go out of the classrooms once the lesson has started, unless there is urgent or exceptional reason. • The expulsion of class is a severe and exceptional measure. The pupils expelled have to be presented immediately to their tutor or to their coordinator of cycle and they eventually decide with the teacher the necessary measure to solve the conflict. • The tutors and coordinators will control the assistance of the pupils and, through the family, they will know the cause of the absence. Every absence should be justified. • The unjustified absences are a severe misconduct. Parents • Parents should be aware of every kind of activities and occurrences of the school. • Parents should follow their children attentively and constantly and they should be in contact with teachers and tutors. • Parents should take part actively in the AMPA meetings. Teachers • Teachers should guide students providing them with tools and strategies to learn. • Teachers should tutor students constantly and take into account their different backgrounds. • Teachers should inform tutors and parents of any kind of important occurrence. Rules 1
  11. 11. Students • Especially during class time and generally, students have to behave with an attitude of respect towards the teachers and colleagues. People should be able to work in tranquility without being disturbed by anybody. • Students will always leave the class in a good state after finishing classes. • Mobile telephones and electronic devices cannot be used inside the school. If the case is given, any teacher can confiscate them. • In accordance with the present laws and the regulations of the Department of Education all pupils are forbidden to consume tobacco or any other drugs inside the school perimeter. Contact with the families Any misconduct or rules violation, depending on the gravity and reiteration, will be communicated to the family of the implicated pupil. This information will have the goal of talking about misconducts and try to take a decision. Moreover, teachers will contact families in case of PI (Pla individualitzat) or A.C.I (adaptació curricular individualitzada). 1
  12. 12. 1.3.3 PLC or Linguistic project The Linguistic project of the Escola Pia Balmes is operative and it is based on the new sociolinguistic reality, it is known by all the educational community of the Escola Pia and it is a reference model to take pedagogical and organizational decisions. Sociolinguistic context Students Students attending Escola Pia Blames are either Catalan or bilingual speakers. With exception of new comers, the rest of students are proficient in the use of Catalan language. Environment Sociolinguistic environment of Escola Pia Balmes: Catalan. Curricula languages: Catalan, Spanish, English, French and German. Catalan as the main language of learning • Catalan as the vehicle of communication • Catalan is the language used in every academic activity and it’s the tool of cohesion and integration among all the members of Escola Pia. Foreign languages The linguistic project sets up different criteria in order to build up activities and tasks which require the use of the foreign languages. Foreign language teachers agreed that the development of competences involves the ability to use of skills in an interactive and transversal way, in contexts that require the intervention of knowledge related to different domains. The linguistic project of the Escola Pia has as main objective the learning and use of the foreign language in order for students 1
  13. 13. to acquire linguistic abilities and oral competences to develop cognitively and to become autonomous and work in groups. Moreover, the school provides foreign language teachers and students with audiovisual and ICT resources that help the learning process trough the use of different and authentic materials. Finally, Escola Pia conceives the foreign language classroom as a space of total immersion into the target language and it gives the students the opportunity to be in contact and use foreign languages. In fact, both in formal and informal interactions, teachers use target languages and also encourage students to do it progressively. Language exchanges The Escola Pia Blames organizes a linguistic exchange with Holland for students of secondary education. The exchange is aimed to improve students’ competences of English language and also to facilitate socio- cultural relations. 1.3.4 PMQCE or Project to improve the quality of the school Among the purposes of the school there is a four-year plan where different educational aims are expected to be achieved: 1
  14. 14. • To consolidate an Institutional Plan of human resources; • To promote the interpersonal relationships, based on the dialog, to achieve an effective participation of the pupils in the activities of school life; • The School and the families, through the different organs of management and participation of the school itself and of the AMPA, are mutually compromised on developing a shared project of all the educational community, adapted to each of the school institutions of the Escola Pia; • To promote the application of the information technologies and the communication in the areas of the curriculum, of the communication and of the management; • To implant, in the organization, a system of Quality that places us in a dynamics of continuous improvement and that guarantees to our users and to our administration transparency and an efficient management. 1.3.5 Resources Resources are fundamental for a school to carry on its Educational plan. Resources can be persons, tools or space with which it is possible for students to reach different aims. The Escola Pia Balmes provide different kind of resources: Human resources Human resources are people playing different roles to support students: • Teachers registered into the department with a specific dedication to individual support. They should intervene in the case of behavioral problems and analyze deeply the causes and possible consequences of student’s bad conduct. The Escola Pia Balmes has different and really committed teachers who dedicate a lot of energy and hours to solve student’s problems. They meet very often to deal with the most important cases and they take decisions in order to solve problems. Teachers involved in the individual support are: 1
  15. 15. Esther Mauri 2h Marta Claramunt 3h Marta Fornells 4h Montse Lari 2h Maribel Roy 1h • Psychologists: people involved in the psychological analysis and support of problematic students. They are always present at school, ready to offer they help if teachers think it is necessary to do it. They are: Alba Badias Joana Tous • The Pedagogic Director: she is the person responsible for every kind of decision related to students’ behavior and attention. She presides didactic and pedagogic meeting and take the most important decisions related to school dynamics. Spatial resources Spatial resources are the places where students have the possibility to learn within the school context. The Escola Pia Balmes provides teachers and students with different useful areas to develop competences and improve skills: • Classrooms are equipped with chairs, desks, a computer with internet connection and a big projector. • Classrooms for special needs are really important because they are places where students with behavioral problems can meet support teachers or psychologists. 1
  16. 16. • The Mediateca is a place where people can either study or read about different topics. It provides student’s with books, magazines, dvds and an informatic space where pupils can work in groups or use the printer and the scanner. • The Computer rooms are places where students are guided by teachers when doing activities. The tasks can be carried out individually or in groups with the teacher monitoring students constantly. • The Gym and the Playground are spaces where student can do physical exercises or every kind of activity. Material Resources Material resources are tools for students to develop their cognitive skills. The Escola Pia Balmes provide teachers and students with traditional and innovative resources: • Traditional resources: books (Student’s book + workbook), magazines, literary books, audio books, posters, dictionaries (monolingual, bilingual), blackboard. • Innovative resources: computers, video-camera, CDs, projector. 1
  17. 17. 2 Classroom dynamics Secondary Compulsory Education My Syllabus design will deal with the first year of Secondary Compulsory Education (Primero de ESO). I’m going to describe the general structure of this course in the Escola Pia Balmes and also I’m going to talk about its different projects, policies and purposes the school carries out. ESO – Presentation The compulsory secondary education is the last stage of the compulsory educational system that groups boys and girls among 12 and 16 years. · The ESO pays a special attention to the needs of all pupils, to the interests and aptitudes that they manifest especially in this border age. Therefore, our goal is to help pupils above all in their personal and intellectual growth. · The ESO is a stage that allows students to access to the cultural elements within the framework of the complete personal development, since they acquire the concepts, the skills, the attitudes and the values that drive them to the individual autonomy. Educational orientation of ESO students Along the ESO, and in a progressive way, the Escola Pia bases the education not only on the academic orientation, but also in the personal and professional orientation. The personal orientation is basic and necessary for the pupils of this stage since they find themselves in the evolutionary period in which the typical changes of the adolescence are produced. 1
  18. 18. The academic orientation during the ESO facilitates the construction of the curriculum of the pupils in such a way that they can experiment which is the most suitable area for their interests and capacities. The Escola Pia offers an integrated formation that pays attention to facts and concepts, strategies of learning and attitudes, values and rules. The professional orientation is important to guarantee the knowledge of the world of the work. It is also necessary to orientate the students for their more immediate future. 2.1 Grouping I'm going to create and organize a Syllabus for the first year of secondary compulsory education (primero de ESO). I thought creating homogeneous groups depending on the level would be useful and more effective both for students and for teachers. In this way pupils that have a higher level could progress quickly having more complex activities and also they would be motivated to study in order for them to keep the high level. Also, this is a good measure for lower level students because they would receive special attention for their needs and they won't feel discriminated by having higher level students in their classroom. Obviously the groups will be flexible to allow lower students to reach higher levels. The flexibility factor is really important for the motivation of both lower and higher students. 2.2 Timing The academic year lasts from September till June. The total amount of hours for English as foreign language is 280. The students will attend 3 hours of English per week. Classroom time will be of 60 minutes. 1
  19. 19. Terms Students will have 3 terms of evaluation as the academic year is divided into three main trimesters. The first period of evaluation will be from September till December with the exams having place the first week of December. The second evaluation period will go be from January to March with the exams taking place at the end of March. The third evaluation period will be from April to June with the exams taking place at the middle of June. 2.3 Objectives, Contents, Competences and Evaluation Criteria Compulsory secondary school is a fundamental step for student's learning and educational path. It is the ideal context for pupils to develop and consolidate basic competences, to get in contact with new kinds of instruction and also to start building a more autonomous and personal way of learning. The acquisition of autonomy is a key factor for pupils to be able to face future realities where they will know how to act with responsibility, respect, solidarity and with the capacity to interact with other persons. Students, teachers and families are the parts involved in this process whose aim is shaping and training individuals of a democratic society. In order for students to grow up personally and be ready to be active into their social system, it is important to establish objectives, contents and basic and specific competences they should work with and apply. Basic competences play an essential role in the developmental process of pupils because they contribute to their personal growing, to their evolution as future members of a complex society, to their involvement in adult’s life and also to their learning abilities through their all life. Objectives and contents are the starting point to develop competences: the first are the general targets students are supposed to aim to, the second are the subjects they are going to deal with in order to reach objectives and to develop competences. Finally, evaluation is the way teacher assesses students and it is based on competences. 1
  20. 20. 2.3.1 Objectives According to the DOGC (Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya) there are different and specific objectives to fulfill through the development of competences, some of them are really important for a successful acquisition of English as second language. Since my Syllabus design is thought for the first year of secondary compulsory education, I'm going to deal with the objectives related to this educational stage approaching them from ESL perspective. The main objectives to be fulfilled in my didactic units are: 1. To value language and communication as basic tools of comprehension of the other people world and of oneself in order to collaborate and participate in a multicultural and different society where people have different origins and where stereotypes and discriminations are avoided. 2. To achieve the communicative oral, written and audiovisual competences of English language in order to communicate with the other people, to learn (in the search and elaboration of information, and in the transformation of the knowledge), to express opinions and personal ideas, to satisfy the individual and social needs. 3. To accomplish competences in foreign language as a tool of learning in diverse contents, as a source of pleasure and of personal growth, and as a door open to other persons and cultures. 4. To use with autonomy and critical spirit the social media and the information and communication technologies (TIC) to find, to interpret, to elaborate and to present information, opinions and feelings using different formats (power point presentations, slides, blogs, wikis, webquests, social networks etc.). 5 5. To interoperate, express and understand orally, by writing or through audiovisuals, in a coherent and suitable way in the academic social and cultural contexts adopting a respectful and cooperative attitude. 2
  21. 21. 6. To listen to and understand both general and specific information and to be able to express in a foreign language in usual situations of communication adopting a suitable, participative, open and respectful attitude and a certain level of autonomy. 7. To understand oral and written speeches in the academic, social and cultural contexts. To evaluate reading as a source of pleasure, of personal enrichment and of knowledge of oneself and of the world, and to consolidate reading habits. 8. To understand and create literary texts using the basic knowledge about the conventions of the genres, the subjects and different moments of the literary tradition and the stylistic resources as a way to represent the individual and collective literary patrimony. 9. To apply in an analytical way the knowledge about the functioning of a language and the linguistic norms in order to understand and produce coherent oral and written messages and transfer those knowledge to other languages. 10. To be aware of the multilingual context present in Catalonia and also in Spain and all over the world; to think about language varieties as a linguistic and cultural enrichment. 11. To show an active attitude in learning foreign languages and to participate in the process and evaluation of both oneself and classroom language acquisition. 2
  22. 22. 2.3.2 Contents 1 Communicative dimension 1.1 Participation in oral, written and audiovisual interactions. 1.2 Participation in guided conversations both in couple and in groups, in the classroom or in the school environment and in simulations (role-plays) related with experiences and personal interests, with good pronunciation and intonation. 1.3 Participation in guided conversations related with contents of other areas of knowledge, formulating questions and suitable answers to the needs of the activities and using strategies to solve problems during the interaction. 1.4 Communication through correspondence with foreign language speakers through email and virtual environments of communication. 1.5 Understanding of oral, written and audiovisual messages. 1.6 Understanding of questions and related brief dialogs with the usual activities of the educational environment. 1.7 Understanding of basic instructions for the correct resolution of tasks. 1.8 Understanding and interpretation of simple messages, while using basic strategies to identify key words and the use of both verbal and non verbal context. 1.9 Obtain specific information from oral and audiovisual sources about daily matters presented in formats and supports of different typology (book, dvd, Youtube videos, Podcasts etc.). 2.1 Expression of oral, written and audiovisual messages. 2.2 Formulation of questions about usual actions and facts in the classroom. 2.3 Use of suitable answers for the information required in the activities of classroom. 2.4 Production of short oral texts, with logical structure and with suitable pronunciation. 2.5 Guided elaboration guided of coherent short texts with orthographic correction and suitable punctuation (Britlit, Wiki, Webquests etc.) 2.6 Elaboration of notes and brief writings for both paper and digital communication. 2
  23. 23. 2.7 Production of texts both on paper and on digital support that they eventually show in the presentation. (Power Point presentations, Word etc.). 2.8 Knowledge language functioning and its learning processes. 2.9 Use of the linguistic knowledge of the first language to facilitate the new learning. 3 Introduction to phonetics and phonology through the representation and use of different phonemes. 3.1 Use of basic learning strategies for remembering, organizing and revising linguistic contents (lexicon, functions and concepts) placed in communicative contexts. 3.2 Recognition and acceptance of the opportunities the materials of consultation, the audiovisual mediums and the technologies of the information offer to learn a foreign language. 3.3 Recognition and acceptance of the error as part of the process of learning and positive attitude of improvement. 4 Literary and Aesthetic dimension 4.1 Developing aesthetic and literary dimension. Interest towards the knowledge of written, oral and audiovisual materials of the foreign language (rhymes, stories, songs, legends). 4.2 Reading, understanding and enjoyment of literary texts adapted at the reading capacity and the interests of the students. 2
  24. 24. 5 Plurilingual and intercultural dimension 5.1 Awareness that languages are elements defining the personal and the collective identity and that they are important to strengthen communication and learning. 5.2 Awareness of belonging to a linguistic, social and cultural community. 5.3 Awareness that there is not any language that or inherently superior or inferior -independently from the speakers of each one- and that all are adapted to the needs of the persons who speak them. 5.4 Knowledge and respect for the persons who speak a language or different linguistic variety to what is spoken to the own linguistic community, especially the ones of the nearest environment, starting from the school or neighborhood. 5.5 Awareness of the attitudes themselves show facing differences of languages and cultures 5.6 Use of a non discriminatory and respectful language. 5.7 Use of courtesy formulas in the social exchanges. 5.8 Critical attitude towards the messages that suppose any type of discrimination and will of overcoming the prejudices. 2
  25. 25. 2.3.3 Competences Communica Methodologic Personal Cohabitation tive al Competences Competences Competenc Competences es Linguistic and Mathematical Knowledge ad audiovisual competence and Autonomy and interaction with the competence basic competences personal initiative world in science and competence technology Social and civic Artistic and Digital competence competences cultural competence Learn how to learn Communicative competences 1.1 Linguistic and audiovisual competence The ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and to interact linguistically in an appropriate and creative way in a full range of societal and cultural contexts. It is also the ability to use different kind of supports in order to communicate clear and successful messages as audio and video files. 2
  26. 26. a) Students should be aware of how to use languages in different contexts (formal and inform- al). b) Students should know how to write a short composition following the teacher’s guidelines. c) Students should be able to express concepts orally. d) Students should be able to understand written and oral messages. e) Students should be able to interpret and understand audio and visual files. 1.2 Artistic and cultural competence It involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media (music, performing arts, literature, and the visual arts). a) Students should know how to read critically and analyze a literary text. b) Students should be able to be creative and sensitive towards artistic works. Methodological competences 2.1 Mathematical competence The ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations with the emphasis being placed on process, activity and knowledge. Basic competences in science and technology refer to the mastery, use and application of knowledge and methodologies which explain the natural world. These involve an understanding of the changes caused by human activity and the responsibility of each individual as a citizen. a) Students should be able to have a logical and efficient conception of the space. b) Students should be able to respect timing. c) Students should have a mathematical sense of quantities (in role plays related to ordering food they should be aware to calculate the quantity they can spend, in the recipe activities they should be able to calculate quantities. d) Students should develop and create logical and coherent speeches and compositions. 2.2 Digital competence It involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT). 2
  27. 27. a) Students should be familiar with web 2.0 resources such as Britlit, Webquests and Wikis. b) Students should know how to use Power point presentations and Slideshow. c) Students should be able to find and select materials from the Internet. 2.3 Learn how to learn The ability to pursue and organize one's own learning, either individually or in groups, in accordance with one's own needs, and awareness of methods and opportunities. a) At the end of each session students should evaluate themselves in order to have a sort of meta-cognitive diary of their activities. b) Students should apply learning strategies both consciously and unconsciously. Personal competences 3.1 Sense of initiative and autonomy The ability used to turn ideas into action. It involves creativity, innovation and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. The individual is aware of the context of their work and is able to seize opportunities which arise. It is the foundation for acquiring more specific skills and knowledge needed by those establishing or contributing to social or commercial activity. This should include awareness of ethical values and promote good governance. a) Students should be active and creative. b) Students should be flexible and be able to change their attitude if required. c) Students should be autonomous and not only base their works on the teacher guidelines, they should provide the tasks with a personal contribution. Cohabitation competences 4.1 Knowledge and interaction with the world An understanding of codes of conduct and customs in the different environments in which individuals operate is essential. Interaction competence, particularly knowledge of social and 2
  28. 28. political concepts and structures (democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and civil rights), equips individuals to engage in active and democratic participation. a) Students should know how to cooperate in a workgroup. b) Students should negotiate all the time the contents present in their tasks. 4.2 Social and civic competence Social and civic competence refer to personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behavior that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. It is linked to personal and social well-being. a) Students should respect the diversity. b) Students should respect others’ opinions and know when to intervene. 2.3.4 Evaluation criteria 1 Participate in oral interactions about known or previously worked subjects, using the most suitable strategies to facilitate the continuity of the communication and to produce an understandable speech for the communicative intention. 2 Understand the general idea and the specific information of written and oral simple documents. 3 Recognize the main ideas of specific written, oral and digital documents and take useful information in order to answer questions create documents, wikis, power point presentations etc. 4 Produce brief oral or written compositions respecting punctuation, pronunciation and orthography represented in specific models. 5 Observe some regularities of the foreign language in order to induce the rules of its functioning. 6 Use TIC for the searching, organization, exchange and presentation of information both autonomously and guided by the teacher. 7 Show a respectful attitude of interest and of discovery towards different languages and their cultures. 8 Show predisposition for the collaborative work. 2
  29. 29. 9 It is important for the pupils to self evaluate themselves. At the end of each session or activity they have to be aware of their attitude and how they approached the task in order to know how their learning process has improved. 2.4 Methodological and psycho pedagogical frame Socio-constructivist methodology The most representative methodology of my Syllabus Design is the Socio-Constructivist because it is based on a social, cooperative and active kind of learning where the work group and the participation of students are fundamental. This methodology is based on the concept that collaboration and negotiation are fundamental for learning. The theoretical bases of Socio- constructivism can be found in Vygotskji’s theories that considered the individual experience as the result of the interaction within a social group. In a Vygotskjian classroom learning is achieved by collaboration both among students and between students and teachers. Students are building up their knowledge collaborating and negotiating meaning. As a result, the social constructivist teacher creates engaging activities for students in order to facilitate learning through collaboration. The teacher does not transmits contents and then verifies if students have memorized them but he is a guide for students to think, to solve problems, to work in groups and to face situations rooted in real life. In this way, teachers are not just people transmitting contents, but they encourage students’ personal and cognitive growth. In other words, the learning dynamic is not unidirectional but bidirectional. Moreover, in my Syllabus Design I give a lot of importance to ICT (information and communication technology) and in particular to Web 2.0 tools that gives students the possibility to 2
  30. 30. learn collaborating and negotiating. The use of Blogs, Wikis, Webquests, Britlits, e-mails, social networks and other interaction applications gives the students the opportunity to work together simultaneously. A part from the collaborative aspect, the Socio-constructivism methodology is engaging because it is most of the times based on real situations. The materials used to write, speak, listen and read are taken from real media. This would give students the sensation that they are not away from the outside world, in other words, tasks are meaningful for students. Of course, according to the response the classroom will give me, I would change partially or either completely my methodology. The main approach I’ll going to use in my Syllabus Design is the Communicative Approach. It is an open and flexible approach that offers students the possibility to work on real life situations. In this way students will be motivated to collaborate in a meaningful way for meaningful purposes. Didactic Strategies Strategies are implicit or explicit actions that allow individuals to reach a goal. Didactic strategies can be created and applied both by the learners and by the teachers. However, the teachers have a key role in setting the didactic strategies, because they should have them in mind when creating an activity. Teachers should make students aware of their use of strategies through a meta-cognitive process that allow students to be aware of their way of learning. In my Syllabus Design I will create activities employing both explicit and implicit strategies. Also, as I’m following the Socio- constructivism methodology, I think the most important strategy I will suggest students will both the Cognitive and the Social strategies: Cognitive Strategies - Practising 3
  31. 31. - Receiving and sending messages - Analysing and reasoning - Creating Structures for Inputs and Outputs Social Strategies - Asking questions - Cooperating with others - Empathizing with others 2.5 Sequencing Criteria The tasks created for my Syllabus Design will follow this sequence: 1) Warm Up Activity 2) New Content Presentation 3) Grammar deduction 4) Activity 5) Feedback on last activity 6) Self-evaluation (based on competences) 1) With the Warm Up activity I’ll try to activate them and to catch their attention through interesting and entertaining tasks. I’ll use all kind of materials to draw their interest: videos, audios, newspapers, stick, posters etc. The aim of this short activity is to start focusing their attention on which will be the main topic of the session. By giving them a funny time I will attract their curiosity towards the following activity. Timing: 5 minutes aprox. 3
  32. 32. 2) The new content presentation is the opportunity for the teacher to present new contents and to propose students the new activity there are going to work with. Also, they will deduce and eventually focus on the grammatical aspects the session deals with. I will use Slideshows, catchy Power Point Presentations or Webquests main pages to present the tasks. Of course I will give them the evaluation criteria to allow them to be aware of the way they will be evaluated. Timing: 15 minutes 3) If necessary, I will go deeper into the grammar topics showing students more examples and providing them with paradigms. I will use Power Points, printed handouts and web resources. Timing: optional 5-10 minutes 4) Students would start working on the activity previously presented. They will have time to get in pairs or in groups. I’ll be monitoring and helping them. If necessary and requested I would apply some changes to the activity. Obviously the activity can be subdivided into different tasks. Timing: 25-30 minutes 5) I will give students feedbacks on the last activities or exercises. They can ask questions if they have any doubts or write me an email or talk with me at the end of the session. Timing: 5 minutes 6) Students will have the opportunity to evaluate both the task and their performance after every session. This kind of self-evaluation will help me to know their needs and to modify my approach. Also, this will make students more conscious of their learning process. 2.6 Activities, tasks and projects I will design activities, tasks and projects according to different learning styles. Then I will try to adapt those activities to all the kind of intelligences: linguistic, mathematic, kinesthetic, musical, 3
  33. 33. visual, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic. Finally I will try to make students work on all the four skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. All the activities, tasks and projects will be based on the socio-constructivist methodology where students are working actively in groups using web 2.0 tools. Webs 2.0 such as Wikis, Webquests and Britlit give pupils the possibility to work on real and enhancing situations. Those social and interactive tools allow students to express their understanding in a variety of ways. Moreover, thanks to the use of social networks students can have feedbacks from their pairs. Also, the idea of the teacher as the only owner of knowledge would be completely disrupted; the new teacher will be a guide creating a good environment for collaboration and cooperation. The activities will be carried out in the computer room, with students working in groups and collaborating for the resolution of task assignments. I chose projects like Wikis, Webquests and Britlit because they give students the possibility to collaborate and work on a great number of topics being creative. Those projects will be basically the nucleus of every session, and all the other activities will be organized around them. Every session will be organized with an introductory, a developmental and a synthesis activity. The introductory activity would be a warm up, a presentation, a video, a song or every kind of resource that can catch student’s attention. The developmental activity will be the nucleus of the session when students have to show what they have deduced during the presentation and how they are capable to solve problems in groups. Finally, the synthesis activity would be either the critical correction of the previous task or a homework where students should apply knowledge and competence they have acquired. Also students will have to fill in self-evaluation grids where they make a sort of meta-cognitive reflection on their work. 3
  34. 34. 2.7 Attention to diversity Diversity is one of the most important factors to take into account when designing a Syllabus. All the students have the same right to learn, so that attention to diversity is aimed to provide them the possibility to participate actively in the ordinary and extraordinary activities without being discriminated. The socio-cultural origins, the different learning styles, the physical or mental handicap would be overcame by the application of a diversified Curriculum. The teacher is the one responsible for the creation of this special Syllabus variation and he is also the one who detects students' needs. Of course the teacher has to be in contact with the tutor responsible for a particular student and also with the commission responsible to solve diversity conflicts. Attention to diversity can be carried on through different actions that can take place both inside and outside the classroom. Here there is a sort of list of possible diversity with explanation and solution: AA (aula d’acollida) → special classroom for newcomers Students coming from foreign countries should been introduced to the school system through the Aula d’acollida, a space where pupils with socio-cultural differences have the opportunity to be helped and supervised closely by a teacher. In this way they will fell a lower cultural contrast with the rest of students and they will receive clear instructions about the way they have to work to be integrated in normal classrooms. A.C.I (adaptació curricular individualitzada) 3
  35. 35. This is a measure the teacher applies wherever he notices students showing difficulties in following the normal rhythm of activities. In this case the teacher should adapt his Syllabus to the needs of that student in order for him to fulfil the basic competences. The teacher should elaborate a document where he describe his way of adaptation with objectives, strategies, materials, contents, activities and tasks designed for the student. Moreover, the document should contain the evaluation criteria adapted to that student. In this way the teacher can show the Tutor and the special Commission the way he works and evaluate the pupil. The most important contribution of the teacher is to create and apply different strategy to face and solve the gap. In fact, the aim is for the pupil to fulfil basic competences as the others. Here there is a list of possible strategies for A.C.I students that teachers should follow: Contents and procedures • Select special activities fro the book of from elsewhere • Create a special dossier adapted to the ACI student • Reduce contents • Propose short compositions • Provide simpler and shorter readings • Give more time to work on the tasks • Provide hint and clues Evaluation • Create direct and simple questions • Give more time • Do not take into account Orthography • Provide basic concepts and ask about them • Give the possibility to consult paradigms, charts and other adapted material Students with behavioural problems It is quite difficult to deal with those kinds of situations but the teacher plays once again an important role within this measure. In fact, the teacher is the first who detects the bad behaviour of students. In this case I suggest the teacher should focus on the positive aspects of that person and encourage him to collaborate. I don’t think treating students badly would be a good solution as I’ve 3
  36. 36. seen, as students, plenty of examples where bad teacher’s attitude only get the situation worse. I believe a good way to deal with problematic students is to be positive and give them always the opportunity to talk and express themselves. Obviously of their attitude is penalizing the rest of the class I would find a solution like making the student talk with his tutor. I don’t think the use of Aules obertes is a great idea to motivate students with behavioural problems. As for me they discriminate in some way those pupils that manifest a real problem. The better solution would probably be make them talk either with teachers responsible for individual support or with the psychologist. PI (Pla individualitzat) Students with learning and behavioural difficulties have to be analysed and evaluated by the teacher that has to think about a PI in order to face student's problems. In other words, the PI is a measure the teachers use to adapt the syllabus to pupils with troubles. It is compulsory for teachers to communicate the application of this plan to the families of the students involved. They should provide parents with a document describing the starting evaluation and the adaptation with objectives, contents and evaluation. Different learning styles and multiple intelligences 3
  37. 37. As there are 3 different learning styles it is a responsibility of the teacher to take it into account and to provide students with adapted tasks. My Syllabus will propose activities where visual, auditory and kinaesthetic styles will be mixed. The best option would be to design a task that includes all the learning styles and also the Multiple Intelligences. Howard Gardner is the creator of the idea that students have different kind of intelligences, so they have diverse way of perceive and reproduce reality. Teachers should be aware of this when designing a task or evaluating because they should take into account the different intelligences of their students. There are 8 main kinds of intelligences: • Visual-spatial • Verbal-linguistic • Logical-mathematical • Bodily-kinesthetic • Musical-rhythmic • Naturalist • Interpersonal 3
  38. 38. • Intrapersonal In my Syllabus, I will try to design activities integrating each of the intelligences above. For in- stance, a role play activity on buying food will include: • visual-spatial → they are moving in a shop; • verbal-linguistic → they are talking with the assistant trying to convey a message; • logical-mathematical → they are calculating quantities; • bodily-kinesthetic → they are moving and using their body language to communicate; • musical-rhythmic → they would be listening to the music of the store; • naturalist → they would buy vegetables and fruit; • interpersonal → they should interact with people; • intrapersonal → they should work on their strengths in order to be able to communicate. 3