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Authentic Assessment

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  • 1. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT<br />A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller<br />" ...Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks are either replicas of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult citizens and consumers or professionals in the field." -- Grant Wiggins -- (Wiggins, 1993, p. 229).<br />" Performance assessments call upon the examinee to demonstrate specific skills and competencies, that is, to apply the skills and knowledge they have mastered." -- Richard J. Stiggins -- (Stiggins, 1987, p. 34).<br /> What does Authentic Assessment look like? right0<br />An authentic assessment usually includes a task for students to perform and a rubric by which their performance on the task will be evaluated. Click the following links to see many examples of authentic tasks and rubrics.<br />" Authentic assessment is an evaluation process that involves multiple forms of performance measurement reflecting the student's learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on instructionally-relevant activities. Examples of authentic assessment techniques include performance assessment, portfolios, and self-assessment." American Library Association <br />" Simply testing an isolated skill or a retained fact does not effectively measure a student's capabilities. To accurately evaluate what a person has learned, an assessment method must examine his or her collective abilities.This is what is meant by authentic assessment. Authentic assessment presents students with real-world challenges that require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge." Funderstanding <br />" Evaluating by asking for the behavior the learning is intended to produce. The concept of model, practice, feedback in which students know what excellent performance is and are guided to practice an entire concept rather than bits and pieces in preparation for eventual understanding. A variety of techniques can be employed in authentic assessment." New Horizons for Learning <br />" Authentic assessments are products and/or performances correlated with real life experiences. Therefore, they are authentic." Newton Public Schools <br />Components of Authentic Assessments<br />Rule (2006) says that every authentic assessment will be comprised of 4 main components: <br />They involve real-world problems that mimic the work of professionals. <br />They include open-ended inquiry, thinking skills, and metacognition. <br />They engage students in discourse and social learning. <br />They empower students by choice to direct their own learning. <br />Synonyms: <br />Authentic: genuine, real, valid, bona fide <br />Assessment: appraisal, evaluation, measurement, judgement, review <br />Types of Authentic Assessment: <br />Scoring Guides/Rubric: A scoring scale used to assess student performance along a task-specific set of criteria. A list of required elements are grouped together to make the scoring guide with point specific designations. <br />Portfolio/E-Portfolio: A collection of a student's work specifically selected to highlight achievements or demonstrate improvement over time (e-portfolio is electronic and usually accessible on the Internet). <br />Authentic Task: An assignment given to students designed to assess their ability to apply standard-driven knowledge and skills to real-world challenges. <br />Self-Assesment: Evaluating one's own performance to determine stregth and weaknesses and reflecting on what improvements can be made to enhance product <br />Oral Interviews: Teacher asks student questions about personal background, activities, readings, and other interests. <br />Story or Text Retelling: Student retells main ideas or selected details of text experienced through listening or reading. <br />Writing Samples: Student generates narrative, expository, persuasive, or reference paper. <br />Projects/Exhibitions: Student works with other students as a team to create a project that often involves multimedia production, oral and written presentations, and a display. <br />Experiments/Demonstrations: Student documents a series of experiments, illustrates a procedure, performs the necessary steps to complete a task, and documents the results of the actions. <br />Constructed-Response Items: Student responds in writing to open-ended questions. <br />Teacher Observations: Teacher observes and documents the students attention and interaction in class, response to instructional materials, and cooperative work with other students. <br />Why do we need Authentic Assessment<br />While multiple-choice tests can be valid indicators or predictors of academic performance, too often our tests mislead students and teachers about the kinds of work that should be mastered. Norms are not standards; items are not real problems; right answers are not rationales. What most defenders of traditional tests fail to see is that it is the form, not the content of the test that is harmful to learning; demonstrations of the technical validity of standardized tests should not be the issue in the assessment reform debate. Students come to believe that learning is cramming; teachers come to believe that tests are after-the- fact, imposed nuisances composed of contrived questions--irrelevant to their intent and success. Both parties are led to believe that right answers matter more than habits of mind and the justification of one's approach and results. A move toward more authentic tasks and outcomes thus improves teaching and learning: students have greater clarity about their obligations (and are asked to master more engaging tasks), and teachers can come to believe that assessment results are both meaningful and useful for improving instruction. When students leave high school or even college they are expected to be able to function in our world based on a certain standard set of skills. Those life skills often do not include knowledge on ancient civilizations or chemical composition. It is great for students to have a well rounded education and a plethora of content knowledge, but if they cannot apply their skills to any content or task, teachers or schools have not prepared them for the real world. <br />Authentic Assessment<br />Definition<br />Simply testing an isolated skill or a retained fact does not effectively measure a student’s capabilities. To accurately evaluate what a person has learned, an assessment method must examine his or her collective abilities.This is what is meant by authentic assessment. Authentic assessment presents students with real-world challenges that require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.<br />Authentic assessment is an umbrella concept that refers to the measurement of " intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful," [1] as compared to multiple choice standardized tests.[2] Authentic assessment can be devised by the teacher, or in collaboration with the student by engaging student voice. When applying authentic assessment to student learning and achievement, a teacher applies criteria related to “construction of knowledge, disciplined inquiry, and the value of achievement beyond the school.”<br />Authentic assessment reflects educational policy research that recommends a " high priority on strategies that research has already shown to increase student learning." [citation needed]<br />Authentic assessment tends to focus on complex or contextualised tasks, enabling students to demonstrate their competency in a more 'authentic' setting. Examples of authentic assessments include:<br />performance of the skills, or demonstrating use of a particular knowledge<br />simulations and role plays<br />studio portfolios, strategically selecting items<br />exhibitions and displays<br />Authentic assessment is any type of assessment that requires students to demonstrate skills and competencies that realistically represent problems and situations likely to be encountered in daily life. Students are required to produce ideas, to integrate knowledge, and to complete tasks that have real-world applications. Such approaches require the person making the assessment to use human judgment in the application of criterion-referenced standards (Archbald, 1991). Authentic assessment is a contrast to traditional educational testing and evaluation, which focuses on reproducing information such as memorized dates, terms, or formulas. In authentic assessment, students use remembered information in order to produce an original product, participate in a performance, or complete a process. Students are assessed according to specific criteria that are known to them in advance. These criteria are called rubrics. Rubrics give students a clearer picture of the strengths and weaknesses of their work than do letter grades alone. For a sample student assessment that utilizes rubrics, refer to the Student Information Sheet.The essential nature of the school-to-work curriculum calls for authentic assessment. Rogers, Hubbard, Charner, Fraser, and Horne (1996) note:" The measurement of learning that occurs in settings so unlike the traditional classroom requires assessment practices that are correspondingly different. Many school-to-work programs have drawn up comprehensive sets of competencies, often in consultation with business partners, which students in that program are expected to acquire, at certain minimum levels. Others have established comprehensive standards toward which all the programs within a school or district are expected to strive. Others have experimented with portfolio assessment as the most accurate way to document a student's education." <br />Besides portfolios and demonstrations of competencies and achievement standards, authentic assessments can include exhibitions, oral presentations, and other projects. For further information about these assessments, refer to the Critical Issue " Ensuring Equity with Alternative Assessments." What is authentic assessment? Authentic assessment aims to evaluate students' abilities in 'real-world' contexts. In other words, students learn how to apply their skills to authentic tasks and projects. Authentic assessment does not encourage rote learning and passive test-taking. Instead, it focuses on students' analytical skills; ability to integrate what they learn; creativity; ability to work collaboratively; and written and oral expression skills. It values the learning process as much as the finished product. <br />In authentic assessment, students: <br />do science experiments <br />conduct social-science research <br />write stories and reports<br />read and interpret literature <br />solve math problems that have real-world applications <br />Why might I use authentic assessment methods in my classroom?Many teachers are dissatisfied with only using traditional testing methods. They believe these methods do not test many skills and abilities students need to be successful. These educators assert that students must be prepared to do more than memorize information and use algorithms to solve simple problems. They believe students should practice higher-order thinking skills, and criticize tests they feel do not measure these skills. <br />What is authentic assessment? Authentic assessment aims to evaluate students' abilities in 'real-world' contexts. In other words, students learn how to apply their skills to authentic tasks and projects. Authentic assessment does not encourage rote learning and passive test-taking. Instead, it focuses on students' analytical skills; ability to integrate what they learn; creativity; ability to work collaboratively; and written and oral expression skills. It values the learning process as much as the finished product. <br />In authentic assessment, students: <br />do science experiments <br />conduct social-science research <br />write stories and reports<br />read and interpret literature <br />solve math problems that have real-world applications <br />Why might I use authentic assessment methods in my classroom?Many teachers are dissatisfied with only using traditional testing methods. They believe these methods do not test many skills and abilities students need to be successful. These educators assert that students must be prepared to do more than memorize information and use algorithms to solve simple problems. They believe students should practice higher-order thinking skills, and criticize tests they feel do not measure these skills. <br />Types of Authentic Assessment<br />O'Malley and Pierce have also categorized common types of authentic assessment and the student actions that should be observed and documented. Their examples include the following: <br />Oral Interviews: Teacher asks student questions about personal background, activities, readings, and other interests.<br />Story or Text Retelling: Student retells main ideas or selected details of text experienced through listening or reading. <br />Writing Samples: Student generates narrative, expository, persuasive, or reference paper. <br />Projects/Exhibitions: Student works with other students as a team to create a project that often involves multimedia production, oral and written presentations, and a display. <br />Experiments/Demonstrations: Student documents a series of experiments, illustrates a procedure, performs the necessary steps to complete a task, and documents the results of the actions. <br />Constructed-Response Items: Student responds in writing to open-ended questions. <br />Teacher Observations: Teacher observes and documents the students attention and interaction in class, response to instructional materials, and cooperative work with other students. <br />Portfolios: A focused collection of student work to show progress over time. <br />

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