Cardiorespiratory endurance


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Basic knowledge about cardiorespiratory endurance

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  • ATP – a compound that provides energy for physical activity, body functions and maintenance of a constant internal equilibrium.
  • Anaerobic activities such as 100-meter races in track and field; sprinting in swimming, gymnastics routines and strength training
  • Stroke volume yields a Lower heart that rate allows the heart to rest longer in between beats
  • 6. Mitochondria—All energy necessary for cell functions is produced in the mitochondria ; as their size and numbers increase, so does the potential to produce energy for muscular work 7. Capilliaries—smallest blood vessels carying oxygenated blood to body tissues. - allows for the exchange of 02 and C02 between the blood & the cells. - speeds up the rate at which waste products of cell metabolism can be removed. 8. Recovery time—amount of time the body takes to return to resting levels after exercise. - A fit system is able to restore any internal equilibrium disrupted during exercise more quickly
  • The numbers on the scale may be used in reference to exercise heart rates. If you multiply each number by 10, it will approx. the exercise heart rate at the perceived exertion phase. e.g. if you exercise in “somewhat hard”, heart rate will be at 130 – 140 bpm
  • Thereby, increasing the person’s oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and development of upper-body strength and endurance during aerobic exercise.
  • Walking – the most natural, easiest, safest and least expensive form of aerobic exercise. - perhaps the best activity to start a conditioning program for the cardiorespiratory system. Hiking—intensity over uneven terrain is greater that walking. - benefits is a relaxing effects of beautiful scenery Jogging—most popular form of aerobic exercise. Next to walking, One of the most accessible form of exercise. --jogging 3-5 times a week is one of the fastest ways to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. -greater risk of injury is greater than walking -a good pair of shoes is a must for joggers. -many foot, kneee and leg problems originate form improperly fitting or worn-out shoes. - safety should also be considered when jogging. Staying away from high-speed roads and not wearing headphones. Run or walk against the traffic to see all incoming traffic.; wear reflective clothing at night and bring flashlight. Aerobics – a series of exercise routines performed to music. Skipping rope- higher intensity, should be done at a lower duration. Stair climbing—when sustained for at least 20 minutes
  • Cardiorespiratory endurance

    1. 1. Aerobic Fitness
    2. 2. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE <ul><li>The ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important component of physical fitness and best indicator of overall health </li></ul><ul><li>A measure of how efficiently our bodies work </li></ul>
    3. 3. Basic Physiology
    4. 5. Fit Individual <ul><li>During prolonged exercise, an individual with a high level of cardiorespiratory endurance is able to deliver the required amount of oxygen to the tissues easily. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Unfit individual <ul><li>Has to work the cardiorespiratory system much harder; the heart has to work at a higher rate, less oxygen is delivered to the tissues, and consequently, the individual fatigues faster. </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Hence, the higher capacity to deliver and utilize oxygen indicates a more efficient cardiorespiratory system. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise <ul><li>Aerobic Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>– energy required to perform cardiorespiratory activities is generated through aerobic (oxygen-using) metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. walking, aerobic dance, </li></ul><ul><li>cycling,etc. </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Anaerobic exercise </li></ul><ul><li> – activities that do not require oxygen to generate the energy for muscular activity. </li></ul><ul><li>- intensity is so high that oxygen cannot be delivered and utilized to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>- can be carried out for only short periods – 2-3 minutes. </li></ul>
    9. 10. Benefits of Aerobic Training <ul><li>Higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in the amount of oxygen the body is able to use during physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows one to exercise longer & more intensely before becoming fatigued. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As much as 30% increase in people with very low initial levels of fitness </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Benefits of Aerobic Training <ul><li>2. Increase in oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood cell (hemoglobin) count </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Increase in cardiac muscle strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heart responds to training by increasing in strength and size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stronger heart, more forceful contraction which aids to eject more blood w/ each beat ( Stroke volume ) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Benefits of Aerobic Training <ul><li>4. Decrease in Resting Heart Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li> by 10 – 20 beats per minute (bpm) after 6-8 weeks of training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reduction of 20 bpm saves the heart about 10,483,200 beats per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Lower heart rate at a given workloads </li></ul>
    12. 13. Benefits of Aerobic Training <ul><li>6. Increase in the number and size of the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>7. Increase in number of functional capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>- more gas exchange can take place </li></ul><ul><li>8. Faster recovery time </li></ul><ul><li>9. Lower blood pressure & blood lipids </li></ul><ul><li>- reduces major risk factor for stroke & coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>- lower levels of fats </li></ul>
    13. 14. Benefits of Aerobic Training <ul><li>9. Lower blood pressure & blood lipids </li></ul><ul><li>- reduces major risk factor for stroke & coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>- lower levels of fats ( such as cholesterol and triglycerides) </li></ul>
    14. 15. READINESS FOR EXERCISE <ul><li>If you are not exercising regularly, are you willing to stop contemplating and give exercise a try? </li></ul>
    15. 17. Common reasons people give for not being active <ul><li>“ I don’t have the time” </li></ul><ul><li>“ it’s too inconvenient” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t enjoy it” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m no good at it” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m not fit so avoid activity” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have no place to be active especially in bad weather” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am too old” </li></ul>
    16. 18. Reasons for Doing PA <ul><li>I do it for my HEALTH. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve my appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy it! </li></ul><ul><li>It relaxes me. </li></ul><ul><li>I like the challenge and sense of personal accomplishment I get from physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>I like the social involvement I get </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is the main reason I enjoy it </li></ul><ul><li>Makes me feel good about myself </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities to get fresh air </li></ul>
    17. 19. FITT formula
    18. 20. Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 F= All or most days/week I-Moderate T=30+mins LIFETIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Walking to school, Climbing stairs Washing windows/ clothes/ car, Cleaning your room, working in your yard, basic household chores Walking , jogging, bicycling, swimming, aerobics Aerobic Activities Active Sports Basketball, Tennis, volleyball, Badminton, Table tennis Flexibility Strength & Muscular Endurance Rest or Inactivity F= 3-6 days/week I-Moderate-Vigorous T=20+mins F= 3-7 days/week I-Stretching T=15-60 Sec. 1-3 sets F= 2-3 days/week I-Muscle overload T = 8-12 reps,1-3 sets F= Infrequent, I-LOW, T= Short
    19. 21. Intensity of Exercise <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory development occurs when the heart is working between 40 and 85 percent of the heart rate reserve. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfit individuals should use a 40 to 50 percent training intensities </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are accelerated when the heart is working closer to 85 percent of HRR </li></ul>
    20. 22. Determining Intensity <ul><li>Estimate Maximal Heart Rate (MHR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MHR= 220 - age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check Resting Heart Rate (RHR) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine HRR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HRR= MHR - RHR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate training intensities (TI) at 40-85% using Karvonen Formula . </li></ul>
    21. 23. Rate of Perceived Exertion <ul><li>An alternative method of prescribing intensity of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Using the scale, a person subjectively rates the perceived exertion of difficulty of exercise when training in the appropriate target zone. </li></ul>
    22. 24. RPE Scale
    23. 25. Duration of Exercise <ul><li>General recommendation is to train between 20 and 60 minutes per session depending on the intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>20 to 30 minutes aerobic exercise recommended per session. </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulating 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity of activity throughout the day can provide substantial health benefits </li></ul>
    24. 26. Intermittent exercise bouts <ul><li>Three 10-minute exercise sessions per day (separated by at least 4 hours), at approximately 70 percent of maximal heart rate, also produce training benefits. </li></ul>
    25. 27. Frequency <ul><li>For Weight-loss programs </li></ul><ul><li>- 45– to 60-minute exercise sessions of a low-to-moderate intensity, conducted 5 – 6 days per week . </li></ul><ul><li>Three 20- to 30-minute training sessions per week, nonconsecutive days, will maintain cardiorespiratory fitness for as long as the heart rate is in appropriate target zone. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Mode of Exercise <ul><li>Exercise that develops cardiorespiratory system has to be Aerobic in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic exercise has to involve the major muscle groups in the body, and it has to be rhythmic and continuous . </li></ul><ul><li>Modality of aerobic exercise that gained popularity in recent years is combined upper-lower-body exercise . </li></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>Combined upper-lower body exercise is designed to provide resistance to the arms during lower body physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The more muscle mass that is involved during aerobic activity, the higher the oxygen and energy demands of the activity thus, resulting in cardiorespiratory development. </li></ul>
    29. 31. Cross-training <ul><li>Combination of aerobic activities that contribute to overall fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic activity should be supplemented with strength and flexibility exercises. </li></ul>
    30. 32. CHOICES OF AEROBIC ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Walking </li></ul><ul><li>Hiking </li></ul><ul><li>Jogging </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic dance </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Water aerobics </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Spinning / “Indoor Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Rope Skipping </li></ul><ul><li>In-line skating </li></ul><ul><li>Rowing </li></ul><ul><li>Stair Climbing </li></ul><ul><li>Racquet Sports </li></ul>