Ebook Project Log

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Ebook Project Log

  1. 1. OPUS NEXT GENERATION eBook
  2. 2. TEAM Cheng YingYan, Ellena (Left) Shao ZhouYi, Joy (Middle) Wang ZhiWei, Eva (Right) Hong Kong Polytechnic University School of Design 2009-2010 Master of Interaction Design
  3. 3. CONTENTS Team members /02 1 Project Background /06 2 Project Objective /08 RESEARCH 3 Research Process / 12 7 Competitive Analysis / 32 7.1 Rationale /32 4 Persona / 14 7.2 Matrix of Competitor Comparison /33 4.1 Rationale /14 7.3 Advantages and Disadvantages /34 4.2 OPUS’ Persona /16 8 Design Objectives and Criteria / 36 5 Secondary Research / 18 5.1 Rationale /18 9 Design Opportunities / 40 9.1 Physical Freedom /42 6 Design Direction / 22 9.2 Pleasant Reading Experience /44 6.1 Physical /24 9.3 Communicate with Others /48 Psychological /24 Social /24 10 Visits & Interviews / 52 6.2 Design Direction /26 10.1 Rationale /52 10.2 First and Second visits /54 6.3 Ideas /30 10.3 Third visits /58 10.4 Fourth visits /62
  4. 4. DESIGN 11 Scenarios / 69 14 Interaction Models / 82 11.1 Rationale /69 14.1 Rationale /82 11.2 Scenarios /70 14.2 Evolution of Interaction Models /82 14.3 Interaction Models /83 12 Brainstorm and Sketches / 72 12.1 Rationale /75 15 Information Architecture / 86 12.2 Refinement of Sketches /76 15.1 Rationale /87 15.2 Information Architecture /88 13 Task Analysis / 78 13.1 Rationale /78 13.2 Envisioned /79 13.3 Task Analysis /80 OPUS 16 Final Design / 93 18 Acknowledgements /102 16.1 Interface /94 16.2 Physical Form /98 19 References /104 16.3 Technology /99 20 Appendix /106 17 Lessons Learned /100
  5. 5. ASTRI collaboration with PolyU on eBooks for children education. There are 4 projects altogether as part of a larger collaboration between ASTRI and PolyU: 6 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  6. 6. 1 PROJECT BACK- GROUND MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 7
  7. 7. PROJECT OBJECTI 8 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  8. 8. VE 2 The project’s objective is to design a tough and durable eBook for children 7 years of age that allows children to learn to read. The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design process and have the students follow through an entire design cycle. The workshop starts from understanding the design problem all the way to creating a final design. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 9
  9. 9. 10 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  10. 10. ESEARCH MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 11
  11. 11. 12 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  12. 12. RESEARCH PROCESS 3 The research process allows designers to start with a vague and undetermined problem and refining it to the final product and interactions. Through the entire process, the design is refined based on new findings and insights. By testing it iteratively, the design had a chance to be improved step by step. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 13
  13. 13. PERSONA Rationale A persona is a representation of a typical user that will use the system. It in- cludes various information, such as demographics, interests, and life style, etc. The reason to have a persona is to design for a specific person and avoid de- signing features that will not be used by the target users. By having a concrete person in mind, the design team can be more focused and the design will be more grounded on real scenarios. 14 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  14. 14. 4 Brainstorming MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 15
  15. 15. OPUS’s Persona 16 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  16. 16. WHO - 7-year-old children HOW - The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design WHY- The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design WHAT- The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design WHEN- The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design WHERE- The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 17
  17. 17. SECOND- ARY RESEARCH 18 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  18. 18. 5 Rationale Secondary Research includes research that others have done prior to this project. It includes resources like books, journals, internet articles, and more. It is used to give the design team a basic understanding of the issues and what previous work can they leverage and what areas require primary research. With a basic understanding of issues regarding designing for children physi- cally, psychologically, and socially, the design team can be better prepared to exploring the details in the right areas. The secondary research gave the team a preliminary view of the design directions. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 19
  19. 19. 20 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  20. 20. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 21
  21. 21. DESIGN DIRECTI 22 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  22. 22. 6 Based on the secondary research, the findings were categorized into three categories: physical, psychological, and social. ON MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 23
  23. 23. For the physical aspect, it was determined that children have very rich movement and the physical form of the eBook must accommodate for the children’s movements. Psychologically, there are many differences between children and adults. The eBook will have to keep in mind of the persona and how he can benefit from the design of the eBook. For the social aspect, studies have shown that students learn much better among peers (reference required). Reading has raditionally been a private activity and little interaction is shared among the children. This project wants to leverage the improved learning based on com- munication and make reading a social experience. With these directions determined, the design can be more fo- cused and the initial ideas of what the eBook can be began to be shaped. 24 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  24. 24. DESIGN DIRECTION > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 25
  25. 25. 26 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  26. 26. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 27
  27. 27. 28 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  28. 28. IDEAS Acoording to sendary research based on design direction > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 29
  29. 29. 30 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  30. 30. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 31
  31. 31. COMPET- ITIVE ANALYSIS 7 Rationale By understanding the existing competition for eBooks, it gives the team a view of which areas are fulfilled and which area requires a better design solution. 32 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  32. 32. Matrix of Competitor Comparison There were two main competitors identified for the project. The first group are existing eBooks that are mainly geared towards adults. The second group is the existing learn-to-read toys for chil- dren. It was identified that the eBooks can hold many content in it, but the fun factor is really low. On the opposite spectrum, the toys are fun to read and suitable for children, but parents must buy a new toy in order to teach their children new content. The solution to the problem is an eBook for children that holds the same quantity of content as eBooks for adults but more fun to use than existing toys for children. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 33
  33. 33. Advantages & Disadvantages The advantages and disadvantages of the existing eBooks were evaluated. This provides insight for opportunities and pitfalls that the current project should consider. + + Light, thin, and portable (Kindle/Sony) + Usage with both hands (Kindle) + Provides highlighting and annotations (Sony) + Touch screen (Sony) + Large amount of books (K/S) + Books are never out of print (K/S) + Simulates real paper (K/S) + Large amount of content available (K) + Simple to use and add additional books(K) + Shop for new books anywhere (K) + Free wireless internet (limited to USA) (K) + Low book prices (K) + Supports PDF (S) + Front and back lights available (S) + Doesn’t need to be recharged often (S) 34 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  34. 34. Kindle Sony Reader _ - Lack of touch screen (Kindle) - Opinion of many users that is it not attractive (Kindle) - Screen has refresh lag (1 second for each page turn).(Sony) - ebook is only “borrowed” (K) - ebooks cannot be read on computer (K) - Low resolution small screen (6 in)(S) - Cannot search book text(S) - Cannot jump to page(S) MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 35
  35. 35. DESIGN OBJEC- TIVES & CRITERIA 8 36 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  36. 36. Based on the previous research, we creat the fol- lowing design criteria. > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 37
  37. 37. 38 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  38. 38. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 39
  39. 39. DESIGN OPPORT 9.1 Provide Freedom 9.2 Pleasant Reading Experience 9.3 Communicate with Others 40 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  40. 40. UNITIES 9 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 41
  41. 41. Provide Freedom --Give children more physical freedom to use it CURRENT PROBLEMS Can only read and write on the book --Provide different interactions on the eBook eBook issues to be addressed: Accessory can be lost Shortage of battery Each book only contains one story --Store various books on the book eBook issues to be addressed: Small scre space Tired to read---- make sure they don’t read too much Can’t modify the physical book --Allow children to manipulate content of the eBook eBook issues to be addressed: Durable physical form 42 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  42. 42. CURRENT SCENARIO NEW SCENARIO 1 Peter had an interesting class about dinosaurs in the morning. He found the topic really interesting and wanted to find out more with his best friend Steve. 2 He had lunch with Steve and they wanted to read about dinosaurs together, but they don’t have access to any books about dino- 2 saurs. ...so Peter took out his eBook and they read about dinosaurs and learned the names of a dozen of dinosaurs together by the end of lunch. 3 So they played hide and seek instead. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 43
  43. 43. Pleasant reading experience --Consider children’s emotion, provide motivation to read, easy to use CURRENT PROBLEMS Nothing to initiate or continue reading --The avatar can help: It’s emotion will signify when the children should read. Two avatars can act as the ‘angel’ and ‘devil’ exemplars. Help create plan habitually. Assis in reflection of the book. Encourage children to ask questions. Remind and motivate child to continue reading. eBook issues to be addressed: Avatar should not be intrusive. Must be easy to use. 44 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  44. 44. Can’t find answers to their questions --Built-in encyclopedia and dictionary can help find the answer. Bored with the content --Switch from text to pictures or animations eBook issues to be addressed: Make sure that children still read -- text follow the pictures and cartoon. Passively absorbing the content --Create stories using pictures and the eBook turned it into text. At the end, there is a game for Peter to see if he learned what was in his story. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 45
  45. 45. 1 After school, Peter is deciding if he should watch television, play games or read. 2 He decides that he wants to start reading Harry Potter because his friend said it’s interesting. However, there are too much text and too difficult for him. 46 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  46. 46. CURRENT SCENARIO 3 So he gave up and went to watch TV. 3 He picked up his eBook and sees what his avatar, Jerry, has in store for him. --Jerry reminded Peter that he planned to read Harry Potter today, so Peter started reading it with Jerry. --Jerry asked questions throughout the story and looked up answers in the encyclopedia with Peter. He turned the book into an animation that reads the story with him. NEW SCENARIO MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 47
  47. 47. Communicate with others --Encourage interaction with others because studies have shown that children learn better with peers CURRENT PROBLEMS Difficult to find friends to read together --Provide a list to show friends that are available to read Display of book(s) that friends want to read eBook issues to be addressed: Make sure that they are reading and not chatting Difficult to find a book to read --A list of books that friends recommends Different stage and speed of reading between children --Provide mini-reading-games around 10-15 min about previous reading while the faster friend waits 48 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  48. 48. Can’t find answers to the questions --Encourage asking friends or group discussions through eBook Can’t share book with too many people --Provide a remote control to allow more children to view it. Each children has one eBook and they read the same story together remotely. Can’t communicate with friends in small screen --Connect eBook into one big screen MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 49
  49. 49. 1 Later that day, Peter found a book about dinosaurs and wanted to go find Steve to read. 2 But his mom thinks it’s too late. 50 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  50. 50. CURRENT SCENARIO 3 So Peter stayed home and read a book about dinosaurs alone. 3 ...So Peter went on his eBook to see if Steve was available to read with him. He saw that Steve was free and also wanted to read dinosaurs, so he contacted Steve and they read dinosaurs together. NEW SCENARIO MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 51
  51. 51. VISITS & INTER- VIEWS Rationale The interviews and visits provided the chance for the team to observe the be- havior and perspectives of the children and teachers. Being able to talk with the users and experts gave a lot of insights. The primary research and feed- back provided by the students and teachers greatly improved the design by allowing the design team to make informed decisions. 52 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  52. 52. 10 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 53
  53. 53. First visit Home life was understood. The child’s life was also very busy and she had many choices of what to learn. She showed that she was very excited in reading, which provided some more input to the persona as a child who is intrinsically interested in reading. Second visit It was obvious that children are excited by technology, as demonstrated by their usage of the first generation eBooks from ASTRI. They are also very creative and comfortable with advanced tech- nology such as portable game consoles. 54 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  54. 54. Methodology There were 4 visits altogether. The first was a home visit to a family and the team had the chance to interview the parents and a girl about her reading habits and daily life. This provided a chance for the team to look at the ar- tifacts, understand the reading levels and capabilities of children around 7 years old, and see the interests of the children. The second visit was at the school. The team prepared questions for the students and requested that the children drawn how their dream eBook would look. The teachers were also interviewed separate to understand how they motivate children to learn and what materials are being taught in class. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 55
  55. 55. Insights 1 A lot of pictures in textbooks 2 All their books are different sizes 3 Love using their existing eBook 4 Familiar with portable game consoles 56 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  56. 56. Solutions 1 Same amount of pictures and text ratio in reading 2 Doesn’t need to follow standard A4 sizes 3 Acceptance of technology with learning 4 Can design more complex interactions MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 57
  57. 57. Third visit The children were very capable in understanding the workflow. They were also highly intrigued by the game portion of the eBook. Having seen that, it was important for the eBook to encourage the children to learn new material first before they go onto the games and test their knowledge. 58 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  58. 58. Methodology By the third visit, the paper prototypes and a foam model of the physical were tested. The benefit of using a low fidelity prototype is to test the features and not be concerned with the aesthetics yet. Once the process of the eBook is con- firmed, the team can go onto creating more detailed designs. During the us- ability test, we showed the children in pairs of two of how they would interact with the eBook to see if they would be able to operate and understand the concepts. The children were tested in pairs of two to encourage more communication between each other, since children have the tendency to be shy and not think aloud during a usability test. To test both the physical prototype and workflow at the same time, the paper prototype was slotted into a clear film attached to the physical prototype. When the children touches the screen, the facilitator would manually remove the appropriate screens, so that the proper screen would be showing after every action performed by the children. The interac- tion model was the main area of focus during this visit. By testing the paper prototype with the physical prototype, the design team can observe how the children would hold onto the eBook during usage and if that changes over- time due to fatigue or other unanticipated reasons. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 59
  59. 59. Insights 1 Reading is private activity, children share their thoughts. 2 No concept of looking up dictionary. 3 More proficient in Chinese 4 Ask parents if they have questions. 5 Focus on games 60 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  60. 60. Solutions 1 Discuss after finish reading 2 Link words to pictures directly 3 Chinese in UI and explanations 4 Keep allowing children to ask questions at the end 5 Remove game from homepage MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 61
  61. 61. Fourth visit This was the final visit and the workflow and features were fairly stable. From this visit, we understood that children do not understand tabs, and it would help if items that they see on one screen are persisted to the next one. While the overall workflow was understood, they children did not understand how some of the features were represented and required some explanation before they can continue on their tasks. Methodology In the fourth visit, a high fidelity prototype was created and a more refined physical form was also available. The high fidelity prototype provided insight to the usability of the design and how children understood the controls used. Once again, the children were tested in pairs and they walked through a Flash prototype by completing some predefined tasks. The main focus of this visit was about the interface design and ease of use. 62 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  62. 62. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 63
  63. 63. Insights Didn’t understand why there is a book 1 beside friend Not interested in friend’s reading 2 progress 3 Directly to games after reading 4 Hold eBook from bottom corners 5 Children proficient in using pens 6 Didn’t understand tabs Didn’t understand ask parents later Didn’t understand “calling” feature Only understood next and previous arrows Confirmed all children understood reading aloud Put eBook on lap or table while reading 12 Smaller sizes did not affect task 64 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  64. 64. Solutions 1 Didn’t understand why there is a book Removed progress, but can talk and share 2 notes anytime Automatically allow children to discuss book 3 before allowing them to play games Made bottom corners larger. Earphones on 4 the bottom to avoid cables tangling 5 Provide pen to take notes and draw during reading 6 Go to Home for navigate Simplify wording to “ask questions” Simplify metaphor to knocking for communication Removed pagination Keep reading aloud Earphone is indented 12 Selected smaller size for physical freedom MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 65
  65. 65. 66 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  66. 66. ESIGN MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 67
  67. 67. 11 68 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  68. 68. SCE- NARIOS Rationale Scenarios provide an easy method to describe the eBook’s context of use. These are high level scenarios that provide the context but not the actual us- age of the eBook. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 69
  69. 69. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 70 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  70. 70. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 71
  71. 71. BRAIN- STORM & SKETCH 12.1 Rationale 12.2 Refinement of Sketches 72 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  72. 72. ES 12 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 73
  73. 73. 74 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  74. 74. Rationale The brainstorming provides a chance to generate design ideas. By going through the brainstorming process, it provides a chance for creative ideas to be born and those ideas can be refined after the braining storming session. The sketches were a rough and quick means for the team to contemplate about possible physical forms. Given the roughness and amount that was generated, the team can openly critique all of the designs and improve those with potential. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 75
  75. 75. Refinement of Sketches 76 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  76. 76. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 77
  77. 77. 13 TASK ANALY- SIS Rationale The task analysis involves steps that the user will have to take before reading, during reading, and after reading. By understanding all the steps and decisions that a user have to take to finish the task makes the design more grounded based on the user’s behavior. 78 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  78. 78. Current The task analysis involves steps that the user will have to take before reading, during reading, and after reading. By understanding all the steps and decisions that a user have to take to finish the task makes the design more grounded based on the user’s behavior. Envisioned The task analysis involves steps that the user will have to take before reading, during reading, and after reading. By understanding all the steps and decisions that a user have to take to finish the task makes the design more grounded based on the user’s behavior. > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 79
  79. 79. 80 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  80. 80. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 81
  81. 81. Rationale The interaction models describe the relationship between different aspects of the eBook. By examining the relationship between them, the interaction that has to happen becomes apparent and clear. Evolution of Interaction Models On the final interaction model, the children are having their individual experi- ence that mirrors each other until they start reading. Once they begin reading, they share their experience of the same content and they get to exchange notes and thought with each other in the process to improve each other’s experience. 82 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  82. 82. 14 INTER- ACTION MODEL > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 83
  83. 83. 84 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  84. 84. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 85
  85. 85. 15 INFOR- MATION ARCHI- TECTURE 86 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  86. 86. Rationale The interaction models describe the relationship between different aspects of the eBook. By examining the relationship between them, the interaction that has to happen becomes apparent and clear. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 87
  87. 87. 88 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  88. 88. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 89
  89. 89. 90 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  90. 90. PUS MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 91
  91. 91. 92 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  92. 92. 16 FINAL DESIGN MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 93
  93. 93. Interface The interface creates a simple and interactive means for the children to learn to read. During the interviews, it was apparent that the students are comfort- able with using a pen while interacting with a digital device. Therefore OPUS used a pen that allows drag and drop on many of the features. The interface also wants to create a sense of discovery for the children, therefore the infor- mation does not show up until the children ‘discovers’ it. On demand assistance provides the least interruption to the children’s reading experience. If they don’t understand the content or don’t know how to pro- nounce a word, they can find on without leaving the context of what they are currently reading. They can also write and exchange notes at any point during their reading. 94 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  94. 94. 8:30 PM + + Doraemon and I take plane to make a snow man. + We play baseball and read a book together. 8:30 PM 8:30 PM Today wants to to M cdou 8:30 PM MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 95
  95. 95. 96 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  96. 96. The games focus on testing if the children understood the content. 1) Examines if the children remembered the content 2) Examines if the children can apply the content 3) Examines if the children can use the content in a new context Once the children understand the content, their reading level is automatically adjusted and more challenging material will be provided in the future. The actual appearance of the interface is customizable by the children to in- crease their sense of attachment to the OPUS. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 97
  97. 97. Physical Form The corners of the form is larger and rounded because the usability tests found that is where children tends to hold the eBook. The rubber around the edges makes the eBook more tough and durable as well as provides a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. 98 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  98. 98. Technology Wi-Fi 3G Multi-touch screen Stylus Webcam Microphone Speakers Earphone outlets USB connection MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 99
  99. 99. “Throughout the entire process of designing the eBook, it was ap- parently that user’s involvement is crucial. Without the visits and interviews, the design team cannot make informed decisions or understand. Starting with a board scope and then refining the ideas until the ” final design is born was a very interesting process and it provides the knowledge of how a process can iteratively improve the design. LESSONS LEARNED 100 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  100. 100. 17 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 101
  101. 101. ACKNOW MENTS 102 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  102. 102. ASTRI Price Memorial Alison Wilson and Katy Clarke, Primary Longman Express, 2A (Hong Kong: Longman Hong Kong Education, 2005), 10. 18 LEDGE- MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 103
  103. 103. 19 REFER- ENCE 104 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  104. 104. [1] Click and Jane ---What are kids learning to read when they learn to read online? Virginia Heffernan New York Times Magazine; Feb 1, 2009; Alumni - Research Library pg. 13 [2] Defending Young Children’s Play as the Ladder to Literacy Charles H. Wolfgang Tobie S. Sanders [3] Learning to read words (EPS Prize Lecture) Kate Nation, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK The Quarterly Journal of Experiemental Psychology, Psychology Press [4] Promoting Reading: Using eBooks With Gifted and Advanced Readers Christine L Weber; Terence W Cavanaugh Gifted Child Today; Fall 2006; 29, 4; Alumni - Research Library pg. 56 [5] PUBLISHING; eBooks catching on with children; Undaunted by technology, young readers are embracing digital storytelling. Alana Semuels. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, Calif.: Dec 25. 2008. pg. C. 1 [6] The Dimensions of Reading Attitudes for Turkish Children Ann W. Engin & Fred H. Wallbrown University of South Carolina and Kent State University The Journal of Social Psychology, 1983, 120, 169-181. [7] The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children’s emergent story understanding Maria T. De Jong & Adriana G. Bus Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands Reading Research Quarterly. Vol. 39, No. 4. October/November/December 2004 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 105
  105. 105. 20 APPENDIX DESIGN 10 Vists and interviews / Low fidelity interface 106 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  106. 106. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 107
  107. 107. 108 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  108. 108. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 109
  109. 109. DESIGN 14 Interaction Model / Original Interaction Model Interacts with Read & Share Stores Creates & Reads 1. Provide Freedom -- Give children more physical freedom to use it 110 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  110. 110. Share info with Reminds & Accompanies asks Stores answers Becomes Stores Provides info to Gathers info from Encyclop edia 2. Pleansant Experience -- Provide pleasant reading experience MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 111
  111. 111. DISTANCE Read + Communicate together Through eBook Interact with Interact with STEP 1.See if friends available STEP 2.See books that friend wants to read STEP 3.Start the story Allows users to communicate Goes on Goes on 3. Communicate with friends -- Improve communication with others 112 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  112. 112. OPUS 16 Final Design / Physcial Form Original Physical Form MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 113
  113. 113. 2009.10-2010.1

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