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•Definition of lard•‘lard’ or ‘grease’?•During 19th century, lard was common used inNorth America and many European nations.
•colourless or yellowish oil•melting point: leaf fat: 43–48 °C backfat: 30–40 °C•Specific gravifty: 20 °C
•Stable and preferred fat for frying.•Acid value: 3.4•IV: 46 – 70•Saponification value: 195.4
Fatty Acid Composition
• Culinary uses-consist no trans fat.Bread spreadLard riceLard cake or pie
Cutting fluid in machiningType of coolant and lubricant Lard soap
BySUZY NOR ARNIZA BTMAT JUSOH (A128802)
The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticatedfrom the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.Member of the Bovidae family . Closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat.
Characteristics Goat MilkColour Almost white (cream tinge)Odour Buttery,with a slight tallowyodourSize of fat globules Very small compare to cowmilkMelting point 37˚C
Characteristics Goat milkUnsaponifiable matter of milk fat(%)0.41±0.02Iodine Value 30.44±3.57Saponification Value 228.6±5.24pH Value 6.5±0.04Refractive Index 1.450±0.39
Fatty Acid (Saturated) Goat MilkButyric Acid C4:0 2.6Caproic Acid C6:0 2.3Caprylic Acid C8:8 2.7Capric Acid C10.0 2.7Lauric Acid C12:0 4.5Myristic Acid C14:0 11.1Palmitic Acid C16:0 28.9Stearic Acid C18:0 7.8Arachidonic Acid C20:0 0.4Fatty acid profile of goat and cow milk in relation to human milk
i. Goat milk fat normally has 35 percent of medium chain fattyacids (C6-C14)ii. Three are named after goats: Caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), capric(C10) ,totaling 15 percent in goat milk fat.iii. Capric, caprylic and other MCT have been used for treatmentof: > treatment of malabsorption syndrome > intestinal disorders > coronary diseases > pre-mature infant nutrition > cystic fibrosis > gallstone problems
ButterfatBy Melissa LiewA129081
• Butterfat/milkfat: fatty portion of milk• Cow milk fat• Milk/cream aresold according tothe amount ofbutterfat they contain• Butter made bychurning fresh or fermented cream/milk
Soft solid atroom temperature(effective spread) Colour:Light Yellow/Yellow Butter melts at 35⁰C Has to be cooled to 23⁰Cto solidify it Butter produced from butterfatof cow with diet high in stearicacid is softer Works well as flavour carrier
Comprised mostly of triglycerides, phospholipids,glycolipids and lipo-proteins Saponification value: 226 IV value: 26 - 42
By PasheenaA129425WHALE OIL
Obtained from the blubbers of various species of whales• Right Whale• Bowhead Whalechemically a liquid wax and not a true oil• Flows readily• Clear• Bright honey yellow to a dark brownStearin and spermaciti-separated-at low temp. -crystallize and filtered out
concrete, fatty substance, a white, pearly, semi-transparent mass of neutral reaction and crystalinefoliaceous texture friable and somewhat unctuous to the touch, slightlyinodorous and insipid insoluble in water, but soluble in the fixed oils specific gravity is 0.945, or 18° Baume, and it melts atabout 122° F. and congeals near 113° F.
• pale, yellowish- coloured liquid (smell of fishy)•not liable to become rancid , no corrosive action onmetal, and no tendency to dry and become gummy.• retains its viscosity under influence of heat better•Sulphuric acid increases heat,(yellowish-brown mass), -distinguishes sperm oil from other fish oils.• differs from other fish oils also by its chemicalconstitution and its low specific gravity• lightest of all natural oils.
Consists of :a)acetyl palmitate(the ester of acetylalcohol and palmitic acid),C15H31COO-C16H33b) cetinelaic acid (mainly)c) stearic acid, myristic, lauro-stearic acids (smallquantity)d) a compound of fatty acids with alcohol radicals,the acids belonging to the oleic acid series.
Washing-Removal of fatty tissue from the emu carcassusing 120° - 140° F of water bath. Cooking-fat is removed from the fatty tissue by breakingthe fat cells through application of heat.-the cooker be blanketed with nitrogen to preventoxidation from the presence of air.
Fat separation-Fat generated in the cooker is then filtered to furthereliminate contaminants. Fat washing-carried out to coagulate and separate proteinaceouscomponents of the recovered fat. Fat drying-Water present in the fat, will cause the fat todeteriorate rapidly.
Horse OilBy Fatin DamiaA129286
Kingdom: AnimaliaClass: MammaliaFamily: EquidaeGenus: EquusSpecies: E. ferusSubspecies: E. f.caballus• The oil extracted camefrom the hoof, offal, andthe bone.• Horse has life expectancyup to 25 to 30 years old.• Gestation only last for 350days ad resulted one foal.
The HoofThe Offal
liquidThe color is white It smells like raw animal
-Characteristics of horse oils used in theinvestigationOil Sap.val IV FFA UnsaponifableMatterBone 283.5 99.0 1.1 0.72Offal 283.5 97.9 1.5 0.97Hoof 285.9 109.3 2.3 1.11
The fatty acid composition of horse oil is similar tothat of human sebum. Sebum has skin barriersystems that can protect your skin frombacteria, harmful substances and outside stimuli. Strongly recommended for people of all ages whohave dry skin. For hair, use only a small amount to add textureand shine.
CHINESE WATERSNAKE OIL(Enhydris chinensis) By Nur Syazani A129418
•Originated from China, called ‘sheyou’.•Treats inflammation and pain.•High in EPA.•Believed to help hair growth during theancient time.
• Reptile• Lives in pondsand rivers• Feeds on fishesand frogs• Venomous.
Animal Oils Major Fatty AcidLard C18: 1 about 44%,C16: 0 about 26%Goat Fat C16: about 28.9%C18:1 about 27%Butterfat C18:1 about 31.9%C14:0 about 19.8%Whale Oil C18:1 about 29%,C20.1 about 22%Tallow C18:1 about 47%C16:0 about 26%Emu Oil C18:1 about 45% - 55%,C16:0 about 20% -25%Horse Oil C18:0 about 29.5% - 33.3%C16:0 about 26.1% - 28%Snake Oil C14:0 about 48%EPA (omega-3 FA) about 20%