Questioning comprehensive sanctions: the birth of a norm


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Questioning comprehensive sanctions: the birth of a norm

  1. 1. Questioning comprehensive sanctions:the birth of a normDARREN HAWKINS and JOSHUA LLOYD
  2. 2. IntroductionHumanitarian or ‘smart’ sanctions are increasingly entering the TheorizingInternational Relations lexicon for the past years. In fact, it has been Normincorporated into the declarations of important intergovernmentalorganizations, including the United Nations Security Council. Emergence The HumanitarianArgument: comprehensive economic sanctions, and the subsequentemergence of a norm favoring humanitarian sanctions are connected. Sanctions Network andRecent and proposed (as of April 2002) changes to comprehensive Emergingsanctions in Iraq and Cuba buttress the argument presented in thepaper and suggest that the norm is beginning to influence behavior Normeven in difficult cases. Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  3. 3. IntroductionPotential criticisms of the argument Theorizing NormDespite progress, powerful states have still not abandoned Emergencecomprehensive sanctions in all cases and have, so far, failed toapprove new general rules governing the use of sanctions. The HumanitarianOther forces may be at work that has convinced states that it is intheir best economic interest to discontinue such embargoes. Some Sanctionswould argue that domestic and international business interests are Network andreally driving the change of state perspective and policy in this area Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  4. 4. IntroductionThere is some evidence that the sanctions are beginning to change Theorizingin ways consistent with humanitarian principles, thus suggesting Normthat the norm not only exists but that it is beginning to constrainstate behavior. Emergence TheAt the same time, the Security Council has failed to produce new Humanitariangeneral rules governing the use of sanctions despite two years ofeffort and reports of impending success. Sanctions Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  5. 5. Introduction1. 2 elements of Norm Emergence: Norm Entrepreneur and Theorizing Organizational Platform Norm2. Norm Entrepreneur relies on information and framing to call Emergence attention to the need for a new norm. The Humanitarian Entrepreneur - consist of documented information about the nature of the problem Sanctions Network and Framing - strategic use of language and symbols to gain attention of others. Emerging Norm3. Organizational Platforms are used as avenues that can promote Iraq ideas and information of Entrepreneurs. Cuba Conclusion
  6. 6. Introduction1. 2 important Factors: Accessibility and the Preexisting normative Theorizing environment Norm Emergence4. Accessible - standard operation procedures allow entrepreneurs to The distribute information and participate in key decision - making Humanitarian processes. Sanctions -> different from a democratic organization Network and EmergingExamples: UN - it is accessible but not democratic, US congress Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  7. 7. Introduction3. Preexisting Norms - entrepreneurs show new ideas that are logically Theorizingconsistent with prevailing norms. Which ideas are added to the Normexisting set of shared understanding. Emergence TheExamples: Anti- Slavery activists - successful for protestant revival Humanitariannorms of individual worth and personal responsibility for salvation inChristian churches in Britain and the northeastern US. But was not in Sanctionslocal governments in Southern states Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  8. 8. IntroductionNetwork  INGOs and IGOs (Catholic Church to the United Nations TheorizingChildren’s Fund) Norm Emergence•Generally opposed to all comprehensive sanctions, both in theabstract and in specific instances. The HumanitarianTwo additional networks: Sanctions6.US sanctions on Cuba7.UN sanctions on Iraq Network and Emerging* Focuses almost all of its time and energy on its own particular case, Normpaying less attention to broader issues or other cases Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  9. 9. IntroductionComprehensive Sanctions Theorizing Norm1. August 1990: Security Council imposed mandatory, comprehensive Emergencesanctions against Iraq for its invasion of Kuwait The•February 1991: WHO and Unicef: public health crisis caused by the Humanitariandestruction of electrical generators and pumping stations from thebombing campaign initiated in the invasion Sanctions Network and•UN Under-Secretary General Marti Ahtisaari: humanitarian disaster Emergingand recommended lifting food sanctions and distributinghumanitarian aid Norm Iraq•April 3, 1991: Security Council lifted food sanctions and authorized Cubathe distribution of humanitarian aid Conclusion
  10. 10. Introduction2. May 1992: comprehensive sanction on Yugoslavia in connection with Theorizingthe war in Bosnia Norm Emergence•Included WHO, Unicef, the World Food Program, CARE, the OpenSociety Foundation, the International Committee of the Red Cross The(ICRC), and emergency aid agencies from Germany, France, the United HumanitarianStates and others Sanctions•June 1993: sanctions deepened the suffering they were supposed to Network andrelieve Emerging• Late 1993: ‘Trying to implement a humanitarian program in a Normsanctions environment represents a fundamental contradiction’ Iraq sanctions had produced much ‘unintended’ human suffering, and Cubathat future sanctions should try to minimize such suffering Conclusion
  11. 11. IntroductionHumanitarian Impact of Sanctions Theorizing•‘Sanctions should not make the ‘disadvantaged even more Normdisadvantaged’- UN High Commissioner for refugees Emergence•Blunt instrument – General Boutros-Ghali The Humanitarian•‘sanctions were ineffective yet caused immense human suffering’ Sanctions Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  12. 12. IntroductionResponse to Sanctions Theorizing Norm•Peace Action: ‘Abolition of Comprehensive Sanctions ‘ in July 1998 Emergence•Catholic Church and Pope John Paul II: condemned comprehensive Theactions Humanitarian•(1995) permanent members of the Security Council: future sanctions Sanctionsshould ‘minimize unintended adverse side effects of sanctions on the Network andmost vulnerable segments of targeted countries’ Emerging•post-1994: every case has been limited to sanctions that do not Normimpose widespread humanitarian problems  ‘smart sanctions’ Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  13. 13. IntroductionEmergence of new norm Theorizing Norm•April 2000: Working Group on General Issues on SanctionsStates have found it easier to oppose comprehensive sanctions than Emergenceto design a new alternative The•Powerful states are not willing to completely abandon the policy tool Humanitarianof comprehensive sanctions Sanctions Network andPurpose: make sure that sanctions do not harm civilian populations Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  14. 14. IntroductionWhy did humanitarian groups gain relatively rapid acceptance for this Theorizingnorm? Norm individual states to the United Nations made the key difference Emergence The HumanitarianEnd of Cold War Sanctions•UN: primary supporter of sanctions Network and•Security Council: tied to other parts of the UN system (through Emerginginformation sharing and common charter•Humanitarian IGOs (Unicef and WHO) Norm•UN Charter: based on relief of human suffering across the globe Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  15. 15. IntroductionUN sanctions against Iraq Theorizing NormBackground: Emergence•Sanction: sanctions imposed in 1990 The Humanitarian•Largest network of activists against the sanction Sanctions•More than 150 different English-speaking groups (then) Network and•Purpose: to alleviate or remove the sanctions against Iraq. Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  16. 16. IntroductionEntities: Theorizing•Denis Halliday Norm Emergence The Humanitarian Sanctions Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  17. 17. IntroductionEntities: Theorizing•Denis Halliday Norm “incompatible with the spirit of the UN Charter, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, [and] Emergence the Convention on Human Rights...The United The Nations is running a programme that is in fact Humanitarian killing and maiming children...I mean that this is just a disaster; A disaster for the Iraqis and a Sanctions disaster for the UN.” Network and Emerging -> became a symbol for activists Norm -> see him as someone who has seen the Iraq problem firsthand from the inside, and stood up against what he thought was wrong Cuba Conclusion
  18. 18. IntroductionEntities: Theorizing•Han Von Sponeck Norm -> subsequent UN Humanitarian Mission Coordinator Emergence The -> also resigned from his post Humanitarian Sanctions Network and “The sanctions are something that has failed...we must not do Emerging this again.” Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  19. 19. IntroductionEntities: Theorizing•Felicity Arbuthnot Norm -> United Kingdom Emergence -> employee of Amnesty International The Humanitarian -> become a vocal opponent of the sanction by helping people to organize and mobilize Sanctions support for the groups Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  20. 20. IntroductionEntities: Theorizing•Ramsey Clark Norm -> former US Attorney General Emergence -> International Action Center The Humanitarian ->Most prominent issue: elimination of comprehensive sanctions Sanctions Network and -> source of information and a framework organization to mobilize activism Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  21. 21. IntroductionOrganization/Institution: Theorizing NormIraq Action Coalition•one of the best sources of information and analysis on nearly every Emergenceaspect of the sanctions The•provides links to 45 different groups that are working towards the Humanitariansame purpose Sanctions Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  22. 22. IntroductionActivities of Organization in order to Publicize their Concern Theorizing•organize trips to targeted countries and undertake campaigns to Normeducate the publics of different nations on the actions of the SecurityCouncil Emergence The•hold conferences for elites and activists so that they can better Humanitariancoordinate their efforts Sanctions•use opportunities given them to influence the UN Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  23. 23. IntroductionChanges that were imposed in order to minimize damage done: Theorizing•Security Council: In August 1991, Oil-for-Food deal (Resolution 706) Norm•In May 1991, UN Inter-Agency Humanitarian Program Emergence The•In early 1999, US agreed with France to allow Iraq to sell unlimitedamounts of oil in order Humanitarian Sanctions•In March 1999, Great Britain proposed an initiative to further boost Network andthe Oil-for-Food program. Emerging >•In November 2001, Security Council adopted a US and British Normproposal to lift the broad ban on the export of goods to Iraq and toreplace it with a more narrowly drawn list of goods. Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  24. 24. IntroductionWhy the Change of Mind? Theorizing-> France, Russia and China Norm * invoked humanitarian suffering in their opposition to comprehensive sanctions on Iraq Emergence The * BUT, also have economic and political motives to end those sanctions Humanitarian Sanctions *same with Great Britain and US Network and *US view/option: ->smart sanctions offered an appealing Emerging compromise between Russian desires for an end to sanctions Norm ->impulses for strong, unyielding sanctions Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  25. 25. IntroductionIn November 2001, Russia finally agreed to implement the new rules in Theorizingmid-2002 NormHumanitarian network undoubtedly prepared the ground by making Emergencesmart sanctions politically desirable and publicly legitimate, but states Theneeded additional reasons to finally adopt them in the difficult case of HumanitarianIraq. Sanctions Network and Emerging Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  26. 26. IntroductionI. Anti-Sanctions Network Theorizing A. Principal Motivation Norm a. The extremism and combative attitudes of the ultra- conservative Cuban movements that have repeatedly Emergence punished Cuba for nearly 40 years with the US embargo The Humanitarian c. Concerns about its effects on the Cuban population at large SanctionsB. Groups That Effort To Lift The Sanctions On Cuba Network and a. Cuban Committee for Human Rights, the Partido Pro Derechos Humanos, the Comisión de Derechos Humanos y Emerging Reconciliación Nacional, and the Moviemiento Cristiano Norm Liberación. Iraq i. Suffering in Cuba Cuba ii. Gives the dictator a reason to continue his strict defiance Conclusion
  27. 27. Introductionb. Cuban Committee for Democracy (CCD) Theorizing i. Made up of academicians, professionals and businessmen Norm Emergence ii. ‘..goal of promoting a democratic Cuba would be better The served by constructive engagement rather than by fruitless isolation that contributes to the misery of the Humanitarian Cuban people’ (Cuban Committee for Democracy 1999) Sanctions Network andc. Cambio Cubano i. membership is made up mostly of Cuban immigrants in Emerging Miami, Mexico and Latin America Norm ii. founded in 1992 by a Cuban exile on the principle that not Iraq all Cuban Americans endorse the embargo (Cambio Cuba Cubano 1999) Conclusion iii.Cuban Humanitarian Trade Act and the Cuban Women and Children Humanitarian Relief Act
  28. 28. IntroductionC. NGOs That Network to Promote Change in US-Cuba Policy Theorizing a. The Center for International Policy (CIP) Norm i. Cuba Project- work for a peaceful change in the Cuban Emergence regime through engagement with the U.S. The ii. Sponsored conferences- mobilizes moderate Cuban Americans to work for removal of the sanctions Humanitarian iii. Counter the Helms-Burton legislation Sanctions Network and v. Has formed alliances with important business interests Emerging vii. Instrumental in the formation of the Association for Norm Humanitarian Trade with Cuba (AHTC), which is a conglomeration of agricultural and pharmaceutical Iraq companies that have an interest in trading with Cuba Cuba (ibid) Conclusion
  29. 29. IntroductionII. Changes in The Sanctions Theorizing NormA. Bill Clinton a. March 1998 and January 1999- more direct cash remittances Emergence to flow to individuals in Cuba and sell some medicine and food The c. October 2000- the US Congress passed a complicated bill- Humanitarian allowed the delivery of food and medicine to Cuba Sanctions Network and e. Cuba purchased small amounts of food and lumber to aid recovery from Hurricane Michelle Emerging -> Represents the first direct US sale to Cuba of food since Norm 1962 Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  30. 30. IntroductionII. Changes in The Sanctions Theorizing NormB. House of Representatives a. Summer 2001 Emergence Provisions that prevent the executive branch from enforcing The the travel ban to Cuba HumanitarianC. ‘the plight of the Cuban people’ (Clinton) Sanctions a.Lift the food and medicine embargo on Cuba Network and c.Highlighting the negative humanitarian consequences of the Emerging sanctions Norm e.State Department-‘increase support for the Cuban people by Iraq facilitating the transfer of food and humanitarian assistance’ Cuba (Rubin 1998) Conclusion
  31. 31. IntroductionIII. Business and Agricultural Sectors Theorizing NormUSA*Engage- 674 businesses, agriculture groups and tradeassociations Emergence The  A very strong interest in opening the gates to Cuba Humanitarian SanctionsIV. Changes in US policy and Discourse Network andThe traditional structural and attitudinal constraints in the United EmergingStates against Cuba indicate that a new norm has emerged. Norm Iraq Cuba Conclusion
  32. 32. Introduction• United Nations played a big role in the success of the transnational Theorizing network while humanitarian organization and norms are major Norm components in the system. Emergence• Norms shared by individuals is significant for the activist to The determine the issues in comprehensive sanctions. Humanitarian• Although Humanitarian sanctions have the capability to influence, Sanctions they can’t entirely convince some powerful actors in changing their Network and opinion and arguments in other sanctions. Emerging• Furthermore, sanctions are said to be effective to bring change in a Norm non violent way. Iraq Cuba Conclusion