Global Prohibitions Regime: The Evolution ofNorms in International SocietyEthan Nadelmann
Introduction                                                                         1st Problem:                         ...
Introduction                                                                    1st Problem:                              ...
Introduction                                                                          1st Problem:               How do in...
Introduction                                                                         1st Problem:               How do int...
Introduction                                                                           1st Problem:Transnational moral ent...
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Introduction                                                                            1st Problem:Before seventeenth cen...
Introduction                                                               1st Problem:Political Magnates’ View on Piracy:...
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Introduction                                                                       1st Problem:Immediate regularization on...
Introduction                                                                                1st Problem:• Maxim: Pirata es...
Introduction                                                                       1st Problem:17th   and   18th   century...
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Introduction                                                                        1st Problem:Britain abolitionist      ...
Introduction                                                                      1st Problem:Regimes against slavery     ...
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Introduction                                                                     1st Problem:• Reversal on British governm...
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Introduction                                                                       1st Problem:Late 19th century          ...
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Introduction                                                                          1st Problem:    I.   Activities Targ...
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Global Prohibitions Regime: The Evolution of Norms in International Society

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Global Prohibitions Regime: The Evolution of Norms in International Society

  1. 1. Global Prohibitions Regime: The Evolution ofNorms in International SocietyEthan Nadelmann
  2. 2. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and• norms that prohibits, both in international law and in the privateering domestic criminal law of states 2nd Problem: Slavery• piracy, slavery, trafficking in slaves, counterfeiting of national currencies, hijacking of aircraft, trafficking in women and 3rd Problem: children for purposes of prostitution and trafficking in Fugitives Beyond controlled psychoactive substances Border 4th Problem:• Norms strictly restrict the conditions under which states can International participate in and authorize these activities and proscribe all Drug Trafficking involvement by non-state actor. 5th Problem: Prostitution• Substance of norms and process -> institutionalized in global 6th Problem: prohibition regimes. Killing of Whales and Elephants• Evolution of norms into global prohibition regime 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  3. 3. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and What happens when a state refuse to participate in global privateering prohibition regimes? 2nd Problem:Those who refuse or fail to conform are labeled as deviants and Slaverycondemned not just by states but by most communities andindividuals as well. 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond What factors do international regimes tend to reflect? Border 4th Problem:• moral and emotional factors International• religious beliefs, humanitarian sentiments, faith in Drug Trafficking universalism, compassion, conscience, paternalism, fear and 5th Problem: prejudice are often involved in international regimes. Prostitution 6th Problem:Example: Regimes stemming out from Western Europe reflect Killing of Whalesthe needs and interests of powerful states as well as the and Elephantsinfluence of the Enlightenment and contemporaneous religiousand moral notions. 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  4. 4. Introduction 1st Problem: How do international regimes emerge? Piracy and privateering• To protect the interests of the state and other powerful members 2nd Problem: of the society. Slavery• To deter, suppress, or punish undesirable activities 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• To provide for order, security and justice among members of a Border community. 4th Problem: International• To give force and symbolic representation to the moral values, Drug Trafficking beliefs and prejudices of those who make the laws. 5th Problem: Prostitution** inadequacy of unilateral and bilateral law enforcement measures in 6th Problem:the face of criminal activities that transcend national borders. Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  5. 5. Introduction 1st Problem: How do international regimes emerge? Piracy and privateering• Certain criminal law evolve into international prohibitions regime 2nd Problem: because or moral proselytism Slavery• Moral proselytism: compulsion to convert others to one’s beliefs 3rd Problem: and to remake the world in one’s image Fugitives Beyond Border 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  6. 6. Introduction 1st Problem:Transnational moral entrepreneurs Piracy and privateering– these groups mobilize popular opinion and political support both 2nd Problem:within their host country and abroad Slavery- stimulate and assist in the creation of like-minded organizations in 3rd Problem: other countries and play a significant role in elevating their Fugitives Beyond objective beyond its identification with the national interests of Border their government. 4th Problem: International- efforts are often directed to persuading foreign audiences Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  7. 7. Introduction 1st Problem:- States or governments do not hold moral views, rather, the capacity Piracy and of moral arguments to influence government policies privateering 2nd Problem:- moral views of individuals: cosmopolitan in nature. Slavery- Other regimes are concerned not with particular criminal activities 3rd Problem:but with the mechanisms of international cooperation against crime. Fugitives BeyondThese “procedural” regimes often prove essential to the effective Borderfunctioning of “substantive” prohibition regimes as well. 4th Problem: International- “a universal international society” -> grounded in the gradual Drug Traffickinghomogenization and globalization of norms developed among the 5th Problem:European states Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  8. 8. Introduction 1st Problem: STAGES OF REGIME DEVELOPMENT Piracy and privateering1st stage: most societies regard the targeted activity as entirely 2nd Problem:legitimate under certain conditions and with respect to certain groups Slaveryof people. 3rd Problem:2nd stage: The activity is redefined as a problem as evil. Fugitives Beyond Border3rd stage: regime proponents begin to agitate actively for the 4th Problem:suppression and criminalization of the activity by all states and the Internationalformation of international conventions. Drug Trafficking 5th Problem:4th stage: the activity becomes the subject of criminal laws and police Prostitutionaction throughput much of the world, and international institutions 6th Problem:emerge to play a coordinating role. Killing of Whales and Elephants5th stage: An incidence of proscribed activity is greatly reduced,persisting only on a small scale and in obscure locations. 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  9. 9. Introduction 1st Problem:Before seventeenth century Piracy and privateeringPremises of the Medieval International Law (Georg Schwarzenberger) 2nd Problem: Slaverya.) War was the basic state of international relations even betweenindependent Christian communities. 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyondb.)Rulers saw themselves entitled to treat foreigners at their absolute Borderdiscretion 4th Problem: Internationalc.)High seas were no-man’s-land. Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  10. 10. Introduction 1st Problem:Political Magnates’ View on Piracy: Piracy and privateering• Source of wealth and political power 2nd Problem: Slavery• Useful both for increasing their own possessions and for 3rd Problem: undermining the strength of competitors Fugitives Beyond Border 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  11. 11. Introduction 1st Problem:In the sixteenth century Piracy and privateering• Rewards and incidence of piracy jump dramatically with the broad 2nd Problem: expansion of the maritime commerce. Slavery Note: officially or unofficially sponsored by European 3rd Problem:governments. Fugitives Beyond BorderHow piracy/ privateer was practiced during: 4th Problem: Wartime International privateering is in effect Drug Trafficking an officially sanctioned version of piracy directed toward a 5th Problem: state’s enemies and anyone engaged in trading with its Prostitution enemies. 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  12. 12. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy andHow piracy/ privateer was practiced during: privateering 2nd Problem: Peacetime Slavery same private shippers were granted letters of reprisal by their 3rd Problem: governments Fugitives Beyond • authorizing them to recoup any losses due to piracy by Border pirating from other ships bearing the same nationality as the pirates 4th Problem: InternationalWhat happens when professional privateers lost their official Drug Traffickingsanctions? 5th Problem: ProstitutionEITHER sought employment by another monarch OR became 6th Problem:unsanctioned pirates. Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  13. 13. Introduction 1st Problem:Early seventeenth century Piracy and privateeringC.M. Senior 2nd Problem: “...prospects of infidels carrying Christians into bestial Slaverycaptivity in North Africa gave efforts to eradicate piracy an urgency 3rd Problem:and crusading zeal which they had previously lacked...one objective Fugitives Beyondon which all Christian nations were agreed was the desirability of Bordercrushing the Turkish pirates.” 4th Problem:• Between, French, Spanish, Dutch, and English fleets sailed against International the pirate base in North Africa. Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  14. 14. Introduction 1st Problem:End of seventeenth century Piracy and privateering• Change in Europe’s International Relations 2nd Problem: a rapid change increase in the volume of trade and Slavery diplomacy 3rd Problem:• Private fiefdoms and armies were co-opted or eliminated Fugitives Beyond pirates were warned to abandon their ways or risk the Border wrath of increasingly powerful navies 4th Problem: International• Royal Navy Drug Trafficking 1690s: improved England’s power to police the high seas 5th Problem: and its growing empire; gave particular force to the new Prostitution injunction against pirating 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  15. 15. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy andWhat Britain has exercised in order to stop piracy: privateering• pirates and their collaborators were hunted down 2nd Problem: Slavery• colonial administrators admonished to enforce the new antipiracy 3rd Problem: laws ardently Fugitives Beyond Border• foreign leaders warned to cease sponsoring pirate expeditions and 4th Problem: to crack down on unauthorized pirates operating within and from International their territories. Drug Trafficking• failed to comply often found British and other European naval 5th Problem: forces crowding local harbors to lend force to their demand. Prostitution 6th Problem:Note: According to Senior, “Piracy is undergoing a transformation from Killing of Whalesbeing a national industry to becoming an international threat.” and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  16. 16. Introduction 1st Problem:Immediate regularization on International Relation was impossible Piracy andthen due to the following reason: privateering 2nd Problem:• both states and privateers continued to operate against one Slavery another in the Americas and Asia 3rd Problem:• European powers did not apply the same standards of behavior to Fugitives Beyond their dealings with most nations beyond their continent. Border 4th Problem:• non-European states and even some of the colonies regarded the International European efforts as unwarranted and unwelcome infringements Drug Trafficking into local struggles over power and wealth. 5th Problem: Prostitution• Privateering or government-sanctioned piracy during wartime, was 6th Problem: not effectively delegitimized until the nineteenth century. Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  17. 17. Introduction 1st Problem:• Maxim: Pirata est hostice humani generis [a pirate is an enemy of Piracy and the human race] privateering  seeped from the treatises on the international law into 2nd Problem: the political psyches of governments. Slavery• norm of civilized behavior during peacetime extended to one’s 3rd Problem: fellow citizens and allies and, also to anyone other than an armed Fugitives Beyond combatant. Border 4th Problem:• delegitimization of government-sanctioned piracy was not sufficient International to ensure the virtual elimination of piratical activities from the high Drug Trafficking seas 5th Problem: Prostitution• Eventually, piracy had been all but eliminated from the high seas at 6th Problem: the latter part of the nineteenth century. Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  18. 18. Introduction 1st Problem:17th and 18th century Piracy and privateering• After the Peace of Utrecht (1713) 10 million Africans was 2nd Problem: transported in America. Slavery• Liverpool became the center of slave trading 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond19th century Border 4th Problem:• 1807: the banning of slave trade started International Drug Trafficking• 1833: removal of the institution of slavery 5th Problem: Prostitution• 1840s: the Royal Navy sent warships to control slave trafficking 6th Problem: and the bilateral and multilateral agreements between African Killing of Whales rulers and European countries regarding slave trade were also and Elephants made 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  19. 19. Introduction 1st Problem:19th century Piracy and privateering 2nd Problem:• Paris Peace Conference (1814-1815), Congress of Vienna (1815) Slavery and Congress of Verona (1822): Britain promoted anti-slavery campaigns 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• 2 diplomatic devices are introduced by Harold Nicolson Border 4th Problem:• Treaty of London (1841), Treaty of Washington (1862) and Brussels International Convention (1890) promoted global criminalization of slave trade Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  20. 20. Introduction 1st Problem:Britain Piracy and privateeringWhy did Britain suppress Slavery? 2nd Problem:• The idea of the natural rights of man from the religious and Slavery humanitarian principles and the principles of enlightenment 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• Moral entrepreneurs and Anti Slavery Society emerged which made Border British elite and government oppose slavery 4th Problem:• White man’s burden International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  21. 21. Introduction 1st Problem:Britain abolitionist Piracy and privateering• played a part in raising Britain government internationally 2nd Problem: Slavery• made an impact on foreign opinion regarding immorality of slavery 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• British and Foreign anti-slavery society Border• Promoted liberal principles that dominated Europe 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  22. 22. Introduction 1st Problem:Regimes against slavery Piracy and privateering• Supported by most governments 2nd Problem: Slavery• Criminalize international commerce 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• Moral entrepreneurs played a big role Border• Pronounced that the elimination of slavery will result to other 4th Problem: forms of labor. International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  23. 23. Introduction 1st Problem:Early 17th Century Piracy and privateering• Hugo Grotius argued that governments were obliged either to 2nd Problem: return criminals to the “locus deficit” Slavery 3rd Problem:• This made both the practice of extradition and the negotiation of Fugitives Beyond extradition treaties rare occurrences Border• 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  24. 24. Introduction 1st Problem:18th Century Piracy and privateering1. European governments negotiated dozens of extradition treaties 2nd Problem: to address problems of fugitives such as Pirates, and border Slavery bandits; Military deserters. 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond2. Most vigorous extradition efforts were directed to those who Border conspired against sovereign, embezzled funds from the treasury, or committed violent acts against the officials and other well 4th Problem: connected members of the upper class. International Drug Trafficking3. Governments interest in extraditing and punishing fugitives 5th Problem: expanded as they represented their citizens interests and assumed Prostitution broader criminal justice responsibilities. 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  25. 25. Introduction 1st Problem:Late 19th Century Piracy and privateering• Extradition relations have expanded in number 2nd Problem: Slavery• Problems in the lack of complementarity in extradition between 3rd Problem: COMMON LAW NATIONS and CIVIL LAW NATIONS Fugitives Beyond Border• Civil law tradition of non-extradition of nationals represents the most conspicuous relic of nationalist resistance to international law 4th Problem: enforcement cooperation International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  26. 26. Introduction 1st Problem:Today Piracy and privateering• International law scholars acknowledge the Grotian Perspective 2nd Problem: regarding the obligation to extradite or prosecute Slavery 3rd Problem:• Governments are increasingly willing to devise the ways of Fugitives Beyond circumventing their own legal restrictions on renditions of fugitives Border• Indications that both common law and civil law countries are 4th Problem: considering legalistic and nationalist reservations to unencumbered International extradition of vicarious prosecution. Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  27. 27. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and Samples of Psychoactive Substances: privateering• Alcohol 2nd Problem:• Tabacco Slavery• Opium• Coffee 3rd Problem:• Coca Fugitives Beyond BorderDifferent Uses of these Substances: 4th Problem:• Medicinal International• Ritual Drug Trafficking• Recreational Purposes 5th Problem: ProstitutionSome of the Ways of Government Control: 6th Problem:• death penalty Killing of Whales• taxation and Elephants• zoning 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  28. 28. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and privateeringVast majority of states count themselves as members of the global 2nd Problem:drug prohibition regime Slavery 3rd Problem:• production, sale and even possession of such substances that are Fugitives Beyond outside strictly regulated medical and scientific channels are Border punished with criminal sanctions 4th Problem:• criminal justice agencies in most countries are deeply involved in International investigating and prosecuting drug law violations Drug Trafficking 5th Problem:• the rhetoric “war on drugs” has also been globalized Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  29. 29. Introduction 1st Problem:United Kingdom Piracy and• British government privateering principal sponsor of the opium trade 2nd Problem: Slavery• Eventually, opposition regarding the trade gain force during the 3rd Problem: Opium Wars Fugitives Beyond Examples of Organizations: Border British Quakers leading moral entrepreneurs of the antiopium 4th Problem: campaign International Drug Trafficking• Anglo-Oriental Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade 5th Problem: played a major role during the next four decades in Prostitutionorganizing sentiment against the opium trade, proselytizing to the 6th Problem:public, and lobbying the government. Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  30. 30. Introduction 1st Problem:• Reversal on British government policy Piracy and moral impulses over political and economic interests privateering 2nd Problem:Note: Britain did not extend to support for an aggressive global Slaverycampaign against the trade 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond Border 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  31. 31. Introduction 1st Problem:United States Piracy and• Americans, notably missionaries returned from the Far East, were privateering the ones who initiated the campaign globally. 2nd Problem: SlaveryEffects of campaign: 3rd Problem:• emergence of drug control legislation Fugitives Beyond• emergence of drug prohibition Border• Antiopium laws in the State 4th Problem: city ordinances in San Francisco (1857) and Virginia City, International Nevada (1876) Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution• Even with the vigorous international efforts of American 6th Problem: Prohibitionists, the effort to create an antialcohol regime failed. Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  32. 32. Introduction 1st Problem:Note: Piracy and• the nature of the global drug control regime reflected the privateering predominance of the United States and Europe in establishing global norms concerning the selection and appropriate uses of 2nd Problem: psychoactive substances. Slavery 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• the global drug enforcement regime reflected the desire and Border capacity of the United States to impose its drug-related norms on the 4th Problem: rest of the world. International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem:• the future of the global drug control regime will certainly hinge in Prostitution good part on the substitutability of those drugs which make up most 6th Problem: of the illicit global drug traffic today by psychoactive substances and Killing of Whales stimuli that are available. and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  33. 33. Introduction 1st Problem:Sidenote: Piracy and privateeringAdvantage of Drug trafficking: 2nd Problem: Slavery• unlike currency counterfeiting, no particular expertise or 3rd Problem: resources are required to produce, smuggle, or sell many of the Fugitives Beyond illicit drugs. Border• unlike slaves, illicit drugs are easily concealed by producers, 4th Problem: smugglers, dealers, and consumers. International Drug Trafficking• unlike piracy, slavery, and counterfeiting, drug trafficking 5th Problem: produces very few victims who have an interest in notifying Prostitution criminal justice authorities. 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  34. 34. Introduction 1st Problem:Late 19th century Piracy and privateering• White slavery was first referred to entire system of licensed 2nd Problem: prostitution in existence throughout much of Europe and parts of Slavery US 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• Activist sought the abolition of licensed prostitution Border• White slavery was known as the “White slave trade” 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  35. 35. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and• International Movement to abolish was led by transnational moral privateering entrepreneurs 2nd Problem: Slavery• Dominant figures in Europe: Josephine Butler persuaded 3rd Problem: Parliament to repeal the contagious Diseases Prevention Act Fugitives Beyond Border• In the US: Mann-Elkins Act prohibited international traffic in women for purposes of prostitution 4th Problem: International• An international conference and agreement was made to condemn Drug Trafficking the practice. Unfortunately, the creation of this regime was not 5th Problem: followed Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  36. 36. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and• Different social, economic and demographic conditions stimulated privateering transnational movement of prostitutes during the 1800s 2nd Problem: SlaveryToday 3rd Problem: Fugitives Beyond• Small scale of international movement of women for purposes of Border prostitution 4th Problem:• Development of effective contraception and start of the “Sexual International Revolution” reduced inhibitions to female activity Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  37. 37. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy and• Despite all that, prostitution is peculiarly resistant to criminal privateering justice measures. 2nd Problem: Slavery• The existence of a nearly universal notion that a particular activity 3rd Problem: is wrong has not translated into the evolution of a global regime to Fugitives Beyond prohibit it. Border 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  38. 38. Introduction 1st Problem:Whales Piracy and privateering• The resistance of the killing of whales started during the 1930s and 2nd Problem: 1940s Slavery 3rd Problem:• 52 nations supported the ban of killing of whales in 1972 United Fugitives Beyond Nations Conference. Border• People against it increased in numbers, exposing it through the media 4th Problem: International• There is an international convention that controls it but did not Drug Trafficking entirely ban the killing 5th Problem: Prostitution• Some countries such as Japan, Iceland, Greenland, Spain and Soviet 6th Problem: Union still violate the international convention Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  39. 39. Introduction 1st Problem:Whales Piracy and privateering• There are still what they call “Pirate Whalers” of Peru, Chile and 2nd Problem: Taiwan. Slavery 3rd Problem:• Countries like the United States, Australia and most especially Fugitives Beyond Greenpeace played a great role in managing the whalers. Border 4th Problem: International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  40. 40. Introduction 1st Problem:Elephants Piracy and privateering• In East and central Africa the population of elephants greatly 2nd Problem: decreased Slavery 3rd Problem:• Other government officials and some conservationist supported Fugitives Beyond the resistance in killing of elephants especially as a sport Border• They succeeded in banning of selling ivory in the global trade in 4th Problem: 1989 with the help of the US government International Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  41. 41. Introduction 1st Problem:Elephants Piracy and privateering• People against it used different tactics like producing the movie 2nd Problem: entitled Bloody Ivory Slavery 3rd Problem:• Selling of ivory cannot be fully eliminated as long as nations will Fugitives Beyond favor the sale of ivory such as Japan which consumes 40% of Border Africa’s ivory 4th Problem:• Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species was able International to reduce the price of ivory in mid-1989 Drug Trafficking 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  42. 42. Introduction 1st Problem: I. Activities Targeted By Future Global Prohibition Regimes Piracy and privateeringA. Extraterritorial Violations of Federal Statutes 2nd Problem: a. Against Tax Evasion, Money laundering, etc. Slavery b. Emergence of Multilateral Regimes 3rd Problem: Fugitives BeyondB. Unauthorized Development of Atomic, Biological, Chemical and BorderOther Weapons Anti-Hi-jacking Regime 4th Problem: InternationalC. Protection, Reduction and Conservation Drug Trafficking Civil Regulatory Agencies, Criminal Sanctions 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: II. Possibility of Legitimate Activities to Be Target of Global Killing of Whales Prohibition Regimes and ElephantsInternational Traffic in Tobacco 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes
  43. 43. Introduction 1st Problem: Piracy andIII. Lessons and Insights Into The Evolution of Norms in Global Society privateeringEmergence of Norms and Its Promotion 2nd Problem: Slavery IV. Norms That Evolve Into Global Prohibition Regimes 3rd Problem:A. 1st: Mirror the Criminal Law of States That Have Dominated Global Fugitives Beyond Society BorderB. 2nd: Target Criminal Activities 4th Problem: V. Global Prohibition Regimes InternationalA. Certain Activities Must Be Banned Drug TraffickingB. Vulnerability of An Activity to Global Suppression Efforts By States 5th Problem: Prostitution 6th Problem: Killing of Whales and Elephants 7th Problem: Fate and Future of global prohibition regimes

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