Module biology chapter5 student

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Module biology chapter5 student

  1. 1. MITOSIS1. Q P 1 P 2 S R The cell cycleName and state the purpose of each of these sub phasesP1 : ……………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………Q : ……………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………P2 : ……………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………R : ……………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………S : ……………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
  2. 2. 2. State the definition of Mitosis. Process by which a nucleus divides to produce _____________ daughter cells, MITOSIS each containing the __________ number of chromosomes as the parental cells.3. Rearrange the jumbled words . The importance of mitosis is : a. W O T H G R _____________________ b. ELLC ECALPNETERM _____________________ c. G E T O I R E N E N A _____________________ d. X E S A A U L D U T C I N E R R O P _____________________4. Label the diagram below. i. ii. iii. 2
  3. 3. 5. Underline the correct words in the bracket.Cytokinesis in eukaryotes occurs ( just prior to , after ) mitosis; cell division inprokaryotes occurs by a ( simpler, more complex ) process called, binary ( fission ,fusion ). Between divisions, eukaryotic cells are in ( dormant-phase , interphase ) , anactive period during which chromosomal DNA is duplicated, the cell mass ( increases,decreases) and new organelles are produced. Nuclear DNA is replicated only during Sphase. The process of mitosis occurs in the following order : prophase, ( anaphase ,metaphase ) , ( anaphase , metaphase ) and telophase. The mitotic spindle is acomplex of ( microtubules , microfilaments ) that ( prevents , assists ) chromosomemovement. The spindle is attached to each chromosome at a site called the( connector , centromere ). Following nuclear division, the cytosol of the cells is divided.The soon-to-be daughter cells are separated by the cleavage ( plane , furrow ) inanimals cells and the cell ( plate , furrow ) in the plant cells.6. How does mitosis in plant cells differ from mitosis in animal cells ?Cell division in plant and animal cells differs in two ways : (1) animal cells have…………………………… , whereas plants cells ……………………. , and (2) animal cellshave ………………………………….. , whereas plant cells have ……………………….. 3
  4. 4. 8. Complete the flow chart below Tissue Culture Technique …………. of carrot Transverse section of root Cell ( …..n ) Fragments cultured in …………….. Cell division ………………. to form ………… Callus cultured on ……….. medium and transferred to …………. Adult plant 4
  5. 5. 9. Explain briefly how Dolly the sheep was produced by cloning. Give your answer in theform of a diagram which shows the successive steps with explanatory notes for eachstep. 5
  6. 6. 10. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CLONING Advantage DisadvantageCloned plant are ……………………… is Clones are …………………… to newsize and shape diseasesPlants can be produced ………… the year Clones are easily destroyed if there is a …………………. in the environmentPlant maintain the …………….. designedcharacteristics of the mother plantsTissue culture techniques are cost……………………Clones can be produced in ………………..numbers in a short time MEIOSIS11. MEIOSIS Process by which a nucleus divides to produce ____________ daughter cells, each containing ___________ the number of chromosomes of the parental cell.12. Fill in the blank using the words provided. 6
  7. 7. Synapsis Sister Chromatids Metaphase II four Haploid Haploid Homologous chromosomes Two Diploid Prophase I Diploid 1. At __________ phase of meiosis are these two cells, each with sister chromatids aligned at the spindle equator. 2. The meiotic process by which homologues are paired during prophase I is called __________ . 3. Crossing occurs during ________ . 4. Meiosis consists of __________ nuclear divisions, producing ___________ haploid cells. 5. The function of meiosis I is to separate _________ . The function of meiosis II is to separate _____________ . 6. Meiosis I produces two ____________ cells. 7. Meiosis II produces four ______________ cells.13. By using two different colours show the result of crossing-over. 7
  8. 8. 14. Complete the table below.Name of Phase Description1. Homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrad Spindle fibers move homologous chromosomes to opposite2. sides Nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter3. cells formed4. Chromosomes line up along equator, not in homologous pairs5. Crossing-over occurs6. Chromatids separate7. Homologs line up alone equator8. Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed 15. Name the stages in the figures above . 8
  9. 9. 16. If a diploid cell has two chromosomes ( 2n = 4 ) , Draw and describe the events thatoccur in each stage in mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis Prophase Meiosis I Prophase Meiosis II ProphaseChromosomebehaviour Mitosis Metaphase Meiosis I Metaphase Meiosis II MetaphaseChromosome o obehaviour Mitosis Anaphase Meiosis I Anaphase Meiosis II Anaphase 9
  10. 10. Chromosome o obehaviour Mitosis Telophase Meiosis I Telophase Meiosis II TelophaseChromosome o obehaviour17. COMPARE AND CONTRAST 1. Complete the table below. 10
  11. 11. Meiosis I Similarities Meiosis II 1. The chromosomes become …………………………. and ……………………. during prophase. 2. The chromosomes are arranged at the …………………………. plate. MEIOSIS I Aspect compared MEIOSIS IIHomologous chromosomes pair Prophase Synapsis of homologousup and …………………………... chromosomes andbetween non-sister chromatids ………………………….betweenoccurs. non- sister chromatids does not take place……………………………………. Metaphase ………………………. align atalign at the metaphase plate of the metaphase plate ( equator)the cell of the cellHomologous chromosomes Anaphase Sister chromatids…………………… and move to …………………………becomingopposite poles. Sister daughter chromosomes thatchromatids are still attached move to opposite poles.together and move as a unit.……….. haploid daughter cells Telophase …………. haploid daughter areare formed. formed.Each daughter cell has only Set of chromosome Each daughter cell has the…………. of each type of ……………. number ofchromosome : either the chromosome as the haploid cellpaternal or the maternal produced in meiosis I but eachchromosome. cell has only one of the sister chromatids. 18. Complete the table below. Mitosis Similarities Meiosis 1. A nuclear division process 2. Nuclear division occur 11
  12. 12. MITOSIS Aspect compared MEIOSIS Place occur Role Number of sitokinesis Synapsis of homologous chromosomes Number of daughter cells Set of chromosomes Genetic composition of daughter cells Variation EXERCISES1. Figure 1.1 shows phases M and N during meiosis I. 12
  13. 13. M phase : N phase :Description : Description : a. In the space provided, i. State the both stages in M and N ii. Describe the behaviour of both chromosomes in above stages. b. Figure 1.2 shows the chromosome behaviour during Prophase I in meiosis. 13
  14. 14. UV ray i. State the M process …………………………….. ii. State the part of chromatid where the M process occurs. ……………………………...c. Based on figure 1.2, draw the chromosome behaviour during Prophase II. Statement : Case : Meiosis is a process to In a family, there are produce gametes that variability occurs in take place in sex organ . offspring. 14
  15. 15. d. Based on the above statement, explain how the situation happens. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………. e. Figure 1.3 shows the formation of cancer cell in epithelium . UV ray Epithelium cell Cancer cells Based on figure 1.3 , explain how the cancer happens. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………….2. Meiosis is involved in the production of gametes for sexual reproduction. Offspring produced by sexual reproduction differ genetically from one another and from the 15
  16. 16. parents. Draw a diagram and explain briefly how meiosis makes genetic variation possible. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………3. Figure shows the differences that occur in a family member.Based on figure 8, identify the differences among the family members. Discuss howthe differences are inherited. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
  17. 17. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………4. Diagram 2.1 shows phase X and phase Y in the cell cycle of an organism. Phase X consists of three sub-phase, P, Q and R. Phase Y involves two processes, U and Y. Diagram 2.1 (a) (i) Name process U. …………………………………………… (ii) State two roles of process U in an organism. 17
  18. 18. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Diagram 2.2 shows the various stages in process U. Diagram 2.2 (i) Based on Diagram 2.2 complete the correct sequence of stages in process U. Stage → Stage → Stage → Stage IV ………… ……… ……… (ii) Name the stages in process U. Stage Name of stage I II III IV(c) (i) Name phase X in Diagram 2.1. ………………………………… 18
  19. 19. (ii) Describe what happens in the cell during phase X. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………(d) A technique which involves the cell cycle shown in Diagram 2.1 could used in cattle farming. A researcher to use the technique to increase the number of beef cattle. Describe the technique.………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

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