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5.1 mitosis
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5.1 mitosis

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  • 1. IZAT EZATTE BINTI MUSA 4 UTM
  • 2. THE NECESSITY FOR THE REPRODUCTION OF NEW CELLS ORGANISMS .
    • Mitosis is the process of cell division that produces two daughter cells which are genetically to each other and to their parent cell.
    • The significance of mitosis in living things:
      • Repair and replace the damaged or dead cells
      • Increases the number of unicellular organisms.
      • Ensures that new cell are genetically identical to the parent
      • Preserve the diploid number of chromosomes
      • Increases the number of cells in individuals( single-celled organisms)
      • Aids in growth process( multi-celled organisms )
  • 3. The phases in the cell cycle
    • Cell cycle -the life of a cell from the time it is produced until it completely divides into two new daughter cells.
    • Activity of the cell during mitotic division:
      • Preparing for the division
      • Produce cytoplasm and organelles-formation of daughter cells.
    • Two major phases:
      • Interphase
      • Mitotic cell division(M Phase)
  • 4. Phase in Cell cycle
  • 5. Interphase PHASE DESCRIPTIONS G1(FIRST GAP)
    • The size of cells increases
    • RNA is produced
    • Synthesise protein and new organelles
    • Chromosome cannot be observed clearly and known as chromatin
    S(SYNTHESIS)
    • DNA synthesis
    • The DNA replication takes place
    • The copied chromosomes contain two sister chromatids which are identical
    G2(SECOND GAP)
    • Cell preparing for division(mitosis)
    • The cell grows,produces organelles,protein and membrane
    • Nucleus is well-defined
    • Chromosome duplication completed
    • DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibres
  • 6.
    • Interphase
    • This is the resting or non-mitotic of the cell cycle
    • It comprise G1,S and G2 stage of the cell cycle
    • DNA is replicated during the S phase of interphase
  • 7. The M phase(mitosis and cytokinesis)
    • PROPHASE
      • If the first stage of mitosis
      • The chromosomes condense and become visible
      • The centrioles form and move toward opposite ends of the cell(the pole)
      • The nuclear membrane dissoves and the mitotic spindle thread is formed(from the centrioles)
      • Spindle fibers from each centriole attach to each sister chromatid at the kinetochore
      • Chromatids are connected at the centromere
  • 8.
    • METAPHASE
    • The chromosomes lined up on the cell equator which is the metaphase plate
    • The spindle fibres are formed completely
  • 9.
    • ANAPHASE
    • Spindle attached to kinetochores begin to shorten
    • This exerts a force on the sister chromatids and pulls them apart
    • Spindle fibres continue to shorten,pulling chromatids to opposite poles of the cell
    Early anaphase Late anaphase
  • 10.
    • TELOPHASE
    • Both chromosomes have reached the opposite poles
    • The chromosomes decondensed
    • The nuclear enveloped is formed
    • Nucleus reformed
    • The spindle fibres dissappear
    • Once separate,the chromatds are again called chromosomes
    • Two daughter nuclei are formed with identical set of chromosomes
  • 11. Cytokinesis
    • Cytokinesis is the process of the cytoplasm division after the separation of chromosomes
    CYTOKINESIS IN PLANT CELL
    • The vesicles move to the equator between the two nuclei and fuse to form two membranes that become cell plate
    • The cell plate grows upwards
    • The new cell wall is laid down between membranes and fuses with the existing cell wall
  • 12. CYTOKINESIS IN ANIMAL CELLS
    • The vesicles move to the equator between the two nuclei and fuse to form two membranes that become cell plate
    • The cell plate grows upwards
    • The news cell wall is laid down between membranes and fuses with the existing cell wall
  • 13. The importance controling mitosis
    • To ensure that organism can function properly
    • To ensure that organisms can grow and develop normally
    • To help in repairing damage cells and tissues for the survival of life
  • 14. The effects of uncontrolled mitosis in living things
    • It due to the changes of gene which control the cell cycle e,g:The growth of cancerous cell
    • Cancerous cells could lead to the death of the organism if it is not prevented from invanding and destroying neighbouring cells
    • This condition can be caused by certain virus,toxic chemical susbtances
    • The cells divide very fast and unregulated. (Tumour)
    • Benign tumour- Abnormal cells that remain at the original site and be removed by surgery
    • Malignant tumour -becomes invasive and spreads to neighbouring tissues and cells (cancer)
  • 15. The application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning
    • Production of genetically identical individuals
    Cloning of sheep
  • 16.
    • Producing genetically identical organisms which carry a useful gene
    • A piece of DNA carrying a gene of interest and a gene for antibiotic resistance
    • The cells is grown on a medium containing the antibiotic so that only the cells with the inserted DNA will survive
    • The nuclei from surviving cells is inserted into unnucleated egg cells
    • The egg cells is implanted into the surrogate mother
    • Clone which carry the useful gene are born
  • 17.
    • Application of cloning technology is important to:
    • Produce genetically identical organs for transplantation
    • Produce human tissues
    • Repopulate endangered species
  • 18. The advantages and disadvantages of cloning Advantages
    • Ensure the continuity of hereditary traits from the parent to the clones
    • Increase the rate of production and the quality of the products
    • Good qualities of the plants and animals can be selected and maintained in the clones
    • Many clones are produced in a short time
    • Can be carried out any time of the year
    Disadvantages
    • Raise ethical issues on human The resistance of the clones towards diseases and pests is the same.If a clone is infected with a disease or attacked and die
    • Raise ethical issues on human cloning

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