CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL 4.2 CARBOHYDRATES Nur amni syazana
C A R B O H Y D R A T E S <ul><li>Source of  energy </li></ul><ul><li>Build cell walls of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Form ex...
T Y P E S   O F   C A R B O H Y D R A T E S MONOSACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES
M O N O S A C C H A R I D E S <ul><li>The basic building blocks of carbohydrates  </li></ul><ul><li>(monomers of carbohydr...
D I S A C C H A R I D E S <ul><li>Reducing sugars except sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of two monosaccharides </li></u...
P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S <ul><li>Combination of hundreds of monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by the condesati...
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4.2 carbohydrates

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4.2 carbohydrates

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL 4.2 CARBOHYDRATES Nur amni syazana
  2. 2. C A R B O H Y D R A T E S <ul><li>Source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Build cell walls of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Form external skeleton of insects </li></ul><ul><li>As food storage </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms molecule is 2:1 </li></ul>
  3. 3. T Y P E S O F C A R B O H Y D R A T E S MONOSACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES
  4. 4. M O N O S A C C H A R I D E S <ul><li>The basic building blocks of carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>(monomers of carbohydrates) </li></ul><ul><li>Known as simple sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing sugars </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose ~ in plants and fruits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose ~ in sweet fruits and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>honey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galactose ~ in milk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. D I S A C C H A R I D E S <ul><li>Reducing sugars except sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of two monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Complex sugars </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE -> Maltose (malt sugar) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE -> Sucrose (cane sugar) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE -> Lactose (milk sugar) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE ------------------->MALTOSE + WATER condensation GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE <-------------------MALTOSE + WATER hydrolysis
  6. 6. P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S <ul><li>Combination of hundreds of monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by the condesation of glucose monomers </li></ul><ul><li>Do not taste sweet and do not crystallise </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen ~ in animal and yeast </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> ~ known as animal starch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starch ~ stores in plants (rice,corn,bread,wheat) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose ~ form cell wall in plants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE ------------------->MALTOSE + WATER hydrolysis
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