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4.2 carbohydrates
4.2 carbohydrates
4.2 carbohydrates
4.2 carbohydrates
4.2 carbohydrates
4.2 carbohydrates
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4.2 carbohydrates

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  • 1. CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL 4.2 CARBOHYDRATES Nur amni syazana
  • 2. C A R B O H Y D R A T E S
    • Source of energy
    • Build cell walls of plants
    • Form external skeleton of insects
    • As food storage
    • Consists of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen
    • Ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms molecule is 2:1
  • 3. T Y P E S O F C A R B O H Y D R A T E S MONOSACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES
  • 4. M O N O S A C C H A R I D E S
    • The basic building blocks of carbohydrates
    • (monomers of carbohydrates)
    • Known as simple sugar
    • Reducing sugars
    • EXAMPLE :
          • Glucose ~ in plants and fruits
          • Fructose ~ in sweet fruits and
          • honey
          • Galactose ~ in milk
  • 5. D I S A C C H A R I D E S
    • Reducing sugars except sucrose
    • Consist of two monosaccharides
    • Complex sugars
    • EXAMPLE :
          • GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE -> Maltose (malt sugar)
          • GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE -> Sucrose (cane sugar)
          • GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE -> Lactose (milk sugar)
    GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE ------------------->MALTOSE + WATER condensation GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE <-------------------MALTOSE + WATER hydrolysis
  • 6. P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S
    • Combination of hundreds of monosaccharides
    • Formed by the condesation of glucose monomers
    • Do not taste sweet and do not crystallise
    • Insoluble in water
    • EXAMPLE :
            • Glycogen ~ in animal and yeast
          • ~ known as animal starch
            • Starch ~ stores in plants (rice,corn,bread,wheat)
            • Cellulose ~ form cell wall in plants
    GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE ------------------->MALTOSE + WATER hydrolysis

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