Automated Enforcement System (AES)TOPIC: AUTOMATED ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMSpeeding is one of the major causes of crashes, death...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)supplement to traditional speed enforcement operations as widespread knowledge of itsuse...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)         For an investor, the business model would look risky as there are a number offa...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)        Incidentally, there are only two offences recorded – breaking the speed limit an...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)120 km/h when the data shows that speed though with some speed cameras which use anarrow...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)to AES. Although it might not be feasible to pursue all violators, there are procedurest...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)junctions and record a car driving across the intersection when the light is red. There ...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)enforcement simultaneously. A fixed AES system can provide a very substantialdeterrent e...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)should be adapted according to these factors. For example, if speeding-related crashesoc...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)problem or has a negative impact on quality of life, but within this constraint, publicd...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)reduction in crash-related injuries. Limited access highways also often carry asubstanti...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)       If the purpose of promoting awareness is to explain what the AES program is,then ...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)        Responsiveness to media inquiries is critical. Reporters may want traffic safety...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)       The program may begin with a warning period, during which the program is infull o...
Automated Enforcement System (AES)enforcement speed threshold set in these areas should be no less than6 mph above thespee...
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[Zulfadli] automated enforcement system

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[Zulfadli] automated enforcement system

  1. 1. Automated Enforcement System (AES)TOPIC: AUTOMATED ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMSpeeding is one of the major causes of crashes, deaths, and injuries on the Nation‟sroadways. Speeding has consistently been a contributing cause in approximately 30 percent of all motor vehicle crashes over the last 10 years. The primary reason formanaging traffic speeds is safety. Automated Enforcement System (AES) systems arean important element in speed management and can be a very effective countermeasureto prevent speeding-related crashes. However, when used, AES is a supplement to, not areplacement for, traditional enforcement operations. Advantages of AES include: the ability to increases safety for law enforcementofficers by implementing AES in areas where traditional traffic stops are dangerous orinfeasible due to roadway design, the ability to continuously enforce the speed limit,and reductions in traffic congestion sometimes caused by driver distraction at trafficstops.The guidelines are intended to be accessible and inclusive, with an emphasis onpresenting options and describing the advantages, particularly in increased traffic flowand reduced congestion, and dis- advantages of each, so that an AES program can betailored to the needs of a particular jurisdiction. The technological state of the practice in AES is developing rapidly. Somespecific technologies are described, but rather than focus on the capabilities of currenttechnologies, the emphasis is on identifying the functional requirements thattechnologies must meet so that the guidelines remain relevant as technologies evolve.Itis important to explain the philosophy and strategy behind the AES program throughcommunications and marketing programs, public meetings, and hearings. AES shouldbe described as a tool that can enhance the capabilities of traffic law enforcement andthat AES will supplement, rather than re- place, traffic stops by law enforcementofficers. The public should be made aware that AES is used to improve safety, not togenerate revenue or impose “big brother” surveillance. Saying this will not necessarilymake it so in the eyes of the public, so it is important to explain how each element of theAES program puts safety first and how controls are in place to prevent misuse of thesystem.An Automated Enforcement System (AES) program can be an effective PAGE 1 OF 15
  2. 2. Automated Enforcement System (AES)supplement to traditional speed enforcement operations as widespread knowledge of itsuse amplifies the enforcement program‟s ability to reduce speeds and speeding-relatedcrashes. AES programs worldwide have demonstrated the ability to reduce speeding andcrashes beyond the effects observed with traditional speed enforcement alone. The“Speed- Enforcement Camera Systems Operational Guidelines” have been prepared toassist program man- agers, administrators, law enforcement, traffic engineers, programevaluators, and others responsible for the operations of AES programs in planning andoperating AES systems as a component of a comprehensive speed managementprogram. AES or Automated Enforcement System which has been much talked-about andanticipated since 2005 has become a reality this October when over 1,000 sophisticatedcameras are activated around the country. The project is a jointly undertaken by the JPJand two private companies with assistance from the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety(MIROS). The privatization of the project is due to its high cost which is believed to beat least RM800 million.The two companies investing in the project expect to get returnson their investment by taking a share of the money collected from fines. It‟s understandable that, as investors, they would expect returns on the moneythey put in otherwise why make the investment? However, as mentioned by the ownersof one of the companies, while profit is important, they also hope that their participationis seen as a ‟noble effort‟ to help reduce the accident rate in Malaysia.Assuming that 10million summonses are issued each year (only based on offences captured by the AES)and fines of up to RM300 are paid on 50% of the summonses, each company would getup to RM80 million. When the second tier kicks in, each company will be entitled to 50% of the finescollected with a cap of RM270 million. For Tier 3, the commission will reduce to 7.5%and the projection is RM66 million per company by this time. There is a 5-yearcontractual period for the development, operation and maintenance of the system by thetwo companies and after that, the government can either take over or extend the contract(and presumably new terms can be negotiated as well). PAGE 2 OF 15
  3. 3. Automated Enforcement System (AES) For an investor, the business model would look risky as there are a number offactors which are uncertain. The government has not given any guarantees and is not aguarantor in any way either so getting financing for the project was not easy. Thecommission can only be paid when the summons is settled and though many Malaysiansdo not go to court for traffic offences because it‟s such a hassle, the rate of settlement ofsummonses is about 40% (according to DatukSolah Mat Hassan, the JPJ‟s Director-General). So if many more motorists began to respect speed limits and there would befewer offences to collect fines for, the revenues would decline for the companies. Thereis no provision for compensation from the government apparently so that is a big risk.Of course, it‟s hard to imagine that summonses issued will fall from millions tohundreds so there will still be cash flow albeit less than projected.AES is a method oftraffic speed enforcement that is used to detect speeding violations and recordidentifying information about the vehicle and/or driver. Violation evidence is processed and reviewed in an office environment andviolation notices are delivered to the registered owners of identified vehicles after thealleged violation occurs. AES, if used, is one technology available to law enforcementas a supplement and not a replacement for traditional enforcement operations.The AESwill be used for recording offences at traffic lights (going through a red light) and onhighways and main roads (exceeding speed limits). There is transparency in the way thecompanies will receive their commissions, unlike certain infrastructure agreementswhich have even been treated as Official Secrets and are difficult for taxpayers to knowabout. In the case of the AES project, there are three tiers agreed upon with differentcommissions applicable. In the first tier, each company will receive RM16 per validsummons (i.e. the fine is paid after due process is observed) and this tier is capped atRM5 million per company. The process of taking the picture and collecting the fine ishandled by the two companies. As Malaysian law still observes „innocent until provenguilty‟, the pictures captured by the AES cameras are considered as evidence of anoffence being committed, not confirmation of the offence itself. PAGE 3 OF 15
  4. 4. Automated Enforcement System (AES) Incidentally, there are only two offences recorded – breaking the speed limit andrunning through a red light at a junction. Extensive data is embedded in each imagewhich is then sent to the JPJ for verification. The JPJ will check the ownership details ofthe vehicle (including motorcycles) based on the registration number and then confirmthat a summons can be issued with details of the offender provided. Presumably, the JPJwill not validate an image which shows a Saga but the information in its database showsthat the car is a Kelisa. In the United States, AES was adopted later than in Europe and Australia.However, in recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number ofcommunities that use AES as a part of their speed management and traffic lawenforcement strategy. Like their European counterparts, AES pro- grams in the UnitedStates have been evaluated and have been responsible for reductions in speeding andspeeding-related crashes. On issues concerning the inaccuracy of the JPJ database where some motoristswho have sold off their cars up to 10 years ago still receive summonses for offencestoday, representatives of both companies emphasized that they are not responsible formanaging the database which is held by the JPJ. The companies are only responsible forsending out the validated summonses by registered post to motorists on behalf of theJPJ, undoubtedly saving time and money for the government agency. An important point to note is that a summons is only a notification that you arebeing accused of an offence, not that you have actually committed it. Many peoplewrongly assume that the summons is a charge and that they must settle it right away.This is not how our system works and there are provisions for you to defend yourself ifyou believe you did not commit the offence but you must go to a specified court and doso within the stipulated period. The blacklisting issue has been controversial because theaction can only be taken if you are found guilty. While the case is pending or there hasbeen no court decision, you are supposed to remain innocent so how can you be deniedthe right to renew your licence or road tax? Having offences recorded by a camera reduces a lot of argument and benefitsmotorists as well as the enforcement agencies. It‟s hard to argue that you were not doing PAGE 4 OF 15
  5. 5. Automated Enforcement System (AES)120 km/h when the data shows that speed though with some speed cameras which use anarrow beam, the challenge can be posed that the beam hit a car that was speeding pastyou or behind you. But at least you will be able to get off if the image shows a modifiedSatria with your number plate and your car is a stock Kancil. The nature of the violation and penalty can have a substantial influence on therequirements of field operations, violation notice processing, and adjudication. Ifviolations are considered point offenses, the driver of the vehicle must be identified inthe AES violation photo. This normally requires multiple cameras and additional officelabor, and increases the burden of proof upon the jurisdiction to prove that an allegedviolator is guilty. A vehicle owner charged with a violation may rebut the charge bystating that he or she was not the driver at the time of the violation. If violations areconsidered non- point offenses, driver identification are typically not required, and thepenalty for a violation is a fine is- sued to the vehicle‟s registered owner. The adjudication process for non-point offenses is typically equivalent to theprocess used for non-moving violations such as parking tickets. AES programs thatrequire driver identification do not necessarily have to issue both fines and licensesanctions. In jurisdictions in Colorado that use AES, drivers are identified, but the onlypenalty for a violation is a fine. Driver identification allows AES to function more liketraditional enforcement methods. Driver identification ensures that the driver of thevehicle at the time of the violation is held liable for the violation. Driver identification isnecessary to impose license demerits or points. Advantage of driver identification and license sanctions is perceived credibility.Driver identification may be viewed as fairer as and more safety-oriented than vehicleidentification. Driver identification ensures that the actual driver of the vehicle is heldresponsible. License sanctions emphasize that penalties are meant to deter speedingrather than raise revenue. Although driver identification has many advantages, there aresome limitations. First, it might be difficult to issue a citation to someone driving avehicle not registered in that driver‟s name. Some jurisdictions that require driveridentification cannot require registered vehicle owners to identify the driver at the timeof the violation, if the driver was someone other than the registered owner. This canestablish a system of unequal treatment where some drivers are essentially impervious PAGE 5 OF 15
  6. 6. Automated Enforcement System (AES)to AES. Although it might not be feasible to pursue all violators, there are proceduresthat can help to minimize the number of dismissed violations. There are over 1,300 locations in Peninsular and East Malaysia (with 17 inLabuan as well) which have been chosen as they are „black spots‟ where there are highaccident rates, based on studies made by MIROS. Of these, 831 are fixed sites where thecameras will be operating 24 hours daily. Selangor has the highest number of fixed sites(112) for speed cameras while Johor has the highest number (32) of red light cameras.Whether there will be cameras at all 831 sites is uncertain but it is possible that should alocation be found to have a reduced incidence of accidents after some time, then it maybe dropped from the list and likewise, if a new location becomes a „black spot‟, it willbe introduced to the list and a camera set up. Besides the fixed locations, the remainder are locations where mobile units willbe set up. This will be like the normal speed trap setting where there will be anenforcement officer and personnel from the companies present. The mobile units are thesame cameras but run on batteries which can last for about 8 hours.The 11 megapixelcameras supplied by the two companies have different technologies but can capture 6sequential images at high speed with very high resolution. Contrary to what somepeople have suspected, it was confirmed by a representative of one of the companiesthat the resolution is not so great that details on the road tax disc can be read in order tocompare the registration number to that on the vehicle number plate. . However, it is possible to identify faces of people in the car which can alsosupport any case challenged by an owner who may claim he was not at the spot wherethe alleged offence was committed. For legal reasons, all cameras will be calibrated foraccuracy every eight months using a golden standard which is tested by SIRIM. The cameras use radar technology which has a broader spread compared to anarrow laser beam that is used by many speed detectors. They point at the road to coverall lanes (up to the maximum width of Malaysian highways) and extend up to 80 metresaway from the camera. As they are not triggered by humans, accuracy is much greaterand the precise vehicle which has been targeted is identified, so there won‟t be disputesas to which vehicle was exceeding the limit. The red light cameras will be set up at PAGE 6 OF 15
  7. 7. Automated Enforcement System (AES)junctions and record a car driving across the intersection when the light is red. There isapparently the capability to record video as well though it is not known if this will alsobe used. In cases where the traffic is controlled by a policeman, the cameras can beswitched off and assurance was given than should the traffic light be fault – like beingstuck on red for 10 minutes – the cameras will not record vehicles that start to moveacross the junction. All images are sent back to the companies in real-time via a telecommunicationsnetwork and are stored under strict security. Assurance was given that it would be verydifficult for deletion of images either accidentally or deliberately because of the variouslevels of access and logging of all activities. The security measures in this area are saidto be up to global standards for the industry. As mentioned earlier, the AES is a JPJinitiative to reduce accidents and the traffic police are not using it. Therefore, they willcontinue to have their own operations which could be within the same area as the AEScamera, if they wish to do so. Their equipment however is still more dependent onhuman control and decision-making. Incidentally, about 2 kms before the AES camera,there will be a signboard warning motorists of the camera. There are two types of AES, fixed and mobile AES systems that can betransported to conduct AES in any geometrically feasible location. Most mobile AESunits are based in vans or other vehicles that contain a full suite of system components.This setup allows operators to easily transport all equipment and provides a safe andcomfortable environment for the operator. An alternative is to use ground-based mobileAES equipment that is transported in a vehicle, but removed and set up on the roadsideto operate. Ground-based systems might be more feasible at locations where there is notenough room to safely park a vehicle or where both front and rear photographs ofoffending vehicles are required. An operator is typically present to monitor a mobileAES unit while it operates and often keeps a log of information about the session andrecorded violations. Fixed AES systems are installed at locations where they can operate for up to 24hours per day with- out an operator present. Fixed units are typically pole-mounted onthe roadside and can use either above-ground or in-ground speed-measuring equipment.Some fixed units are installed at intersections to conduct both AES and red light camera PAGE 7 OF 15
  8. 8. Automated Enforcement System (AES)enforcement simultaneously. A fixed AES system can provide a very substantialdeterrent effect, but the effect is generally restricted to a limited area upstream anddownstream of the unit. Fixed units should only be installed at locations wheredangerous speeding and speeding-related crashes are especially frequent, and locationswhere it is unsafe or infeasible to use a mobile unit. Public reaction to fixed AES may be more negative than reaction to mobileAES. First, fixed units are often derided as “speed traps” or “revenue machines”installed in locations where speed limits are perceived to be unreasonably low. In thesecases it is important to explain the site selection process and support site selection withsafety statistics. Field operations oversight by a human operator during enforcement canlead to charges that alleged violators are unable to “face their accuser” at a hearing. Courts typically have not found this charge to be valid, given that a reliableprocess produced the photographic evidence. However, not all courts accept this so-called “silent witness” theory of photo- graphic evidence (Alcee et al., 1992). Toconfirm the accuracy of fixed AES speed measurements, law enforcement agenciesoften place hash marks on the pavement within the camera‟s field of view and take twopictures of each violation, separated by a set amount of time. The vehicle‟s approximatespeed can be determined by measuring the distance it travelled in the time between thetwo photos. The AES has been proven to do so in place like UK where use of AES resultedin a 42% decrease in deaths and serious injuries within 4 years. Malaysia‟s accident rateis 4 persons/10,000 vehicles and the aim is to reduce this to 2 persons/10,000 vehicle.The problem is that the statistics also include motorcycles which form a substantialpercentage of the accidents compared to cars and accidents with motorcycles occuralmost anywhere. Therefore focus should be more on this segment and perhaps moreAES cameras should be allocated to traffic light zones. A speed survey should be conducted at each candidate site to assess speeds andthe potential of various countermeasures to mitigate excessive speeds. If possible, thesurvey should be con- ducted by engineers or an independent agency. Data should beanalysed to determine the factors associated with the safety problem, and enforcement PAGE 8 OF 15
  9. 9. Automated Enforcement System (AES)should be adapted according to these factors. For example, if speeding-related crashesoccur primarily during evening rush hour, then enforcement can be focused on thatparticular time of day. If countermeasures other than AES are deemed more appropriateand feasible, they should be implemented and the site should be re-evaluated beforeimplementing AES. It is also important to consider whether the geometry of the roadway supportsthe feasibility of AES at each candidate site. There must be enough space on theroadside to place the AES equipment with- out creating a safety hazard for equipmentoperators or motorists. Power must be available to AES units that are not self-powered.The lines-of-sight for speed-measuring equipment and cameras must be uninterrupted.Distances and angles between the AES unit and observed vehicles must be appropriateto ensure accurate speed measurement and clear photographs. Ideally, traffic engineersshould evaluate each potential site to ensure that AES will not have any adverse effectson safety. In some cases, fixed AES units might be able to operate in locations whereuse of mobile units is infeasible. AES equipment should be tested at each potential siteto ensure that data is not compromised by electromagnetic interference, backgroundmotion, or other factors. Distribution of enforcement between various road types can help to maximizesafety benefits through- out the jurisdiction, but there are important factors to considerfor each road type. For example in US, school zones are frequently selected as locationsfor AES. In a national survey, Royal (2003) found that 78 per cent of participantsbelieved that it is appropriate to use AES in school zones. This high level of supportmakes school zone enforcement a good way to introduce AES in a jurisdiction. Whenconducting AES in school zones, it is important to clearly display the school zone speedlimit and the hours during which it applies. Focused enforcement when classes resumeafter summer and winter breaks combined with a child safety campaign may be aneffective way to modify driver behaviour in school zones. Because school zonesencompass a small percentage of a jurisdiction‟s roadways, it is easy to sustain areasonably high level of enforcement with a small number of AES units. Residential neighbourhoods typically have low traffic volumes and low speedlimits. AES should only be conducted at locations where speeding creates a safety PAGE 9 OF 15
  10. 10. Automated Enforcement System (AES)problem or has a negative impact on quality of life, but within this constraint, publicdemand for speed management can influence site selection. It is important to havesupport from the residents of neighbourhoods where AES is used. For example, SanJose, California, established an effective model for conducting enforcement inresidential areas; where AES is only conducted in neighbourhoods if a majority ofresidents or a neighbourhood association requests it. After AES is requested by aneighbourhood, a speed study is conducted to confirm that the speeding problemwarrants enforcement. This model has generated strong public support for the AESprogram. Major roads or arterials are often among the most dangerous roads in ajurisdiction, with high traffic volumes, high traffic speeds, and complex roadwaygeometries and traffic patterns. Nationally, major roads account for many morespeeding-related fatalities than any other roadway functional class. AES can have asignificant impact on major roads, but factors such as multiple lanes of traffic and closeproximity of vehicles can make it more difficult for AES to single out speedingvehicles. Highway work zones often feature complex and transitory traffic patterns thatincrease the level of risk for motorists and work crews. Voluntary compliance withreduced work zone speed limits is often low. AES may be especially helpful in workzones because it can be used in places where traditional en- forcemeat methods areinfeasible or hazardous. Precise documentation of site features, such as location, numberof lanes, presence of work crews, and speed limit are essential because of the transitorynature of work zones. Law enforcement presence in work zones has long beenrecognized as one of the most effective speed reduction methods available totransportation officials. Limited-access highways provide the highest level of service at the greatestspeed for the longest un- interrupted distance, with some degree of access control.Nationally, the fewest number of speeding- related crashes occur on this class of road.Special care must be taken before implementing AES on these roadways. As anexample, an AES freeway program in Scottsdale, Arizona, led to a mean speeddecreases of more than 9 mph, a 50-percent reduction in crashes, and a 40-percent PAGE 10 OF 15
  11. 11. Automated Enforcement System (AES)reduction in crash-related injuries. Limited access highways also often carry asubstantial number of out-of-town motorists who are less likely to be aware of the useof AES, and therefore harder to deter. Substantial signage might be necessary to warnall drivers on limited-access highways of the presence of AES. A feasibility study bythe Arizona Department of Transportation identified many of the implementation issuesrelated to freeway AES. To achieve speeding deterrence, the public must be aware of the AES programand how it works. The public should be educated about the speeding problem and how itaffects their community. Current efforts in traditional enforcement should behighlighted, including an explanation of how AES will supplement the effort to makethe community safer, decreases traffic congestion, and improve quality of life. Anexplanation of how the technology functions, successes in other communities, and howit is implemented should be included. The number of enforcement units in use, whether they are mobile or fixed, thetypes of sites that are enforceable, and the total number of enforceable sites should beexplained. It is also possible to make public the specific locations of sites, though itwould be unwise to reveal the schedule in advance of their deployment. Identifying allpotential locations may have a positive effect on deterrence at problem locations ifdrivers know where enforcement is frequently located. Revealing enforcement locationsalso contributes to the goal of program transparency and might appeases some critics ofthe program, though public awareness of enforceable sites may reduce the generaldeterrent effect of AES. It is also important to inform the public about the procedures for violationprocessing, payment, and adjudication. It is not necessary to reveal exactly what speedthreshold is used to define a violation, but drivers should be made aware that theprogram targets dangerous speeding and they will not be ticketed by AES for traveling 2or 3 mph above the limit. It is not appropriate to tell drivers that the threshold is in placeto allow for inaccuracy of measurement, because a threshold of 6 or 11 mph above thespeed limit is substantially greater than the small potential inaccuracy of speedmeasurement equipment. The public should be made aware of the penalties for AESviolations and their rights and options if they receive a violation notice. PAGE 11 OF 15
  12. 12. Automated Enforcement System (AES) If the purpose of promoting awareness is to explain what the AES program is,then the purpose of promoting acceptance is to explain why the program is worthwhile.To promote acceptance of the AES program, it is important to educate the public aboutthe general dangers of speeding and the specific speeding-related safety problem overalland at specific locations in the jurisdiction. Despite known links between speeding,crash likelihood, and crash severity, many people believe they are capable of speedingsafely. It is also difficult to dissuade people from speeding because speeding has thebenefit of reducing travel time. Even though AES can deter speeding among those whobelieve that speeding is safe and acceptable, a goal of the marketing and media effortshould be to influence people to change their attitudes toward speeding so that speedingis seen as unsafe and socially unacceptable. Program transparency is critical to gain the support of the public. Programspokespersons must be able to explain why every decision was made and how it benefitspublic safety. For instance, it is important to explain the site selection process andcriteria for enforcement, the rationale behind contract arrangements with the vendor, thereasons that AES units operate overtly or covertly, the accuracy and reliability ofviolation detection equipment, the quality control measures to ensure that recordedviolations are valid, and so forth. If the jurisdiction is perceived as being secretive ordisengaged, people are likely to become distrustful of the program‟s intentions andrationales. To help the public follow the AES start up process, program managers candistribute the minutes of relevant meetings, post information on a community Web site,or start a mailing list to send updates to interested individuals. Media coverage is a very effective way to provide information to the public atno cost to the jurisdiction. Media interest in AES is likely to be high during the monthsbefore and after AES is implemented. Local television, radio, and print media outletswill want to cover the program, so it is important to facilitate their efforts. Press releasesor video releases can be used to provide important information to the media and toannounce program milestones or changes. Program managers or other representativesshould be available for interviews, system demonstrations, and enforcement ride longs.Media relations should be centrally coordinated to ensure that the program‟s operationsand strategic vision are described accurately and consistently. PAGE 12 OF 15
  13. 13. Automated Enforcement System (AES) Responsiveness to media inquiries is critical. Reporters may want traffic safetystatistics, AES program reports, rationales for particular decisions, and otherinformation, so it is important to make this information available. Slow orunsatisfactory responses to queries might be viewed negatively by the media. Duringcontact with the media it is important to continually emphasize the safety-orientedphilosophy and goals of the program. It is also important to remember that mediacoverage and public opinion tend to influence one another. In other words, positivemedia coverage can lead to positive public opinion and positive public opinion can leadto positive media coverage. An effective marketing and media campaign is critical to the success of a newAES program, but it is important to maintain these efforts as the program matures.When the AES program is established and public awareness and acceptance are atdesirable levels, it is possible to scale down marketing and media efforts. Broad,expensive advertising such as television, radio, and print ads can be ceased, andcommunication efforts can be focused on inexpensive methods and specific groups.Student drivers should be a particular focus of on-going marketing and media becausethey are most likely to be unfamiliar with AES and they are also at especially high riskfor speeding-related crashes. The department of motor vehicles should also be a focus of marketing and mediabecause it serves many new drivers and people who are new to the jurisdiction. Whenthere are important changes to program operations, program milestones are reached, ornew findings regarding program effective- ness, press releases and media contactsshould be used to spread the word. A community Web site is also an excellent place tomaintain marketing and media materials and report current events at very little expenseto the jurisdiction. Before the AES program goes into operation, a demonstration should beconducted to ensure that all system components are functioning properly and all staff is followingprocedures. Staffing should be reevaluated to ensure that there are enough employees tohandle the workload that the program will generate. PAGE 13 OF 15
  14. 14. Automated Enforcement System (AES) The program may begin with a warning period, during which the program is infull operation but violations do not carry fines or license sanctions. An advantage of awarning period is that managers can evaluate the program and correct problems beforepenalties are assessed. It also functions as an additional notice to motorists that AES isbeginning and individuals who receive warning notices can modify their behaviourbefore actual ticketing begins. A disadvantage is that a warning period may en- couragesome drivers to speed intentionally because they know there will be no penalties or toget a warning notice as a “souvenir.” This behaviour may be especially likely to occur if AES is conducted by fixedunits that function without an operator present. To discourage such behaviour, violationnotices sent during the warning period should not include photographs and it should bemade clear to motorists that reckless behaviours recorded by AES units will beprosecuted. If used, a warning period should not exceed one month. A warning periodmay also be used at sites where the speed limit has recently decreased or increased.Whether or not a warning period is used, other methods, such as speed trailers andincreased traditional enforcement, may be used prior to full implementation to mitigatespeeding. The enforcement speed threshold is the lowest speed at which a violation will berecorded at a particular site. The enforcement speed threshold should be the same that isused for traditional speed enforcement, and should be at the point of exceedingreasonable and prudent speeds. Many jurisdictions begin enforcement at speeds 11 mphabove the speed limit. This threshold is generally considered appropriate because itensures that enforcement will only affect those who drive substantially faster than thespeed limit, particularly where the speed limit was not established through a recentengineering study. Higher enforcement thresholds are not appropriate because they can lead to evengreater disregard for the speed limit. Lower enforcement thresholds are moreappropriate in areaswith low speed limits, especially where pedestrians and childrenmight be present, such as residential areas, schools, playgrounds, and park areas, andwhere the speed limit was set according to proper engineering procedures. The PAGE 14 OF 15
  15. 15. Automated Enforcement System (AES)enforcement speed threshold set in these areas should be no less than6 mph above thespeed limit. Program managers must decide whether to reveal enforcement thresholds to thepublic. Revealing enforcement thresholds is likely to yield a positive public reaction andmight help to reduce speed variance at enforced sites. However, it might also be viewedas a tacit endorsement of a limited degree of speeding. If enforcement thresholds are notrevealed, it is important to inform the public that there is some threshold, and that theywill not normally be cited for driving just 2 or 3 mph above the speed limit. The other thing is that the AES will certainly help identify many offenders andgenerate a huge number of summonses. Unlike earlier years when film was used torecord images and enforcement agencies found that the cost of film and processingbecame ridiculously high, digital imagery is virtually „cost-free‟, regardless of howmany images are taken. Still, the key point is whether the JPJ will be able to develop alegally-acceptable approach to force motorists to settle their summonses or simply findthat they start having even more outstanding summonses. PAGE 15 OF 15

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