Metastasis in Pancreatic CancerPresentation Transcript
Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Zuleika Velázquez Ortiz Scientific Literature and Bibliography BIOL 3095
The Pancreas Gland of approximately 12 to 15 cm long Located transversely in the cavity of the stomach.From the Johns Hopkins Gastroenterology andHepatology ResourceCenter (www.hopkins-gi.org). Copyright 2006 byJohns HopkinsUniversity.
Exocrine Function• Development of hormones and enzymes• Digestion Process http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/rdroual/C ourse%20Materials/Physiology%20101/ Chapter%20Notes/Fall%202011/chapter_ 6%20Fall%202011.htm http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v 2/n12/fig_tab/nrc949_F1.html
Endocrine Function• In Islet of Langerhans Insulin Glucagon http://pancreaticcanceraction.org/facts- figures/pancreatic-neuroendocrine- tumours/ http://www.nature.com/nrc/jour nal/v2/n12/fig_tab/nrc949_F1.h tml
What is Pancreatic Cancer?Tumor formation due to uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells (cancerous cells) somewhere in the pancreas.The fourth leading cause of deathThis represents 6% of all cancers in the world (Siegel 2012).
Factors The exact cause is unknown until now 1. Viruses 2. Carcinogens 3. Genetic mutation 4. Family history
Symptoms• Little expression of symptoms 1. stomach pain 2. vomiting 3. fatigue 4. dyspepsia 5. weight loss 6. nausea 7. yellowish skin tone.
Endocrine TumorAlso called neuroendocrine tumorsGroup of homologous neoplasms originated from cell islets or endocrine.
Exocrine TumorHighest incidence of pancreatic cancers.Approximately 95% of the cases of pancreatic cancerAlso called adenocarcinoma because they are originated at the gland cells.
Metastasis Cancer cells (tumor) continue to separate and disperse quickly.Settling in another organ or tissue to form growth.Lungs and Liver are the most characteristic place for metastasis.
Yachida S, Jones S, Bozic I, Antal T, LearyR, Fu B, Kamiyama M, Hruban RH,Eshleman JR, Nowak MA et al. 2010.Distant metastasis occurs late during thegenetic evolution of pancreatic cancer.Nature. 467(7319):1114-1117.DOI:10.1038/nature09515.
Liver Stomach ↑ PancreasFrom the Johns Hopkins Gastroenterology and Hepatology ResourceCenter (www.hopkins-gi.org). Copyright 2006 by Johns HopkinsUniversity.
Metastasis• The metastasis caused the 90% of death in pancreatic cancer.• The cancer cells in metastasis are unstoppable.• Most of the patients reject the therapies when the metastasis is present.
• At stage IV, the disease is forecast a 1.8% relative living at 5 years (Pancreatic Cancer…2012).• Stage IV Cancer cells have attained distant places besides the pancreas (Metastasis) (Dunphy 2008).
StagesStages T Classification N Classification M Classification 0 Carcinoma in situ No spread to regional lymph Metastasis is not distant Tis node M0 N0 IA Tumor in the pancreas with no longer than 2cm N0 M0 T1 IB Tumor in the pancreas longer than 2cm N0 M0 T2 IIA Tumor extends outside the pancreas but not to major blood N0 M0 vessels or nerves. T3 IIB T1 Spread to regional lymph node T2 N1 M0 T3 III Tumor extends outside the pancreas to major blood vessels N1 M0 or nerves. T4 IV Any T Any N Distant Metastasis M1
Studies of Metastasis• Some Scientifics attribute the metastasis process to gen mutations Kras Tumor suppressor p16
GFP Green Fluorescence Protein expression in a mouse model to identify the tumor cellsTran HS, Kaushal S, Menen RS, Metildi CA, Lee C, Snyder CS,Talamini MA, Hoffman RM, Bouvet M. 2011. Submillimeter-Resolution Fluorescence Laparoscopy of Pancreatic Cancer in aCarcinomatosis Mouse Model Visualizes Metastases Not Seen withStandard Laparoscopy. J. of Laparoendoscopic & A. SurgicalTechniques. 21(6):485-489. DOI: 10.1089/lap.2011.0181
ConclusionPancreatic cancer is a disease that has a mortality rate almost equal to its incidenceMetastasis remains one of the biggest challenges for researchers.Metastasis is found to be advanced at the time of its localization.
ConclusionHighly encourage to develop better research for its early detection in the body.That could help in making or to better any healing methods.
References• American Cancer Society [Internet]. 2012. Atlanta (GA): American Cancer Society; [revised 2012 Oct 16; cited 2012 Nov 24] Available in: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-what-is-cancer• Dunphy EP. 2008. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review and Update. C.J. of Oncology Nursing. 12(5):735- 741.• Massagué J. 2009. Evolución y metástasis del cáncer. SEBBM. 20(160):22-25.• Nguyen DX, Bos PD, Massagué J. 2009. Metastasis: from dissemination to organ-specific colonization. Nature. 9(4)-274-284. DOI:10.1038/nrc2622.• Pancreatic Cancer Action Network [Internet]. Manhattan Beach (CA): Pancreatic Cancer Action Network; [citated 2012 Nov 28]. Available in: http://www.pancan.org/section_facing_pancreatic_cancer/learn_about_pan_cancer/types_of_pancrea tic_cancer/endocrine.php• Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. 2012. Cancer Statistics, 2012. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 62(1):10-29. DOI: 10.3322/caac.20138.• Tran HS, Kaushal S, Menen RS, Metildi CA, Lee C, Snyder CS, Talamini MA, Hoffman RM, Bouvet M. 2011. Submillimeter-Resolution Fluorescence Laparoscopy of Pancreatic Cancer in a Carcinomatosis Mouse Model Visualizes Metastases Not Seen with Standard Laparoscopy. J. of Laparoendoscopic & A. Surgical Techniques. 21(6):485-489. DOI: 10.1089/lap.2011.0181• Yachida S, Jones S, Bozic I, Antal T, Leary R, Fu B, Kamiyama M, Hruban RH, Eshleman JR, Nowak MA et al. 2010. Distant metastasis occurs late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer. Nature. 467(7319):1114-1117. DOI:10.1038/nature09515.