Dry land forest and woodlands


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Enhancing the importance of lowland forests and woodlands for livelihoods and environmental resilience: bridging the research-development divide

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Dry land forest and woodlands

  1. 1. Enhancing the importance of lowland forests and woodlands for livelihoods and environmental resilience: bridging the research-development divide Experience sharing forum on food security and agricultural development in the lowlands, December 6 -7, 2012, Dire Dawa Habtemariam Kassa CIFOR-Ethiopia Office
  2. 2. Presentation outline  Introducing CIFOR  Importance of forests and woodlands in lowland areas  Good experience of working with national partners in identifying and addressing knowledge gaps to sustainably manage dry forests  Challenges (research topics) identified as important  Some of research results on topics jointly identified  Concluding remarks
  3. 3. 1. CIFOR - mandate and focus  CIFOR works to generate research based evidence to inform decision making and influence policy and practice affecting tropical forests and forest dependent communities  Focus in ESA (including Ethiopia) has mainly been on dry forests – to bring them onto research and development agenda  In most of its work, CIFOR attempts to link its research to education, extension, and policy making and works with national partners to also build national capacity
  4. 4. 2. Importance of forests &woodlands in low lands  Dominant forms of vegetation where deforestation is high and       most of Ethiopia’s above ground carbon is Over 10 million people and their livestock depend on them Contribute to local and national economies – Ethiopia exports about 4500 Mt of gums and resins/year Are in areas where climate change is likely to have major impacts (as are prone to both drought and flooding) Legal, policy, and institutional aspects of governing community access to forests are rapidly evolving – individualization of the commons and sedentary livelihoods are taking place Major land use change & development interventions take place Are poorly studied & hence greater need for research to inform policy and practice
  5. 5. Above Ground Biomass (Based on global biomass map from Baccini , 2012) Note that most of the nations carbon is in the lowlands.
  6. 6. Figure . Global distribution of trees (percentage tree s in forests green) and on farm (red) Source: Composite of FAO’s 2005 Global Forest Resources Assessment and data from the World Agroforestry Centre. Zomer, R.J. et al. 2009. Trees on farm: analysis of global extent and geographical patterns of agroforestry. ICRAF Working Paper No 89. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi
  7. 7. 3 Areas of knowledge gaps – jointly identified with NARES and the private sector  The extent of land use change and major drivers  Dependence of various segments of the population on forests  Options to increase the types, volume and quality of forest products marketed and to improving efficiency of marketing channels for producers  The siliviculture of key dry land tree species and sustainable management options of forests for multiple objectives  Whether and how carbon trade may constitute an other options to add economic value to the dry forests  Opportunities and challenges to maximize synergy and minimize trade-offs between economic development and conservation goals HOW TO CREATE ADDITIONAL ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR PEOPLE AND THE COUNTRY TO BETTER MANAGE FORESTS AND WOODLANDS IN LOWLAND AREAS?
  8. 8. 4. Some research findings to share in response to the info needs raised by national partners
  9. 9. 4.1. People, particularly the poor depend on dry forest products– for about 20% of their cash income Crop 4.23 2.34 24.4 8.94 6 5.71 13.27 5.63 0.6 Livestock Forest Forest Off-farm 16.32 21.3 48.62 14.71 20.49 Asgedetsimbla 47.5 Yabello 4 25 Aid Quara Wealth classes POOR 20 Income contribution (%) 65.71 MEDIUM RICH 15 10 5 21.9 9.88 4.68 12.89 11.9 7.32 12.4 7.95 5.13 Yabello Asgedetsimbla Quara 0 Note – If the income from livestock (that depend on woodlands for grazing is added, then income forests and woodlands for communities will be much higher Implications: - Policies and strategies that aim at improving the welfare of dry land communities should give attention to the contribution of forest to local livelihoods, especially for the poor
  10. 10. 4.2 Major land use change is taking place – the case of Metema woreda •Agricultural land increased from 8% in 1972 to 25% in 2007; while the forest cover declined from 74% in 1972 to 54% in 2007. •Visible increase in income of farmers over time observed.  Managing and optimizing land use changes at landscape level for better economic and ecological outcomes is critically important
  11. 11. 4.3 The future of frankincense production is grim  Forest area is shrinking  Most forests under concessions are reportedly showing declining trend in productivity  Boswellia trees suffer from fungal attack, insect and parasitic plants infestations  Lack of recruitment from natural regeneration coupled with nearly zero survival rate of planted seedlings are core challenges of sustaining frankincense production  MoA is developing a guideline to inform farmers and the private sector on managing forests and the product Unless we join hands to identify and address recruitment challenges, getting marketable volume of frankincense will simply be less likely.  Options for co-existence of forests and agriculture (crop and livestock need to be found at landscape level)
  12. 12. Yield and income of frankincense and Gum Arabic (Sources: Natural Gum Processing and Marketing Enterprise, 2012) Year Kafta-Humera Gondar Assosa Yield (Tons) Income (Million Birr) Yield (Tons) Income (Million Birr) Yield (Tons) Income (Million Birr) 1999 772.72 1.77 151.97 0.35 --- --- 2000 856.18 3.73 267.32 1.16 --- --- 2001 878.30 4.56 439.18 2.28 --- --- 2002 529.29 2.85 575.62 3.10 --- --- 2003 229.74 1.81 654.60 5.15 --- --- 2004 149.73 0.96 835.53 5.35 --- --- 2005 111.44 0.83 686.02 5.14 3.04 0.02 2006 28.35 0.25 360.61 2.29 1.68 0.01 2007 39.91 0.39 714.25 3.90 79.01 0.43 2008 147.46 1.37 613.60 4.31 110.22 0.86 2009 201.61 3.51 557.01 10.41 75.93 1.38 2010 205.64 5.70 764.28 21.89 290.87 7.13 2011 210.16 7.93 243.74 6.50 327.99 12.02
  13. 13. 4.4 The current grades of frankincense for the export market need to be revisited  Current grading standards do not have scientific basis with regard to essential oils - do not vary in their contents  The harvest-resins of Boswellia species from Borena and Ogaden, exhibit same even better quality frankincense for similar use & can be processed for international market.  There is a room to address management challenges and be able to export frankincense from southern Ethiopia for export  The State and non-state actors can play important roles in translating these research results to redefining grades and improving management options to be able to export also other types of frankincense will contribute to increasing farm gate price and hence incentives to responsibly manage dry forest and woodlands.
  14. 14. 4.5 The value chain of gums and resins marketing are complex and less efficient to producers  The channels are many (8 in northern Ethiopia) and complex indicating     huge inefficiency for producers The current marketing system is not supported by quality standards which consider product quality and sustainability of the resource There is uneven distribution of benefit among the value chain actors Poorly controlled access, production and marketing practices prevail Strengthening the whole value chain (systemic competitiveness) and improving governance is key to improving export performance  Again development agencies and donors can assist communities to improve access to forests and to put in place SFM and rewarding marketing practices  Better governance of access to resources and actors in the marketing channel will help the export market (e.g. Forest products certification)
  15. 15. 4.6 Tree cover & nutritional security • There is a statistically significant non-linear relationship between % tree cover and preferred DDS measure peaking at 61%. • between forest cover and fruit and veggie consn which peaks at about 48% tree cover Dietary Diversity Score & Tree Cover 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 Dietary Diversity 0.02 0.01 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Implications – further understanding and enhancement the direct (through food) and indirect (e.g. cash, feed) role of forests and woodlands in the lowlands to food and nutrition security
  16. 16. 5 Conclusions  Dry forests & woodlands have important roles to play in local     livelihoods, national economies & in ecological resilience. These should be recognized & taken into account in development planning and in identifying intervention options in the lowlands. Economic drives are resulting in major land use changes and in some cases in livelihood diversifications. The development and conservation objectives need to be managed wisely (to avoid mal adaptation in the long run in these ecologically fragile areas) Joining hands of all actors in the policy/planning, research/education & extension/development is necessary to come up with a well thought vision and strategy for low land areas development in the short and long term. We could begin this by bridging the research-development divide to inform decision making to better manage land use & livelihood changes in lowland areas, & options for co-existence of forests and farming (crop and livestock) at landscape level. CIFOR is very much ready and willing to contribute and also learn from by being part of such initiatives
  17. 17. I thank you!
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