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- 1. Lecture 10: Graph Data Structures Steven SkienaDepartment of Computer Science State University of New York Stony Brook, NY 11794–4400http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/∼skiena
- 2. Sort YourselvesSort yourselves in alphabetical order so I can return themidterms efﬁciently!
- 3. GraphsGraphs are one of the unifying themes of computer science.A graph G = (V, E) is deﬁned by a set of vertices V , anda set of edges E consisting of ordered or unordered pairs ofvertices from V .
- 4. Road NetworksIn modeling a road network, the vertices may represent thecities or junctions, certain pairs of which are connected byroads/edges. Stony Brook Green Port Orient Point vertices - cities Riverhead edges - roads Shelter Island Montauk Islip Sag Harbor
- 5. Electronic CircuitsIn an electronic circuit, with junctions as vertices ascomponents as edges. vertices: junctions edges: components
- 6. Flavors of GraphsThe ﬁrst step in any graph problem is determining whichﬂavor of graph you are dealing with.Learning to talk the talk is an important part of walking thewalk.The ﬂavor of graph has a big impact on which algorithms areappropriate and efﬁcient.
- 7. Directed vs. Undirected GraphsA graph G = (V, E) is undirected if edge (x, y) ∈ E impliesthat (y, x) is also in E. undirected directedRoad networks between cities are typically undirected.Street networks within cities are almost always directedbecause of one-way streets.Most graphs of graph-theoretic interest are undirected.
- 8. Weighted vs. Unweighted GraphsIn weighted graphs, each edge (or vertex) of G is assigned anumerical value, or weight. 5 7 2 3 9 3 5 4 7 12 unweighted weightedThe edges of a road network graph might be weighted withtheir length, drive-time or speed limit.In unweighted graphs, there is no cost distinction betweenvarious edges and vertices.
- 9. Simple vs. Non-simple GraphsCertain types of edges complicate the task of working withgraphs. A self-loop is an edge (x, x) involving only onevertex.An edge (x, y) is a multi-edge if it occurs more than once inthe graph. simple non−simpleAny graph which avoids these structures is called simple.
- 10. Sparse vs. Dense GraphsGraphs are sparse when only a small fraction of the possiblenumber of vertex pairs actually have edges deﬁned betweenthem. sparse denseGraphs are usually sparse due to application-speciﬁc con-straints. Road networks must be sparse because of roadjunctions.Typically dense graphs have a quadratic number of edgeswhile sparse graphs are linear in size.
- 11. Cyclic vs. Acyclic GraphsAn acyclic graph does not contain any cycles. Trees areconnected acyclic undirected graphs. cyclic acyclicDirected acyclic graphs are called DAGs. They arise naturallyin scheduling problems, where a directed edge (x, y) indicatesthat x must occur before y.
- 12. Implicit vs. Explicit GraphsMany graphs are not explicitly constructed and then tra-versed, but built as we use them. explicit implicitA good example arises in backtrack search.
- 13. Embedded vs. Topological GraphsA graph is embedded if the vertices and edges have beenassigned geometric positions. embedded topologicalExample: TSP or Shortest path on points in the plane.Example: Grid graphs.Example: Planar graphs.
- 14. Labeled vs. Unlabeled GraphsIn labeled graphs, each vertex is assigned a unique name oridentiﬁer to distinguish it from all other vertices. B D A E C G F unlabeled labeledAn important graph problem is isomorphism testing, deter-mining whether the topological structure of two graphs are infact identical if we ignore any labels.
- 15. The Friendship GraphConsider a graph where the vertices are people, and there isan edge between two people if and only if they are friends. Ronald Reagan Frank Sinatra George Bush Nancy Reagan Saddam HussainThis graph is well-deﬁned on any set of people: SUNY SB,New York, or the world.What questions might we ask about the friendship graph?
- 16. If I am your friend, does that mean you are myfriend?A graph is undirected if (x, y) implies (y, x). Otherwise thegraph is directed.The “heard-of” graph is directed since countless famouspeople have never heard of me!The “had-sex-with” graph is presumably undirected, since itrequires a partner.
- 17. Am I my own friend?An edge of the form (x, x) is said to be a loop.If x is y’s friend several times over, that could be modeledusing multiedges, multiple edges between the same pair ofvertices.A graph is said to be simple if it contains no loops andmultiple edges.
- 18. Am I linked by some chain of friends to thePresident?A path is a sequence of edges connecting two vertices. SinceMel Brooks is my father’s-sister’s-husband’s cousin, there isa path between me and him! Steve Dad Aunt Eve Uncle Lenny Cousin Mel
- 19. How close is my link to the President?If I were trying to impress you with how tight I am with MelBrooks, I would be much better off saying that Uncle Lennyknows him than to go into the details of how connected I amto Uncle Lenny.Thus we are often interested in the shortest path between twonodes.
- 20. Is there a path of friends between any twopeople?A graph is connected if there is a path between any twovertices.A directed graph is strongly connected if there is a directedpath between any two vertices.
- 21. Who has the most friends?The degree of a vertex is the number of edges adjacent to it.
- 22. Data Structures for Graphs: Adjacency MatrixThere are two main data structures used to represent graphs.We assume the graph G = (V, E) contains n vertices and medges.We can represent G using an n × n matrix M , where elementM [i, j] is, say, 1, if (i, j) is an edge of G, and 0 if it isn’t. Itmay use excessive space for graphs with many vertices andrelatively few edges, however.Can we save space if (1) the graph is undirected? (2) if thegraph is sparse?
- 23. Adjacency ListsAn adjacency list consists of a N × 1 array of pointers, wherethe ith element points to a linked list of the edges incident onvertex i. 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 5 3 4 3 3 2 4 4 2 5 3 5 4 5 4 1 2To test if edge (i, j) is in the graph, we search the ith list forj, which takes O(di ), where di is the degree of the ith vertex.Note that di can be much less than n when the graph is sparse.If necessary, the two copies of each edge can be linked by apointer to facilitate deletions.
- 24. Tradeoffs Between Adjacency Lists andAdjacency Matrices Comparison Winner Faster to test if (x, y) exists? matrices Faster to ﬁnd vertex degree? lists Less memory on small graphs? lists (m + n) vs. (n2) Less memory on big graphs? matrices (small win) Edge insertion or deletion? matrices O(1) Faster to traverse the graph? lists m + n vs. n2 Better for most problems? listsBoth representations are very useful and have differentproperties, although adjacency lists are probably better formost problems.
- 25. Adjancency List Representation#deﬁne MAXV 100typedef struct { int y; int weight; struct edgenode *next;} edgenode;
- 26. Edge Representationtypedef struct { edgenode *edges[MAXV+1]; int degree[MAXV+1]; int nvertices; int nedges; bool directed;} graph;The degree ﬁeld counts the number of meaningful entries forthe given vertex. An undirected edge (x, y) appears twice inany adjacency-based graph structure, once as y in x’s list, andonce as x in y’s list.
- 27. Initializing a Graphinitialize graph(graph *g, bool directed){ int i; g − > nvertices = 0; g − > nedges = 0; g − > directed = directed; for (i=1; i<=MAXV; i++) g− >degree[i] = 0; for (i=1; i<=MAXV; i++) g− >edges[i] = NULL;}
- 28. Reading a GraphA typical graph format consists of an initial line featuringthe number of vertices and edges in the graph, followed bya listing of the edges at one vertex pair per line.read graph(graph *g, bool directed){ int i; int m; int x, y; initialize graph(g, directed); scanf(”%d %d”,&(g− >nvertices),&m); for (i=1; i<=m; i++) { scanf(”%d %d”,&x,&y); insert edge(g,x,y,directed); }}
- 29. Inserting an Edgeinsert edge(graph *g, int x, int y, bool directed){ edgenode *p; p = malloc(sizeof(edgenode)); p− >weight = NULL; p− >y = y; p− >next = g− >edges[x]; g− >edges[x] = p; g− >degree[x] ++; if (directed == FALSE) insert edge(g,y,x,TRUE); else g− >nedges ++;}

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