Lecture26

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Lecture26

  1. 1. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Lecture 26: Color and Light not in textbook (sad but true)
  2. 2. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Physics of Light and Color • Light is electromagnetic radiation – Different colors correspond to different wavelengths λ – Intensity of each wavelength specified by amplitude • Visible light: 400-700nm. range VI B G Y O R (ROYGBIV)
  3. 3. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State What is Color? • Objects don’t have a “color” • Color is a perception; what we “see” • It is a function of – light source power at different wavelengths – proportion of light at each wavelength reflected off object surface – sensor response to different wavelengths
  4. 4. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Sketch: Light Transport Source emits photons And then some reach an eye/camera and are measured. Photons travel in a straight line They hit an object. Some are absorbed, some bounce off in a new direction.
  5. 5. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Light Transport Source emits photons And then some reach Illumination an eye/camera and are measured. Photons travel in a straight line They hit an object. Some are absorbed, some bounce off in a new direction.
  6. 6. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Color of Light Source Relative amount of light Spectral Power Distribution: energy at each wavelength Amplitude Wavelength λ UV Visible IR
  7. 7. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Some Light Source SPDs
  8. 8. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State
  9. 9. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Light Transport Source emits photons And then some reach an eye/camera and are measured. Photons travel in a straight line Surface Reflection They hit an object. Some are absorbed, some bounce off in a new direction.
  10. 10. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State (Ir)radiance IRRADIANCE RADIANCE Incoming Outgoing light light surface
  11. 11. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Specular Surfaces Light rays purely reflect via Snell’s law (angle of reflection = angle of incidence) Properties: Outgoing light has same SPD (“color”) as incoming light. If you stand in the right place you see a little picture of the light source reflected off the surface.
  12. 12. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Lambertian Surfaces Purely “matte” surface. Properties: Apparent brightness is proportional to cosine of angle between observer’s line of sight and the surface normal (Lambert’s Law) Outgoing light has SPD that depends on spectral albedo of surface (what wavelengths get absorbed vs transmitted).
  13. 13. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State More General Surfaces Have both a specular and diffuse reflections. embedded colorant e.g. paint
  14. 14. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Spectral Albedo Ratio of outgoing to incoming radiation at different wavelengths. (proportion of light reflected) Spectral albedo for several different leaves
  15. 15. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Spectral Radiance to a Spectral Spectral Spectral Irradiance Albedo Radiance
  16. 16. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Light Transport Source emits photons And then some reach an eye/camera and are measured. Sensor Response They hit an object. Some are absorbed, some bounce off in a new direction.
  17. 17. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Human Vision • Human eyes have 2 types of sensors: – CONES • Sensitive to colored light, but not very sensitive to dim light – RODS • (very) Sensitive to achromatic light
  18. 18. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Human Eye: Rods and Cones near fovea rods (overall intensity) near periphery S cones (blue) M cones (green) L cones (red)
  19. 19. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Putting it all Together = Color 3 cones COLOR!
  20. 20. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Simple Example Relative Spectral Power Spectral albedo Distribution of White Light of apple (red) 1 Relative power 1 albedo 0 .* 0 400 700 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Spectral Radiance 1 Relative power 0 continued 600 700 Wavelength (nm)
  21. 21. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Simple Example (continued) relative numeric Red Cones Red Cones response (area) Relative response 1 1 response .* =100 0 0 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Spectral Radiance Green Cones Green Cones .*Relative power Relative response 1 1 1 response =0 0 (no response) 600 700 0 0 Wavelength (nm) 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Blue Cones Blue Cones Relative response 1 .* 1 response =0 (no response) 0 400 500 600 700 0 400 500 600 700 looks Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) “red”
  22. 22. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Simple Example Relative Spectral Power Spectral albedo Distribution of Blue Light of apple (red) 1 Relative power 1 albedo 0 .* 0 400 500 700 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Spectral Radiance 1 Relative power (no radiance) 0 continued 400 700 Wavelength (nm)
  23. 23. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Simple Example (continued) relative numeric Red Cones Red Cones response (area) Relative response 1 1 response .* (no response) =0 0 0 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Spectral Radiance Green Cones Green Cones .*Relative power Relative response 1 1 1 response =0 (no radiance) (no response) 0 600 700 0 0 Wavelength (nm) 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Blue Cones Blue Cones Relative response 1 .* 1 response =0 (no response) 0 400 500 600 700 0 400 500 600 700 looks Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) “black”
  24. 24. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State The Abyss Clip “One-way ticket” clip from DVD
  25. 25. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State What is Going On in This Clip? Under yellowish green light, both the blue/white wire and the black/yellow wire look identical. Now for the spectral explanation of why this happens…
  26. 26. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Black/Yellow under Yellow Light yellow .* black 0 Irradiance Spectral Albedo black Radiance yellow .* yellow Irradiance Spectral Albedo yellow Radiance
  27. 27. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Blue/White under Yellow Light yellow .* blue 0 Irradiance Spectral Albedo black Radiance yellow .* white Irradiance Spectral Albedo yellow Radiance
  28. 28. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Lesson Learned Surfaces materials that look different under white light can appear identical under colored light.
  29. 29. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Metamers Definition: two different spectral reflectances that appear indistinguishable to a given observer under given illumination conditions. Illumination metamerism: two color distributions look the same under a given illumination Observer metamerism: two color distributions look the same to a given observer.
  30. 30. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Sample Metamers Metameric curves for human eye under daylight Test pattern viewed under daylight Overcoming metamerism by Overcoming metamerism by viewing having a different observer under different illumination Viewed by camera Viewed under with more sensitive incandescent red response than lighting human eyeFrom http://www.iitp.ru/projects/posters/meta/
  31. 31. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Metamers To further explore observer metamerism, see the interactive metamer applet at: http://www.cs.brown.edu/exploratories/freeSoftware/catalogs/color_theory.html
  32. 32. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Perception: Color Constancy Humans are very good at recognizing the same material colors under different illumination. Not clear how this is achieved in the general case.
  33. 33. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Why is Color Constancy Hard? Want to factor this signal into these two components. Need prior knowledge!
  34. 34. Robert CollinsCSE486, Penn State Color Blindness Normal color perception Red/Green color blindness
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