A: Activity A Tennis Croquet Volleyball Human pose forehand shot smash HO: Object O Tennis Croquet Volleyball Body parts racket mallet P1 P2 PNH: fO f1 f2 fN Intra-class variations • More than one H for each A; Image evidence • Unobserved during training.P: lP: location; θP: orientation; sP: scale.f: Shape context. [Belongie et al, 2002] Yao & Fei-Fei CVPR 2010
• Build ac5on models from web search results Ikizler-Cinbis, Cinbis, Sclaroff ICCV 2009
SLAG • Find repeated poses in a dataset Wang, Jiang, Drew, Li, Mori CVPR 2006
• Person loca5on Riding horse Reading book Taking photo given • Classify into one of 9 categories Riding bike Play instrument Running Phoning Use computer Walking
• Pose as representa5on for ac5on recogni5on – Captures much informa5on about ac5on – Invariance to clothing / ligh5ng eﬀects – Model and exemplar based representa5ons • New direc5on: Ac5on recogni5on from s5ll images – Image retrieval and analysis – An important cue for video-‐based ac5on recogni5on – Pose seems essen5al
• Describe low-‐level components – Ac5ons of individual people – Movement of pixels • Iden5fy key objects or loca5ons in scene – Buildings, roads, etc. • Model interac5ons between people, objects, and loca5ons
• Detect and track moving objects • Manually iden5fy key regions in scene – E.g. road, checkpoint • Scenarios describe rela5ve arrangements of objects in scene – E.g. proximity of car to checkpoint – No5ons of scene context Medioni, Cohen, Bremond, Hongeng, Nevatia PAMI 2001
• Detect and track players, ball • Low-‐level ac5on detectors for individual players • Hand-‐constructed Bayes net for each ac5vity – Spa5al and temporal rela5ons between low-‐ level ac5ons Intille & Bobick CVPR 1999
• Global, frame-‐level feature – Bag-‐of-‐words representa5on • Detect unusual events by clustering – Isolated, varied clusters are unusual Zhong, Shi & Visontai CVPR 2004
• Chea5ng detec5on in • Real-‐world highway dataset simulated card game – Cars pulling oﬀ road, backing up, U-‐turns
• Describe moving pixels by loca5on and mo5on direc5on – No object detec5on • Use as visual words in Latent Dirichlet Alloca5on (LDA) type model – Infer low-‐level ac5ons from words Wang, Ma, Grimson PAMI 2009 Blei, Ng, Jordan JMLR 2003
• Higher-‐level ac5vity analysis – Distribu5on of low-‐level ac5ons over en5re scene • Applica5ons – Temporal segmenta5on by ac5vity – Abnormality detec5on
0.8 A B 0.3 0.5 C • Hierarchical Dirichlet Process model – Learn number of ac5vi5es automa5cally Kuettel, Breitenstein, van Gool & Ferrari CVPR 2010
traﬃc light controlled scene • con5nuous video • annotated with states and history • 3x speed
• Consider 5me-‐delayed correla5ons between regions – Applica5ons to irregularity detec5on
y activity class h1 h2 y h action class … x1 x2 xn image x0Choi, Shahid, & Savarese VS 2009Lan, Wang, Yang, & Mori SGA 2010, NIPS 2010
• Cap5oned baseball videos in training • Build AND-‐OR graph representa5on of ac5vi5es – AND speciﬁes elements of an ac5vity that must occur – OR allows varia5on in how an element appears • Describe low-‐level tracks using STIPs • Match tracks to ac5ons in AND-‐OR graph Gupta, Srinivasan, Shi, Davis CVPR 2009
• Scene modeling to look at the big picture • Feature representa5ons – Holis5c: describe en5re scene, irrespec5ve of individuals – Local: describe ac5ons of individuals • Structure of ac5vi5es – Model free: clustering-‐type approaches – Strong models: grammars, probabilis5c models
Objects: Actions: cars, glasses, drinking, running, people, etc… door exit, car enter constraintsScene categories: Geometry: indoors, outdoors, street Street, wall, scene, etc… field, stair, etc…
Riding horse Reading book A 0.8 B 0.3 C 0.5 Riding bike Play instrument
• Standardiza5on of datasets for ﬁeld – Allow comparison of algorithms • E.g. KTH for low-‐level features, atomic ac5ons – Fair tuning of model parameters • New algorithms compare to baselines – Bag-‐of-‐words on densely sampled STIPs – Pose es5ma5on (Ferrari et al. code) – HOG SVM (Dalal & Triggs code, Ramanan code)
• Standardiza5on of datasets for ﬁeld – Don’t feel constrained by the exis5ng problem deﬁni5ons – Do make your new dataset available • Should clearly specify separate training and test sets • New algorithms compare to baselines – Do use reasonable variant of standard baselines for your new problem
• Even atomic low-‐level ac5ons are very diﬃcult to detect reliably – Far more work needed on representa5ons for the ac5on of a single person – Features – Temporal representa5on, smoothing – Tracking – …
1. Cameras and bandwidth are cheap2. Lots of training data is potentially available Training + = data Potential for the huge progress … if we can get the data
Aligned with video Describes visual Source content Subtitles Yes No DVD, InternetScripts for No Yes Internet, e.g.TV series, movies and www.dailyscript.com sport gamesPlot summaries and No Yes, sparsely Internetsynopses (e.g. IMDB) Instruction videos No Yes Internet, e.g. www.videojug.com Descriptive Video Service Yes Yes DVD, rare Word tags No Yes, sparsely Internet (e.g. YouTube) Manual labelling, ?? ?? Mechanical Turk,Human Computation ESP Game, Grad undergrad students
Open questions: How to benefit from the structure of the human body in complex situations, e.g. heavy occlusions, uniformly colored clothing? Will action classification generalize over different video domains: Movies, TV, YouTube, Surveillance video? What is the useful action vocabulary? Are we trying to solve the right problem? How can we visualize/display the results?Interesting novel directions: Use actions for recognizing functional and physical object properties, e.g. “sitable”, “eatable”, “heavy”, “solid” objects… Action prediction, i.e. what can happen in the given situation: e.g. is it dangerous to cross this road? Explore more sources of strong and weak supervision: Manual surveillance, Descriptive Video Service (DVS), YouTube tags; Transcripts of sports games; Instruction videos.
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