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Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
Chapter 9 c   engine
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Chapter 9 c engine

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  • 1. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Manufacturing > Communication > Transportation and Power > Construction > Industrial DesignPrepared by:Engineering Technology TeachersUnit Kurikulum, Jabatan Pelajaran Perak.
  • 2. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGYManufacturing > Communication > Transportation and Power > Construction > Industrial Design MAIN PAGE THE ENGINE LEARNING THE ENGINE OUTCOME PETROL ENGINE DIESEL ENGINE TURBINE GAS ENGINE ENGINE SUPPORT SYSTEM
  • 3. LEARNING OUTCOME Students should be able to:List types of engine Describe the basic operating principles ofvarious engines.Briefly explain ignition systems, fuel system,cooling systems and lubrication systems.
  • 4. ENGINE COMBUSTION INTERNAL EXTERNAL COMBUSTION COMBUSTIONPETROL ENGINE DIESEL ENGINE TURBINE GAS STEAM ENGINE Uses petrol or ENGINE Uses diesel LPG as fuel. Uses kerosene. as fuel.
  • 5. INTERNAL COMBUSTION AND EXTERNAL COMBUSTION An engine produces power through the process of fuel combustion. If the combustion occurs in the engine cylinder, then the engine is called an internal combustion engine. If the combustion occurs outside (external combustion) the enginit is known as a steam engine .
  • 6. PETROL ENGINETYPES OF PETROL ENGINESTWO STROKE ENGINESFOUR STROKE ENGINESCOMPARISON TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE
  • 7. PETROL ENGINE TYPES OF PETROL ENGINES TWO STROKE FOUR STROKE ENGINES ENGINE
  • 8. TWO STROKE ENGINE-INTAKE STROKE AND COMPRESSION STROKE The crankshaft is turned by kicking the crankshaft pedal The piston moves upwards until it reaches the fixed upper point (FUP) The fuel mixture flows into the cylinder The exhaust port is closed by piston The fuel mixture at the upper section of the cylinder is compressed High pressure is produced
  • 9. TWO STROKE ENGINE-INTAKE STROKE AND COMPRESSION STROKE At the fixed upper point (FUP), spark plugs produce sparks. Gas combusts and expands Propulsion power is produced. Piston is pushed downwards to the fixed lower point (FLP) TWO STROKE ENGINE ANIMATION (click then ‘OK’)
  • 10. FOUR STROKE ENGINE -INTAKE STROKE The crankshaft rotates The intake valve is opened piston moves down from FUP to FLP The mixture of fuel and air flows into the chamber through the carburetor or by injection
  • 11. FOUR STROKE ENGINE-COMPRESSION STROKE Intake and exhaust valve are closed. The piston moves up to FUP. Has high pressure. The fuel and air mixture continues to be compressed
  • 12. FOUR STROKE ENGINE -POWER STROKE All valves are closed. At the FUP point, spark plugs produce electrical sparks (ignition). Combustion of fuel mixture occurs in the cylinder. High pressure pushes piston downwards. Thus, the crankshaft is rotated.
  • 13. FOUR STROKE ENGINE -EXHAUST STROKE Due to the momentum of the crankshaft rotation, piston is pushed upwards. The piston reaches FUP point The exhaust valve is opened Gas is released through the exhaust assisted by the upward piston movement The stroke cycle continues until the engineFOUR STROKE ENGINE FOUR STROKE ENGINE is shut down. ANIMATION VIDEO
  • 14. FOUR STROKE ENGINE ANIMATION
  • 15. COMPARISON TWO STROKE ENGINES AND FOUR STROKE ENGINES Two stroke engine Four stroke engine Two stroke per cycle Four stroke per cycleCharacteristic Uses separate Its power is lubricants increased by adding Has one or more more cylinders. cylinder Has port but no valve
  • 16. Two stroke engine Four stroke engine Has high torque Produces high powerAdvantages Has low maintenance cost Its suitable for high powered vehicles. Produces low power Has low torque Emits turbid smoke from Has high maintenanceDisadvantages its exhaust cost Motorcycles Cars Lawnmowers LorriesUses Chain saws Four wheel drives
  • 17. DIESEL ENGINEINTRODUCTIONFOUR STROKE ENGINESEXAMPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES
  • 18. INTRODUCTION Fuel : diesel. The compression rate is higher than that of the petrol engine andat a temperature of 500°C. A diesel engine will save cost because diesel is cheap. It requires engine materials that can withstand high pressure. Example :large vehicles such as lorries, buses and bulldozers
  • 19. FOUR STROKE ENGINE -AIR INTAKE STROKE The crankshaft is turned. The exhaust valve is dosed, the intake valve is opened Air flows into the cylinder The piston moves up
  • 20. FOUR STROKE ENGINE-COMPRESSION STROKE Intake and exhaust valve are closed. The piston moves up to FUP. Has high pressure. The fuel and air mixture continues to be compressed
  • 21. FOUR STROKE ENGINE -POWER STROKE The combusting fuel mixture produces high pressure in the combustion chamber High pressure causes the piston be pushed downwards Then, crankshaft is turned
  • 22. FOUR STROKE ENGINE -EXHAUST STROKE The momentum of the crankshaft rotation pushes the piston upwards The exhaust valve is opened Gas is released through the exhaust valve The stroke cycle continues until the engine is shut down
  • 23. EXAMPLES OF DIESEL ENGINEDIESEL ENGINE DIESEL JEEP ENGINE DIESEL BUS
  • 24. TURBINE GAS ENGINEINTRODUCTIONTURBINE GAS ENGINE OPERATIONEXAMPLES OF TURBINE GAS ENGINE
  • 25. INTRODUCTION The advantage of a turbine gas engine is its ability to operate using a variety of fuel including diesel, petrol and gas. A turbine gas engine has three parts:i) A Compression impellerii) A driver turbineiii) A power turbine
  • 26. 1 2 3 4 5 2 3Clean air is let into theturbine engine through airintake manifold 1
  • 27. Clean air is sucked into the compressor 2 through the compressionimpeller. At the compression impeller, the air is spread across the wall by thecentrifugal force of the impeller blades. This causes the air pressure to be four times higher. In this chamber, there is a fuel nozzle and the ignition system. 1 2 3 4 5 2 3
  • 28. The compressed hot air pressure is let into the combustion chamber 3.1 2 3 4 5 2 3
  • 29. Fuel burns at very high temperature – 1052 °C. This highlypressured hot and expended gas turns the turbine 41 2 3 4 5 2 3
  • 30. 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 Power turbine drives and steers power gear. Hot gas is released through the power turbine and comes out as jet blast 5 that causes propulsion.
  • 31. EXAMPLES OF TURBINE ENGINES TURBINE ENGINE ANIMATION
  • 32. ENGINE SUPPORT SYSTEMIGNITION FUEL COOLING LUBRICATION SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM
  • 33. IGNITION SYSTEMMAIN PARTS AND OPERATIONFUNCTION
  • 34. IGNITION SYSTEM BATTERY IGNITION SWITCH HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE IGNITION MODUL DISTRIBUTOR SPARK PLUG CABLE SPARK PLUG
  • 35. IGNITION SYSTEM - FUNCTIONUsed on a petrol engineProduces sparks at the spark plugFunctions at the end of the compressionstroke during the fuel combustion process
  • 36. FUEL SYSTEMMAIN PARTS AND OPERATIONFUNCTION
  • 37. FUEL TANK FUEL PUMP FUEL FILTERAIR FILTER CARBURETTOR
  • 38. FUEL SYSTEM - FUNCTION Inlet flowof fuel and air Mixes air and fuel at the right ratio The way fuel is supplied to the combustion cylinder Through injection and carburettor Carburettor controls the fuel and air mixtureso that it is at the right ratio and also controlsthe speed of the engine
  • 39. COOLING SYSTEMMAIN PARTS AND OPERATIONFUNCTIONVIDEO
  • 40. COOLANT TANK WATER PUMP WATER HOSE ENGINE RADIATORCOOLING FIN FAN
  • 41. COOLING SYSTEM
  • 42. COOLING SYSTEM - FUNCTION Controls engine temperature Cooling by air or water Air cooling is suitable for small engines such as amotorcycle engine Water cooling is suitable for large engines such as carengines Water is flowing in the engine to transfer the resultant heatelsewhere Water tank (radiator) is installed in front of the enginealong with an additional fan
  • 43. LUBRICATION SYSTEMMAIN PARTS AND OPERATIONVIDEO
  • 44. LUBRICATION SYSTEM OIL RESERVOIR LUBRICATION PUMP OIL FILTER ENGINE
  • 45. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
  • 46. THE END

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