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Совместное применение ТОС и ТРИЗ. Интересный подход. Английский язык.

Совместное применение ТОС и ТРИЗ. Интересный подход. Английский язык.

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TRIZ + TOC TRIZ + TOC Presentation Transcript

  • ® TOCICO 2007 Conference TOCICO CONFERENCE 2007 * TRIZ for Jonahs Presented By: David Bergland, Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute Date: November 5, 2007 * pronounced trees © 2007 A.Y Goldratt Institute 1
  • The Need to Speed and Focus Innovation TOCICO 2007 Conference The Need for Speed: “If the 1980s were about quality and the 1990s were about reengineering, then the 2000s will be about velocity.” Business @ the Speed of Thought by Bill Gates, 1999. Theory of Constraints (TOC) Solutions are already providing SPEED WITH DIRECTION strategies for developing, producing and delivering. In this talk we will focus on improving the speed to invent. Invent Develop Produce Deliver © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 2
  • The Product Innovation Dilemma TOCICO 2007 Conference We must In order to We must Get to the Accept In order to market design quickly compromises Create a successful == Is in direct conflict with new product We must In order to We must Deliver Avoid significant design improvements compromises The injection is to use TOC with TRIZ to BREAK THE MARKET CONSTRAINT by “Getting to the market quickly” without “Accepting design compromises” © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 3
  • How can we Break the Product Innovation Dilemma TOCICO 2007 Conference We will speed and focus innovation by: • Using the Theory of Constraints (TOC) to focus the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to rapidly create new products and services that require: − Breakthrough Inventions − Unrefusable, Implementable Offers to the market (UROs) − Contradiction Analysis / Conflict Resolution − Innovative Thinking • This should help satisfy the “Need for Speed” in the first link of the chain Invent Develop Produce Deliver © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 4
  • What is TRIZ? TOCICO 2007 Conference • A name for the Russian “Theory of Inventive Problem Solving” − The letters T, R, I, Z form an English acronym for the Russian words Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch that means, “Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems” • A methodical process for knowledge-based innovation originally developed by Genrich (Henry) Altshuller (1926-1998) in the USSR − Classification of inventions was started in 1946 when he was employed in the patent department of the Soviet navy − Proved “Inventive problems can be codified, classified, and solved methodically, just like other engineering problems.” © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 5
  • Has TRIZ Been Useful? TOCICO 2007 Conference “ I believe that TRIZ is the reason the Soviet Union was able to stay as close to the United States as it did during the Cold War even though they had only one tenth the computing resources.” [1] Eli Goldratt © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 6
  • Today’s TRIZ is Based on the Abstraction of Knowledge from over 3 Million Patents TOCICO 2007 Conference Patents Worldwide (est.) [5] Some Key Findings ~3,0 T 00,0 • Definition of inventive problem R 00 A • Levels of invention N S • Patterns of evolution F • Patterns of invention E ~600 , 000 R A B L E General Purpose Principles © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 7
  • How can the General Purpose Principles help you find a Solution to Your Problem? TOCICO 2007 Conference Operators TRIZ General TRIZ General Problem Solution Abstraction Specialization Your specific Trial and Error Your specific problem solution The TRIZ tools follow the upper path © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 8
  • Why TRIZ Works for Inventive Problems TOCICO 2007 Conference Three Key Discoveries: 1. Problems and solutions were repeated across industries and sciences. 2. Patterns of technical evolution were repeated across industries and sciences. 3. Innovations used scientific effects outside the field where they were developed. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 9
  • When is an Inventive Solution Required? TOCICO 2007 Conference Known means to address the problem exist but they require breaking one or more contradictions No known means exist to address the problem – we need to come up with something new. [5] In TRIZ there are two types of contradictions: In TRIZ there are two types of contradictions: technical and physical technical and physical Convert Relate to the 39 Parameters Apply 4 Separation Principles Apply the 40 Inventive Principles • Separation in time • Separation in space • Separation between the parts and the whole • Separation upon conditions © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 10
  • Technical Contradictions TOCICO 2007 Conference • An improvement in one system characteristic results in the deterioration of another − Example: Acceleration of a car vs. economical operation • Traditionally, technical contradictions are resolved by trade-off or compromise • Both TOC and TRIZ have techniques for resolving contradictions without the use of trade-offs or compromise • The 40 Innovation Principles can augment TOC methods for finding injections that break clouds where there is a technical contradiction © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 11
  • Physical Contradictions TOCICO 2007 Conference • A characteristic must be higher and lower (self- opposing) − Example: An airplane wing should have large area for easy takeoff but small area for higher speed • A characteristic must be present and absent − Example: Aircraft landing gears are needed for landing but undesired in flight • The 4 Separation Principles can often be used to resolve process contradictions as well as physical contradictions. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 12
  • Levels of Invention TOCICO 2007 Conference Inventive Solutions (which break contradictions) are in level 3 and level 4 Level 5: Discovery (1%) levels of innovation Moving to higher Level 4: Invention outside the paradigm (4%) Level 3: Invention inside the paradigm (18%) Level 2: Improvement (45%) Level 1: Apparent solution (no innovation) (32%) © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 13
  • Patterns of Invention TOCICO 2007 Conference • Altshuller recognized that the same fundamental problem (contradiction) had been addressed by a number of inventions in different areas of technology. • He also observed that the same fundamental solutions were used over and over again, often separated by many years. • He reasoned that if the latter innovator had had knowledge of the earlier solution, their task would have been straightforward. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 14
  • The TRIZ for JONAHS approach: Leverage TRIZ and TOC Knowledge TOCICO 2007 Conference TRIZ can: • TOC can: − Model cause-effect − Model cause-effect relationships between relationships between useful and harmful useful and harmful functions, events and effects in very focused conditions in very flexible ways ways using software − Focus TRIZ on options − Generate a voluminous addressing core set of solution directions problem(s) and key to explore using standard leverage points solutions, principles and − Clearly verbalize scientific effects contradictions and their − Suggest injections for underlying assumptions breaking contradictions − Verify the completeness and power of a solution © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 15
  • The TRIZ for JONAHS Strategy TOCICO 2007 Conference Leverage TOC and TRIZ to create powerful inventive solutions faster − Use TOC to identify the high leverage points of the problem − Focus on the TRIZ “Directions for a Solution” related to these leverage points © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 16
  • The TRIZ for JONAHS Tactics TOCICO 2007 Conference This strategy will be implemented by: • Restricting the problem model to cause-effect (necessary condition) logic • Using focusing techniques analogous to those used in the TOC Thinking Processes to identify core conflicts and key leverage points • Converting contradictions from the TRIZ Problem Formulation Diagram to TOC Conflict Clouds • Using both TRIZ and TOC to find injections © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 17
  • Step 1 of the TRIZ for JONAHS Basic Process TOCICO 2007 Conference Step Action Approach Write story line of the problem and 1 Define the problem list useful and harmful effects © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 18
  • Step 1a: Write the Story Line of the “Plating Metal Parts” Example TOCICO 2007 Conference • To plate metal parts with nickel they were placed in a bath of nickel salt. The bath was heated to increase the productivity of the process. However, heating reduced the stability of the salt solution and it started to decompose. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 19
  • Step 1b: List Useful and Harmful Effects TOCICO 2007 Conference • Primary Useful Effect − Productivity increases • Useful Effects − Parts move faster − Salt solution is heated • Harmful Effects − Material is wasted − Salt solution decomposes − Stability of solution is reduced © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 20
  • Step 2 of the TRIZ for JONAHS Basic Process TOCICO 2007 Conference Step Action Approach Write story line of the problem and 1 Define the problem list useful and harmful effects Connect the effects using 2 Model the problem “produces” and “counteracts” logic © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 21
  • Steps to connect the Effects using “produces” and “counteracts” logic TOCICO 2007 Conference 1. Connect the “harmful” and “useful” effects Primary Harmful 2. Use “produces” and “is Useful Effect produced by” plus Effect “counteracts” and “is counteracted by” logic 3. Stay focused on the real Useful problem(s) and the Effect mechanisms causing those problems Harmful 4. At a minimum the model Effect must contain the major “harmful” effects plus Harmful Harmful Useful the “primary useful Effect Effect Effect effect” 5. This is a focused variant of the Problem Useful Useful Useful Formulation Diagram in Effect Effect Effect TRIZ © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 22
  • Step 2: Connect Harmful Effects to Desired Useful Effects TOCICO 2007 Conference Productivity Material is increases wasted Parts move Salt solution faster decomposes Salt solution Salt Solution is Is heated less stable © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 23
  • Step 3 of the TRIZ for JONAHS Basic Process TOCICO 2007 Conference Step Action Approach Write story line of the problem and 1 Define the problem list useful and harmful effects Connect the effects using 2 Model the problem “produces” and “counteracts” logic Focus Attention then At contradictions and leverage points 3 Formulate Directions formulate directions for a solution © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 24
  • Recognizing Contradictions in Problem Formulation Diagrams TOCICO 2007 Conference Three of the patterns that Useful Harmful generate contradictions Effect Effect Note that all three patterns have both a green and red Useful arrow coming from the Effect Type 1 same effect Harmful Harmful Harmful Useful Effect Effect Effect Effect Useful Useful Effect Type 2 Effect Type 3 © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 25
  • Step 3a: Focus on Contradictions and Key Leverage Points TOCICO 2007 Conference Productivity Material is increases wasted Parts move Salt solution faster decomposes Salt solution Salt solution Is heated is less stable © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 26
  • Problem Formulation TOCICO 2007 Conference The formulation of a problem is often far more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. - Albert Einstein © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 27
  • Step 3b: Formulate Directions for a Solution * from the Contradiction Block TOCICO 2007 Conference • 1. Find an alternative way to heat the salt solution that lets the parts move faster but does not cause the solution to be less stable. • 2. Try to resolve the following contradiction: The salt solution should be heated to let the parts move faster, and should not be heated to avoid making the solution less stable. * See [3,4] © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 28
  • The Beauty of Formulation TOCICO 2007 Conference “The beauty of formulation is in obtaining an exhaustive set of possible directions. Ideally we would like to resolve the contradiction. However, there is no guarantee the contradiction can be resolved given the existing resources and limitations. And even it can be resolved, we do not know in advance if this solution is going to be the best possible. Resolving contradiction only means that we have found a way to satisfy both original conflicting requirements, but it can have new side effects (consequent contradiction) while a solution to other problem statements might not have side effects or they are negligible…” - Alla Zusman Note for Jonahs: In the TOC Thinking Processes, this corresponds to examining possible negative branches of each course of action before selecting the final direction of the solution. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 29
  • Step 4 of the TRIZ for JONAHS Basic Process TOCICO 2007 Conference Step Action Approach Write story line of the problem and 1 Define the problem list useful and harmful effects Connect the effects using 2 Model the problem “produces” and “counteracts” logic Focus Attention then At contradictions and leverage points 3 Formulate Directions formulate directions for a solution Use TOC, clouds, inventive and 4 Generate Ideas separation principles, and effects © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 30
  • How to Express a TRIZ Contradiction as a TOC Conflict Cloud TOCICO 2007 Conference TRIZ Technical Contradiction Physical Contradiction Useful function B D Improve A Maintain Common C D’ objective TOC Important Needs Actions / Means In order to have A, we must have B, in order to have B, we must have D In order to have A, we must have C, in order to have C, we must have D’ D jeopardizes C D’ jeopardizes B D is in direct conflict with D’ © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 31
  • Step 4a: Write the TRIZ Contradiction as a TOC Conflict Cloud TOCICO 2007 Conference TRIZ Technical Contradiction Physical Contradiction Useful B D function Parts move Salt solution faster Is heated A Improve Productivity increases Maintain C D’ Common Material is not Salt solution objective wasted Is not heated TOC Important Needs Actions / Means © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 32
  • Altshuller’s 39 engineering parameters for expressing Technical Contradictions TOCICO 2007 Conference 1 Weight of moving object 20 Energy spent by non-moving object 2 Weight of non-moving object 21 Power 3 Length of moving object 22 Waste of energy 4 Length of non-moving object 23 Waste of substance 5 Area of moving object 24 Loss of information 6 Area of non-moving object 25 Waste of time 7 Volume of moving object 26 Amount of substance 8 Volume of non-moving object 27 Reliability 9 Speed 28 Accuracy of measurement 10 Force 29 Accuracy of manufacturing 11 Tension, pressure 30 Harmful factors acting on object 12 Shape 31 Harmful side effects 13 Stability of object 32 Manufacturability 14 Strength 33 Convenience of use 15 Durability of moving object 34 Repairability 16 Durability of non-moving object 35 Adaptability 17 Temperature 36 Complexity of device 18 Brightness 37 Complexity of control 19 Energy spent by moving object 38 Level of automation 39 Productivity © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 33
  • Step 4b: Express each “need” of the cloud as one of Altshuller’s 39 parameters TOCICO 2007 Conference B D Increase Salt solution “speed” Is heated A Productivity increases C D’ Not cause “waste Salt solution of substance” Is not heated © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 34
  • Altshuller’s Contradiction Table for Resolving Technical Contradictions TOCICO 2007 Conference • Altshuller selected several recommended Principles for Conflict Resolution for each combination of the 39 parameters • These recommended principles are shown in Altshuller’s Contradiction Table • The rows of the table display the parameters needing improvement • The columns of the table display the parameters that need to be protected from degradation as the row parameters are improved • The recommended Principles are listed in priority order at the intersection of the rows and columns • The table is not necessarily symmetric © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 35
  • Step 4c: Find “Principles” for resolving the conflict from the Contradiction Table* TOCICO 2007 Conference 13 23 31 Feature to Waste of Stability of substance object side effects Harmful Maintain Feature to Improve 28, 33, 10, 13, 2, 24, 9 Speed 1, 18 28, 38 35, 21 17 Temperature 1, 35, 21, 36, 22, 35, 32 29, 31 2, 24 39 Productivity 35, 3, 28, 10, 35, 22, 22, 39 35, 23 18, 39 * As shown in Systematic Innovation: An Introduction to TRIZ, by John Terninko, Alla Zusman and Boris Zlotin © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 36
  • Altshuller’s 40 Inventive Principles for Conflict Resolution TOCICO 2007 Conference 1 Segmentation 21 Rushing through 2 Extraction 22 Convert a harm into a benefit 3 Local conditions 23 Feedback 4 Asymmetry 24 Mediator 5 Combining 25 Self-service 6 Universality 26 Copying 7 Nesting 27 Disposable object 8 Anti-weight 28 Replacement of a mechanical system 9 Prior counter-action 29 Use a pneumatic or hydraulic construction 10 Prior Action 30 Flexible film or thin membranes 11 Cushion in advance 31 Use of porous material 12 Equipotentiality 32 Changing the color 13 Inversion 33 Homogeneity 14 Spheroidality 34 Rejecting and regenerating parts 15 Dynamicity 35 Transformation of physical and chemical states 16 Partial-excessive action 36 Phase transition 17 Shift to a new dimension 37 Thermal expansion 18 Mechanical vibration 38 Use strong oxidizers 19 Periodic action 39 Inert environment 20 Continuity of a useful action 40 Composite materials © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 37
  • Generating Ideas from the 40 Inventive Principles TOCICO 2007 Conference • For each principle ask: - Is there anything about this that can help me solve my problem? - What are the analogies between my problem and the examples? • List each concept you come up with • Develop the best concepts enough to see if any new problems are created. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 38
  • Step 4d: Apply the Recommended Inventive Principles to the Example TOCICO 2007 Conference 10. Prior action a. Carry out all or part of the required action in advance b. Arrange objects so they can go into action in a timely matter and from a convenient position 13. Inversion a. Instead of an action dictated by the specifications of the problem, implement an opposite action b. Make a moving part of the object or the outside environment immovable and the non-moving part movable c. Turn the object upside-down IDEAS? INJECTIONS?: © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 39
  • Step 4e: Apply the Separation Principles to Resolve the Physical Contradiction TOCICO 2007 Conference Technical Contradiction Physical Contradiction Useful B D function Increase Salt solution “speed” Is heated A Productivity increases C D’ Common Not cause “waste Salt solution objective of substance” Is not heated Important Needs Actions / Means © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 40
  • Step 4f: The “Separation Principles” and an example of a Relevant Scientific Effect TOCICO 2007 Conference The following Separation Principles can address any situation with contradictory actions / needs in the TOC cloud 1. Separate opposite requirements in time 2. Separate opposite requirements in space − Illustration of a relevant scientific effect: Coating method 3. Separate opposite requirements between the whole object and its parts 4. Separate opposite requirements via changing conditions © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 41
  • Coating Method “Scientific Effect” Illustration TOCICO 2007 Conference Ideas? • Metallic surfaces are chemically coated as follows: the metallic product is placed in a pool filled with a metal salt solution (e.g. nickel, cobalt, etc.). During the ensuing reduction reaction, metal from the solution precipitates onto the product surface. The higher the temperature, the faster the process; however, the solution decomposes at high temperatures, and up to 75% of the chemicals are wasted, settling on the bottom and walls of the pool. Adding stabilizers is not effective, and conducting the process at a low temperature sharply decreases production. • Alternatively, the product is heated to a high temperature before it is immersed in the solution, and the process itself is conducted at a low temperature. In this case, the solution is hot where it is near the product, but cold everywhere else. One way of heating the product is to apply an electric current to it during the coating process. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 42
  • Step 5 of the TRIZ for JONAHS Basic Process TOCICO 2007 Conference Step Action Approach Write story line of the problem and 1 Define the problem list useful and harmful effects Connect the effects using 2 Model the problem “produces” and “counteracts” logic Focus Attention then At contradictions and leverage points 3 Formulate Directions formulate directions for a solution Use TOC, clouds, innovation and 4 Generate Ideas separation principles, and effects Select a set of injections that “flip” 5 Develop Concepts harmful effects into useful effects © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 43
  • Step 5a: Develop Solution Concepts TOCICO 2007 Conference Idea: Most of the parts of the "coating method illustration" are directly useful. This approach breaks the physical conflict by separating opposite requirements in space. Idea: The Prior Action and Inversion principles suggest heating the metal parts before putting them in the bath instead of heating the bath before the metal parts are put in. When this is done, the solution touching the metal parts will be hotter than the rest of the solution in the bath. As in the “coating method illustration” this maintains the stability of the salt solution. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 44
  • Step 5b: Create injections that will “flip” the harmful effects into useful effects TOCICO 2007 Conference • The metal parts are heated before being placed in the solution • The metal parts heat only the solution touching the parts • The temperature of the rest of the solution is not increased • The injection for the Problem Formulation Diagram is therefore: − Parts heat only the solution touching the parts © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 45
  • Step 5c: Connect injections to “flipped” harmful effects and original useful effects TOCICO 2007 Conference Productivity Material is not increases wasted Parts move The salt solution faster doesn’t decompose Salt solution The salt solution is touching the part stable Is heated Parts heat only the solution touching the parts © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 46
  • Step 6 of the TRIZ for JONAHS Basic Process TOCICO 2007 Conference Step Action Approach Write story line of the problem and 1 Define the problem list useful and harmful effects Connect the effects using 2 Model the problem “produces” and “counteracts” logic Focus Attention then At contradictions and leverage points 3 Formulate Directions formulate directions for a solution Use TOC, clouds, innovation and 4 Generate Ideas separation principles, and effects Select a set of injections that “flip” 5 Develop Concepts harmful effects into useful effects Evaluate Results and Go back until “harmful effects” are all 6 Plan Implementation “flipped” then develop project plan © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 47
  • Summary of “Plating Metal Parts” Problem TOCICO 2007 Conference • To plate metal parts with nickel they were placed in a bath of nickel salt. The bath was heated to increase the productivity of the process. However, heating reduced the stability of the salt solution and it started to decompose. Parts are heated by the liquid © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 48
  • Summary of “Plating Metal Parts” Solution TOCICO 2007 Conference • In the nickel plating of parts, increased temperature is necessary only in proximity to the parts. To accomplish this, the parts themselves may be heated, rather than the salt solution. The liquid touching the parts is heated by the parts © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute[5] © Ideation International 2007 49
  • TRIZ for JONAHS Helps Satisfy the “Need For Speed” in Innovation TOCICO 2007 Conference Practical Confident Knowledge Decision Point Focused Development of Practical Knowledge versus Time Knowledge Required to f la ti o n o Make a Good Ac cumu dge Decision Gra dual l Knowle a P ractic Starting Time Point Invent Develop Produce Deliver © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 50
  • References TOCICO 2007 Conference 1. Goldratt, E., (private communication), 2000. 2. Self Sufficiency in Inventive Problem Solving Workshop Notes, Ideation International Inc., Southfield, MI, 2000. 3. IWB Software, Ideation International Inc., Southfield, MI, 2000. 4. Terninko, J., Zusman, A., Zlotin, B., Systematic Innovation: An Introduction to TRIZ, St. Lucie Press, New York, 1998. 5. Zusman, A., (private communication), 2005, 2007. © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 51
  • About David Bergland TOCICO 2007 Conference •Advisory TOC Consultant at AGI [Color Photo of Presenter] •AGI Jonah’s Jonah certified in all of the TOC application areas. •Founder and Partner of TOC Solutions, LLC •First Stanley Chair of Interdisciplinary Engineering at Iowa State University teaching TOC and TRIZ •Head of the Executive Consulting Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories •Honorable Mention as Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer •PhD in Electrical Engineering with minors in Math and Physics •Attended in-house AT&T MBA program © 2007 A. Y. Goldratt Institute 52