The Enlightenment

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The Enlightenment

  1. 1. The Enlightenment<br />A New Worldview<br />
  2. 2. Central Concepts<br />Natural Science <br />Rationalism<br />Scientific Method<br />Capable of discovering the laws of human society as well as nature<br />Social Science is born!<br />Progress<br />Belief strengthened by economic and social 18th century improvements<br />http://www.batesville.k12.in.us/physics/phynet/aboutscience/Inductive.html<br />
  3. 3. Emergence<br />Writers were responsible for popularizing theology<br />Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757)<br />Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds<br />http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_cQns-qO1Pks/TGm9oqWUojI/AAAAAAAAA0o/LMm53rRQFsg/s1600/Bernard+de+Fontenelle2.jpg<br />
  4. 4. New Ideas<br />Skepticism<br />Stemmed from uncertainty of religious truth<br />Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) – Famous Skeptic<br />Historical and Critical Dictionary 1697<br />Open-minded toleration<br />Tabula Rasa<br />All ideas derived from experience<br />Human development determined by education and social institutions<br />John Locke <br />Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690<br />
  5. 5. France Dominates the Enlightenment<br />French Philosophes emerge as leaders of European Society<br />International Language of educated<br />Death of Louis XIV<br />Less Absolutist restrictions<br />Determined to reach all European economic and social elites<br />Philosophes could not write freely<br />Circulated works through manuscript form<br />
  6. 6. Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)<br />The Persian Letters 1721<br />Social Satire<br />The Spirit of Laws 1748<br />Separation of Powers<br />
  7. 7. Other Famous Philosophes <br />Not<br />French<br />Voltaire (1694-1778)<br />Madame du Châtelet (1706-1749)<br />Denis Diderot (1713-1783)<br />Jean le Rondd’Alembert (1717-1783)<br />David Hume (1711-1776)<br />Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)<br />Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)<br />Carl von Linne<br />
  8. 8. Reading Revolution<br />European production and consumption of books grew dramatically<br />Types of books people read changed <br />Censorship led to “under-the-cloak” sales<br />Reading shifted from religious masses to individualistic and specialized<br />
  9. 9. Females and the Enlightenment <br />Madame du Chatelet<br />(1706-1749)<br />Rococo<br />Soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, starry eyed lovers <br />Salons<br />Hostesses brought various French elites together to converse on Enlightenment thought<br />Madame Geoffrin<br />Public Sphere <br />An idealized space where members of society could discuss societal issues freely<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Salon_de_Madame_Geoffrin.jpg<br />
  10. 10. Late Enlightenment<br />Led by Rousseau <br />Influenced by early Romantic Movement<br />Division of Gender Roles<br />Conventional Stereotypes<br />General Will Concept<br />Common interest of all the people<br />Immanuel Kant<br />“Have courage to use your own understanding!”<br />
  11. 11. Race and the Enlightenment<br />New understanding of racial differences<br />Driven by urge to classify nature<br />Former divisions based on historical, political and cultural affiliations as opposed to physical.<br />Used science to justify slavery and colonial domination<br />

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