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Ch3

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  1. Chapter 3<br />Blue Azar, 4th Ed.<br />
  2. 3-1: Present Perfect Tense<br />HAVE / HAS + past participle<br />She has taken six classes.<br />They have taken six classes.<br />Y/N Question:<br />Has she taken six classes?<br />HAVE / HAS + subject + past participle<br />Wh- Question:<br />What classes has she taken?<br />WH- word + (noun) + HAVE / HAS + subject + past participle<br />
  3. 3-1: Present Perfect<br />They have taken six classes since last quarter.<br />Joe has played soccer since he was five years old.<br />Jane has worked hard since she graduated.<br />Bob has lived in California for three months.<br />The students have studied grammar for one week.<br />Sue has known Sarah for many years.<br />Which sentences talk about a specific point in time?<br />1, 2, 3 (since + specific point OR since + subject + verb)<br />Which sentences talk about a length of time?<br />4, 5, 6 (for + length of time)<br />Do Ex. 4<br />
  4. 3-1: Present Perfect for Unspecified time<br />Have you ever been to Las Vegas?<br />No, I’ve never been to Vegas.<br />Has Bill signed up for the trip yet?<br />Yes, he has already signed up for it.<br />No, he still hasn’tsigned up for it.<br />Do you know exactly when these events happened or didn’t happen?<br />No. Thus, use the present perfect tense.<br />Which sentences have an adverb clue?<br />All. Ever, never, yet, already, and still are often used with present perfect.<br />
  5. 3-1: Present Perfectfor a Repeated Event <br />Which states have you visited? <br />I havevisited three states so far.<br />What is the repeated event?<br />visiting three states<br />What is the key word?<br />
  6. 3-1: Present Perfect Exercise 9, p. 41<br />Write 4 sentences using the following:<br />for, since, an adverb clue, and “so far”<br />Write 3 TRUE sentences and 1 FALSE sentence.<br />Example:<br />I have played the piano for 10 years.<br />I have had five jobs since I moved to California.<br />I still haven’t seen a movie star.<br />At UCI, I have taught six classes so far.<br />
  7. 3-3: Present Perfect vs. Simple Past<br />I’ve flown in an airplane.<br />I flew in an airplane last month.<br />There have been many car accidents on this road.<br />There was an accident here yesterday.<br />Which sentences talk about an indefinite time in the past? Which form of the verb is used?<br />1, 3 (present perfect)<br />Which sentences talk about an definite time in the past? Which form of the verb is used?<br />2, 4 (simple past)<br />
  8. 3-4: Present Perfect Progressive Tense<br />HAVE / HAS + BEEN + verb + ing<br />Mike is studying English.<br />Bob and Ann have been playing tennis for six years.<br />They have been practicing Kung Fu all morning.<br />Malia has been wearing contact lenses since she turned sixteen.<br />What is the difference between #1 and 2, 3, 4?<br />#1 expresses action happening right now<br />#2, 3, 4 express HOW LONG action has been in progress<br />
  9. 3-4: Present Perfect Progressive Tense<br />HAVE / HAS + BEEN + verb + ing<br />Mike is studying English.<br />Bob and Ann have been playing tennis for six years.<br />They have been practicing Kung Fu all morning.<br />Malia has been wearing contact lenses since she turned sixteen.<br />What time expressions are used with each present perfect progressive tense?<br />for, all, since<br />
  10. 3-4 Present Perfect Progressive**SPECIAL**<br />I’vebeen living in California for three years.<br />I’ve lived in California for three years.<br />I’ve been teaching English for a few years.<br />I’ve taught English for a few years.<br />I’vebeen playing the piano since I was five.<br />I’ve played the piano since I was five.<br />What is the difference between each pair of sentences?<br />No difference; Either tense can be used with verbs: live, work, teach, study, wear glasses, play chess, etc.<br />
  11. 3-5: Past Perfect<br />HAD + past participle<br />I called for help because a tree had fallen across my driveway.<br />Which clause expresses the earlier event?<br />the tree fell<br />What verb form is in the clause that expresses the earlier event?<br />Past Perfect<br />What verb form is in the clause that expresses the later event?<br />Simple Past<br />
  12. 3-5: Past Perfect<br />The thief had escaped<br />We had calmed down<br />He had been upstairs<br />We hadn’t noticed<br />*SPECIAL*<br />After I had called the police,<br />before I calledthe police.<br />by the time the police came.<br />when we came home.<br />until we heard the footsteps.<br />we realized the thief was gone.<br />Past Perfect (1st event)<br />Simple Past (2nd event)<br />
  13. 3-5: Past Perfect*SPECIAL* --before / after --<br />The thief had escaped<br />The thief escaped<br />*SPECIAL*<br />After I had called the police,<br />After I calledthe police,<br />before I calledthe police.<br />before I calledthe police.<br />we realized the thief was gone.<br />we realized the thief was gone.<br />Past Perfect (1st event)<br />Simple Past (2nd event)<br />
  14. 3-7: Past Perfect Progressive<br />HAD + BEEN + verb + ing<br />Joe had been working for ten hours by the time he left his office.<br />Which clause expresses the earlier event?<br />work<br />What verb form is in the clause that expresses the earlier event?<br />Past Perfect Progressive<br />What verb form is in the clause that expresses the later event?<br />Simple Past<br />
  15. 3-7: Past Perfect Progressive<br />Joe had been watering the garden <br />Ellen had been working for two years<br />Because Sue had been studying all night,<br />before I arrived.<br />when she went back to school.<br />she looked very tired.<br />Past Perfect Progressive<br />(1st event)<br />Simple Past<br />(2nd event)<br />

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