What is it made of? Artifact


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What is it made of? Artifact

  1. 1. Organelles to sell By: Zach Searle (10) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis; a cell’s “power plant.” (10) Ribosomes are attached to (10) Bags of digestive en- the rough ER and they synthe- zymes break down worn cell size proteins that leave the cell parts and ingested particles; a via the Golgi apparatus. cell’s “digestive system.”(10) Contain enzymes that de- (10) Houses genetic code, whichtoxify harmful substances. dictates protein synthesis. Therefore it plays an essential role in other cell activities. (10) Serves as the bounda- ry of the cell, controls sub- stances coming in and out of the cell, protein mole- cules are embedded in the membrane and perform specific functions.(10) Synthesizes carbohydrate,combines it with protein, andpackages the product as glob- (10) Formationules of glycoprotein. of ribosomes. (10) Hairlike cell extensions that move substances over the cell surface. (10) Site of protein syn- (10) Synthesizes lipids thesis, “protein facto- incorporated in cell membrane, steroid hormones, and certain carbohydrates used to form glycoproteins. © (12)
  2. 2. The Cell Membrane By: Jesse DayA typical cell has several kinds of membranes. The outer boundary of a cell is called the plas-ma membrane. The plasma membrane keeps all the other structures inside the cell. There areprotein molecules embedded in the plasma membrane that perform various functions such asacting as identifying markers for each individual cell. They also act as receptor molecules forcertain protein molecules and these proteins in the plasma membrane act as transport mole-cules.Each cell also contains different kinds of membranous organelles. They are made of the samemembrane material as the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is very, very thin:0.0000003 inches thick! It is made of lipids, proteins and other molecules.Sources(10) Textbook page 75© ©(13)
  3. 3. Lipids and Nucleic acidsBraxten GilbertAnatomy and PhysiologyPer. 4NUCLEIC ACIDSDNA- Nucleotides (Sugar, phos- The nucleotide in DNA con-phate, base ) , Helps code he- sists of a sugarreditary information like chro- (deoxyribose), one of fourmosomes bases (cytosine (C), thy- mine (T), adenine (A), gua- nine (G)), and a phosphate.RNA- Nucleotides (Sugar, phos- Cytosine and thymine arephate, base) Helps decode he- pyrimidine bases, while ad-reditary information like mes- enine and guanine are pu- rine bases. The sugar and the base together are called a nucleoside. LIPIDSTriglycerides- Glycerol plus 3 makes up cell membranes, plas- Prostaglandins- 20 carbon unsatu-fatty acids, make up the cell ma membrane of cell rated fatty acid containing 50car-membranes, body fat bon rings. Regulate hormone ac- Steroids- Steroid nucleus tion: Enhance immune systemPhospholipids- Glycerol plus (4carbon-ring), make up cell affect the inflammatory response.phosphate plus 2 fatty acids, membranes, Cholesterol. Fats and oils are made from two kinds of molecules: glycerol (a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three carbons) and three fatty acids joined by dehydration synthesis. Since there are three fatty acids attached, these are known as triglycerides. “Bread” and pastries from a “bread factory” often con- tain mono- and diglycerides as “dough conditioners.” Can you figure out what these molecules would look like? The main distinction between fats and oils is whether they’re solid or liquid at room temperature, and this, as we’ll soon see, is based on differences in the structures of the fatty acids they contain.
  4. 4. © (14) Organic Molecules By: Vanessa VelazquezCarbohydratesCarbohydrates, also known as carbs, are made up of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbonatoms. They are a source of energy for living organisms.Fun Fact: theoretically people do not need to eat carbohydrates to live (15).Carbs are mainly sugars and starches and can be found in many common foods.They are broken down in our body to make energy, but the process is very slow.One of the ways carbohydrates are broken down is by Dehydration of the sugars.The other way is through Hydrolysis, which is where water is added to break downthe carbs (10). You can find carbohydrates in wheat, potatoes, corn and other foods.Carbohydrates come in different sized molecules, called saccharides. The sizes aredistinguished using prefixes: mono-, di-, tri- poly- “Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose Disaccharides: sucrose = glucose + fructose, lactose = glucose + galactose Trisaccharides
  5. 5. Complexity Simple- Complex- Carbohydrates Carbohydrates monosaccharides disaccharides, oligo- saccharides & polysaccharides Size Tetrose Pentose Hexose Heptose C4 sugars C5 sugars C6 sugars C7 sugars C=O Function Aldose Ketose sugars having an sugars having a ke- aldehyde function or tone function or an an acetal equivalent. acetal equivalent. © (16)ProteinsA protein is a long chain of amino acids; the bond that holds the amino acids together is thepeptide bond. The bond that holds two amino acid chains together is called a hydrogen bond.“Any small change in this complex structure will destroy the function of the protein (10). Primary structure: chain of amino acids. Secondary structure: multiple chains held together by hydrogen bonds Tertiary structure: single protein molecule Quaternary structure: multiple protein moleculesProteins are vitals in cells. Genes contain the information on how to form cells. This is ex-tremely important because If one-amino-acid change in one of the proteins in hemoglobincauses sickle-cell anemia” (10).Hemoglobin is a protein iron that contains red bloodcells and amino acids (19).
  6. 6. Inorganic Molecules Northwest ISD By: Josiah Hernandez Inorganic Molecules are not 50% OFF very complex and are usually found in nonliving things. An ex- ample is a diamond because it contains just carbon and not hy- drogen. Oxygen and carbon diox- ide are two major inorganic sub- stances. They are important be- cause they deal with respiration and without respiration we wouldn’t be living. Gatlin.IncTel: 555 555 5555
  7. 7. Inorganic Molecules Northwest ISDSome other examples of inorganic These two combined are important be-substances are acids, bases, and cause without these two combinedsalts (10). Acids are what cause a make a salt.hydrogen ion when added to a so- Salts form when you combine anlution. Acids are important for the acid and a base and remove the water.body because releases a hydrogen When you remove the water the ionsion into a solution and causes the crystalize forming salt. Examples ofpH to lower. A pH scale is what inorganic salts important to body func-measures how acidic or basic a tions would be Sodium chloride, Cal-substance is. This scale goes from cium chloride, Magnesium chloride,0-14, 0 being the most acidic and Sodium chloride, Potassium chloride,14 being the most basic. Sodium sulfate, Calcium carbonate, Bases do the opposite of an at- and Calcium phosphate (10).om. When bases are added it re-leases a hydroxide ion into solu-tion and causes the pH level to goup.