HORMONES!Functions:Tropic hormones (stimulate growth), sex hormones (target reproductive tissues), and anabolichormones (stimulate anabolism in their target cells) are all hormones classified by their generalfunctions.Structures:Hormones get classified by their chemical structureSteroid Hormones:Manufactured by endocrine cells from cholesterol, an important type of lipid in the human body.Because steroids are lipid soluble, they can easily pass through the phospholipid plasma membrane oftarget cells.Non-steroid Hormones:Synthesized primarily from amino acids rather than from cholesterol. Some are protein hormones; theyare long folded chains of amino acids, and a structure type of protein molecules of any sort.How do Hormones work? 1. Lock and Key: The amino acid structure of the hormone is the key and the receptor is a lock. In order for the key hormone to fit in the lock receptor, the hormone –receptor complex must be an exact match. 2. What happens when hormones combine? : A specific hormone combines with a specific receptor site, and forms a combination and a reaction of both.
Hormones: Insulin and GlucagonGonads- Function: Produces gametes Location: Testes in males, Ovaries in Females Hormones: GametesPlacenta- connects fetus to utirne wall, produces pregnancy related hormones, including chorionicgonadotropin, estrogen, and progesterone.Thymus- located in upper chest, underneath breast bone, helps the body make white blood cells thathelp fight against infectionsGastric and intestinal mucosa- allow efficient transport of nutrients across the epithelium whileexcluding passage of harmful molecules and organisms, located in a layer of the stomachHeart- pumps oxygen-rich blood to every living cell in the body, non-beating heart results in death, theheart beats approximately 80,000 to 100,000 pumps per day. it is located in the chest. Blood is pumpedthrough arteries, it is all a continuous cycle. Hormones ChartHormone Source Target Principal ActionGrowth hormone Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion ofreleasing hormone (somatotrophs) growth hormone(GRH)Growth hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofinhibiting hormone (somatotrophs) growth hormone(GIH) or somatostatinCorticotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (CRH) (corticotrophs) ACTHThyrotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (TRH) (thyrotrophs) TSHGonadotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (GNRH) (gonadotrophs) (FSH) and (LH)Prolactin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion ofhormone (PRH) (coritcotrophs) prolactinProlactin-inhibiting Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofhormone (PIH) (corticotrophs) prolactinGrowth hormone Adenohypophysis General Promotes growth bysomatotropin (STH) (somatotrophs) stimulating protein anabolism and fat mobilizationProlactin (PRL) Adenohypophysis Mammary Glands Promotes milk secretion (lactotrophs)Thyroid-stimulating Adenohypophysis Thyroid Gland Stimulateshormone (TSH) (thyrotrophs) development and secretion in the thyroid glandACTH Adenohypophysis Adrenal Cortex Promotes development (corticotrophs) and secretion in the
adrenal cortexFollicle-stimulating Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: promoteshormone (gonadotrophs) development of ovarian follicle, simulates estrogen secretion Male: promotes development of testis; stimulates sperm productionLuteinizing hormone Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: triggers(LH) (gonadotrophs) ovulation; promotes development of corpus leteum Male: stimulates production of testosteroneAntidiuretic hormone Nuerohypophysis Kidney Promotes water(ADH) retention by kidney tubulesOxytocin (OT) Nuerohypophysis Uterus and mammary Stimulates uterine glands contractions; stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ductsTriiodothyronine Thyroid gland (follicular General Increases rate of cells) metabolismTetraiodothyronine or Thyroid gland (follicular General Increases rate ofthyroxine cells) metabolism usually converted to T3 firstCalcitonin Thyroid gland Bone tissue Increases calcium (parafollicular cells) storage in bone, lowering blood Ca ++ levelsParathyroid hormone Parathyroid glands Bone tissue and kidney Increases calcium(PTH) removal from storage in bone and produces the active form of vitamin D in the kidneysAldosterone Adrenal cortex Kidney Stimulates kidney (zonaglomerulosa) tubules to conserve sodium- release of ADHCortisol Adrenal cortex (zona General Influences metabolism fasciculate) of food moleculesAdrenal Androgens Adrenal cortex Sex organs May support sexual (zonareticularis) functionAdrenal estrogens Adrenal cortex Sex Organs Insignificant (zonareticularis)