THE HOMINIDS
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Australopithecus afarensis
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Australopithecus afarensis
 3.9 – 2.9 Ma
 Climate changing. Antarctic ice cap
advance 5 Ma
 Distribution: Ethiopia, Ken...
Australopithecus africanus
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Australopithecus africanus
 3 – 2.25 Ma
 Cooling of climate reduced rainfall
 Further advance of Antarctic ice
 Appear...
Australopithecus africanus
 Distribution: Southern and Eastern Africa
 Cranial capacity: 500 cm3
(Chimp = 400cm3
)
 Bip...
Australopithecus (Paranthropus)
robustus
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Australopithecus (Paranthropus)
robustus
 2 – 1 Ma
 Cooling of climate reduced rainfall
 Development of scrubland and s...
Homo habilis - the handy man
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Homo habilis
 2.6 -1.4 Ma
 E. Africa
 Scavenging significant part of the
diet
 Cranial capacity: 600 – 800 cm3
 Heigh...
Homo erectus – the upright man
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Homo erectus
 1.8 to 0.5 Ma
 0.9 Ma beginning of the Pleistocene
ice age
 Oscillations between cold and warm
periods
 ...
Homo erectus
 Cranial capacity: 850 – 1100 cm3
(H. sapiens = 1350 cm3
)
 Use of fire
 Height 1.55 to 1.8m
 Extended ch...
Homo neanderthalensis
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Homo neanderthalensis
 250 000 to 28 000 years ago
 Europe, Middle East, into Central Asia
 Evolved from H. erectus pop...
Homo neanderthalensis
 Cranial capacity: 1400 cm3
(H. sapiens = 1350 cm3
)
 Brow ridge, long low skull
 Height: 1.67m
...
Homo sapiens
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Homo sapiens
 From 150 000 years ago to present
 Originating in Southern Africa then went
worldwide
 Reached Europe abo...
Homo sapiens
 Cranial capacity: 1350 cm3
(range 1000 to 2000 cm3
)
 20% of the body’s energy consumption
for 5% of body ...
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03 hominids

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03 hominids

  1. 1. THE HOMINIDS © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  2. 2. Australopithecus afarensis © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  3. 3. Australopithecus afarensis  3.9 – 2.9 Ma  Climate changing. Antarctic ice cap advance 5 Ma  Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania  Cranial capacity: 380 – 450 cm3  Height: 1.07m  Bipedal (footprints 3.6 Ma old) /climber  U-shaped dental arcade but reduced canines  Arboreal / terrestrial herbivore © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  4. 4. Australopithecus africanus © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  5. 5. Australopithecus africanus  3 – 2.25 Ma  Cooling of climate reduced rainfall  Further advance of Antarctic ice  Appearance of Arctic ice 2.4Ma  Development of scrubland and savannah  Forest cover retreats © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  6. 6. Australopithecus africanus  Distribution: Southern and Eastern Africa  Cranial capacity: 500 cm3 (Chimp = 400cm3 )  Bipedal  20 – 35 kg  Rounder skull  Parabolic dental arcade  Longevity: 40 years maximum  Scavenger of bone marrow/brain cases  Used simple tools © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  7. 7. Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  8. 8. Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus  2 – 1 Ma  Cooling of climate reduced rainfall  Development of scrubland and savannah Forest retreats  Distribution: S. Africa  Diet: Roots and tough fibrous vegetable matter  Cranial capacity: 500 cm3 (Chimp = 400cm3 )  Bipedal  40 –70 kg Sexual dimorphism (males twice as bulky as females)  Large cheek teeth  Heavy muscular skull © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  9. 9. Homo habilis - the handy man © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  10. 10. Homo habilis  2.6 -1.4 Ma  E. Africa  Scavenging significant part of the diet  Cranial capacity: 600 – 800 cm3  Height: 1.20 – 1.35m  Simple fashioned tools – choppers (Oldowan culture) © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  11. 11. Homo erectus – the upright man © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  12. 12. Homo erectus  1.8 to 0.5 Ma  0.9 Ma beginning of the Pleistocene ice age  Oscillations between cold and warm periods  Spread out of Africa (∼1.6Ma) throughout the old world  Scavenging to hunting  Use of a home base © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  13. 13. Homo erectus  Cranial capacity: 850 – 1100 cm3 (H. sapiens = 1350 cm3 )  Use of fire  Height 1.55 to 1.8m  Extended childhood  1st molar at 4.6 years old (H. sapiens = 5.9y)  Greater longevity → 52 years  Speech? (Brain says: yes; spine says: no)  Improved tools: Hand axes (Acheulian culture) © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  14. 14. Homo neanderthalensis © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  15. 15. Homo neanderthalensis  250 000 to 28 000 years ago  Europe, Middle East, into Central Asia  Evolved from H. erectus populations perhaps via H. heidelbergensis, then became extinct  Adapted to the ice-age conditions of temperate zone  Large nose may have warmed cold air  The enigma of its extinction is not explained © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  16. 16. Homo neanderthalensis  Cranial capacity: 1400 cm3 (H. sapiens = 1350 cm3 )  Brow ridge, long low skull  Height: 1.67m  Stocky build  Improved sophisticated tools (Mousterian culture)  Sometimes buried their dead  Made simple jewellery © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  17. 17. Homo sapiens © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  18. 18. Homo sapiens  From 150 000 years ago to present  Originating in Southern Africa then went worldwide  Reached Europe about 50 000 years ago  Cooling of the climate during the last glacial period from about 50 000a led to their predominance over other species (e.g. H. neanderthalensis)  Omnivore  Alters environment  Domestication of species, farming © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  19. 19. Homo sapiens  Cranial capacity: 1350 cm3 (range 1000 to 2000 cm3 )  20% of the body’s energy consumption for 5% of body mass  Speech  Art  Extensive tool kit including new materials (bone, ivory, antler)  Symbolic thought  1st molar tooth 5.9 years old  Longevity 66 years © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

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