Presentation #3 for Medical Terminology

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CardioVascular System with
Emphasis on: Thrombolytic Therapy, Holter Monitor and Cardiac Enzymes


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Presentation #3 for Medical Terminology

  1. 1. The Cardiovascular System
  2. 2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Also Called the Circulatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivering Nutrients and Oxygen to the Tissue Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing Metabolic Wastes from Tissue Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings Hormones to Target Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Two Parts of the Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Pulmonary Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between Heart and Lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries DeOxygenated Blood to Lungs to Get Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries Oxygenated Blood to Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systemic Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between Heart and Body Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries Oxygenated Blood From Heart to Body Cells then Back to the Heart </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Heart <ul><li>Pump of the Cardiovascular System </li></ul><ul><li>Has Three Layers: Epicardium; MyoCardium and EndoCardium </li></ul><ul><li>Has Four Chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Superior Chambers: Left Atrium and Right Atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Inferior Chambers: Left Ventricle and Right Ventricle </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Flow of Blood Thru the Heart <ul><li>Very Orderly </li></ul><ul><li>Direction Controlled by Four Valves of the Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valves Situated at Entrances and Exits to Ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valves Allow Only Forward Direction of Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chambers Alternate Between Relaxing and Contraction States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed Stated Called Diastole Allows Blood to Fill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracting State Called Systole Pushes Blood Forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conduction System of the Heart Regulated by Autonomic System </li></ul>
  6. 6. Orderly System of Blood Flow <ul><li>DeOxygenated Blood from All Body Tissues Enters Right Atrium thru The Superior Vena Cava and Inferior Vena Cava </li></ul><ul><li>Right Atrium Contracts and Blood Flows thru Tricuspid Valve into Right Ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Right Ventricle Contracts; Blood Pumped thru Pulmonary Valve into Pulmonary Artery; Carried to Lungs to be Oxygenated </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenated Blood Enters Left Atrium from Pulmonary Veins </li></ul><ul><li>Left Atrium Contracts and Blood Flows thru Mitral Valve into Left Ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>From Left Ventricle Blood Pumped thru Aortic Valve into Aorta, which Carries Blood to All Parts of the Body </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blood Vessels <ul><li>Form a Network of Tubes That Carry Blood Between Heart and Body Cells and Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Environment in which Blood Cells Can Perform their Function </li></ul><ul><li>Three Types </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries: Carry Blood Away from the Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veins: Carry Blood Back to the Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries: Exchange Sites Between Blood and Tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lumen: Channel Within the Vessels through which Blood Flows </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cardiovascular System Diseases - Heart <ul><ul><li>Angina Pectoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrythmia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundle Branch Block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac Arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CardioMyopathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital Septal Defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestive Heart Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary Artery Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocarditis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrillation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flutter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Valve Prolapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Valve Stenosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycardial Infarction - Heart Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MyoCarditis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericarditis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetralogy of Fallot </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cardiovascular System Diseases - Blood Vessel <ul><li>Aneurysm </li></ul><ul><li>Atheroscerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Coarctation of the Aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Embolus </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhoid </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombus </li></ul><ul><li>Varicose Veins </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombophkebitis </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diagnostic Procedures <ul><li>Clinical Laboratory Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serum Lipoprotein Level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Imaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac Scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doppler Ultrasonography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echocardiography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Function Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac Catheterization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holter Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress Testing </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cardiac Enzymes <ul><li>Cardiac Enzymes Are Found in Heart Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as Catalysts for Heart’s Various Biochemical Reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Cardiac Enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troponin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creatine Phophokinase (CPK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactate Dehydrogenasen(LDH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myoglobin </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cardiac Enzyme Test <ul><li>Measures Levels of the Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates Heart Muscle Damage Such as Mycardial Infarction </li></ul><ul><li>Each Cardiac Enzyme Has Its Specific Test </li></ul><ul><li>Two Most Common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troponin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creatine Phophokinase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the Past Lactate DeHydrogenase Used Commonly But the Above Two Enzymes Are More Specific and Reliable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cardiac Enzyme Test <ul><li>Troponin Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Specific for Cardiac injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Released During Heart Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Calculate Infarct Size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creatine Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found In Large Amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Way to Estimate the Amount of Heart Muscle Damage </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cardiac Function Tests <ul><li>Cardiac Catheterization </li></ul><ul><li>Electrocardiography (ESG, EKG) </li></ul><ul><li>Holter Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Stress Testing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Holter Monitor <ul><li>Named for Dr. Norman J. Holter </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Use Started in Earlier 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Records the Heart's Rhythms Continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Usually Worn for 24 - 48 Hours During Normal Activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrodes (Small Conducting Patches) Are Stuck onto the Chest and Attached to a Small Recording Monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>Carried in a Pocket or Small Pouch Worn Around the Neck or Waist. </li></ul><ul><li>MonitorI is Battery Operated </li></ul>
  16. 16. Therapeutic Procedures <ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defibrillation Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implantable Cardioverterdefibrillator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacemaker Implantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrombolytic Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aneurysmectomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial Anastomosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary Artery Bypass Graft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embelectomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endarterectomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Transplantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introcoronary Stent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litigation and Stripping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valve Replacement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Thrombolytic Therapy <ul><li>Has Been Available for the Last 5 decades, but the Modern Era of Thrombolysis Began in the Early 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Drugs to Break Up or Dissolve Blood Clots, Which are the Main Cause of both Heart Attacks and Stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombolytics Used Most Often </li></ul><ul><li>Others drugs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. Lanoteplase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. Reteplase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. Staphylokinase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. Streptokinase (SK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. Tenecteplase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. Urokinase </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Images and Information Gathered From <ul><li>Vascularweb.org </li></ul><ul><li>Allenpress.com </li></ul><ul><li>About.com </li></ul><ul><li>Essortment.com </li></ul><ul><li>Americanheart.org </li></ul><ul><li>Classes.kumc.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Mayoclinic.com </li></ul><ul><li>Niaaa.nih.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Unm.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Fremgen, Bonnie F and Frucht Suzanne S. Medical Terminology, A Living Language (4th Ed).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentic Hall. Pp. 130-152. </li></ul>

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