Semantics –week 10
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Semantics –week 10

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Semantics –week 10 Semantics –week 10 Presentation Transcript

  • Semantics –week 10Meaning relations (part 1)
    With certain utterances, we know that at times we paraphrase a sentence, contradict a statement or through implication.
    1. Paraphrase
    Bill bought this car from Alex
    Alex sold this car toBill
    2. Contradiction
    Maria’s husband never does the washing
    Maria’s husband sometimes does the washing
  • 3. Implication
    Mary has a Burmese cat implies that…
    Mary has a cat
    .
  • Antonyms
    Test:
    What would you say are the opposites of the following words:
    Hot ------------------------- (5) male ----------------------------------
    Thick----------------------- (6) dead----------------------------------
    Buy----------------------- (7) lunch-----------------------------------
    Lend ----------------------- (8) liquid-----------------------------------
    Notice that all the given opposites do not function in the same way. We will talk not just opposites of meanings but the types of opposites.
    There are four types of antonyms.
    View slide
  • Binary antonym (also called complementary)
    Def.
    These are words which come in pairs and between them exhaust all relevant possibilities.
    Example: true/false are binary antonyms . If a sentence is true, it cannot be false. If it is false, it can not be true.
    Exercice: are these binary antonyms?
    Chalk/cheese, same/different, copper/tin, dead/alive, married/unmarried, love/hate
    If two words have opposite meanings they are called antonyms.
    There are two types of antonyms:
    Complementary antonyms and relational antonyms
    View slide
  • 2. Relational antonyms (also called converses)are opposites where one word describes a relationship between two objects, and the other word describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed.   For example, parent and child, teacher and student, or buy and sell.
  • Exercice:
    Are the following pairs of expressions converses:
    below/above
    Grandparent/grandchils
    Love/hate
    Conceal/reveal
    Greater than/less than
  • Use the following logic to answer the following questions:
    If John bought a car from Fred, is it the case that Fred sold a car to John?
    6. Are buy/sell converses?
    7. borrow/lend
    8. give/take
    9. come/go
  • Semantic networks or semantic fields
    This is an important concept because the words in a semantic field are not synonymous, but are all used to talk about the same general phenomenon.
    Example: Under the word book, we have ‘plays’ and ‘novels’ and under ‘play’ we have Romeo and Juliet. Under novel, we have ‘war and peace’
  • Exercice
    Classify the following words into their semantic fields and you should use one of these as the superordinate.
    body parts-tools-arm-sister-foot-country-aunt-family-elements-knife-rain-city-wind-sun-ear-moon-urban life-hammer