Conservation agriculture in the context of climate change in West Africa
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Conservation agriculture in the context of climate change in West Africa

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One of CCAFS over-arching objectives is to assess and test pro-poor adaptation and mitigation practices, technologies and policies for food systems, adaptive capacity and rural livelihoods. ...

One of CCAFS over-arching objectives is to assess and test pro-poor adaptation and mitigation practices, technologies and policies for food systems, adaptive capacity and rural livelihoods. Conservation agriculture (CA) is one of the promising climate-smart agriculture options as it allows benefiting from the synergies between adaptation and mitigation while also improving the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. As such, CA promotion needs to be tapped into the general framework for a sound and widespread adoption of evidence-based technologies in West Africa. Getting the big pictures to insure millions of farmers will require sound scaling-up approaches of successful CA options for the semi-arid West Africa.

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  • Why focus on Food security <br /> Climate change has to be set in the context of growing populations and changing diets <br /> 60-70% more food will be needed by 2050 because of population growth and changing diets – and this is in a context where climate change will make agriculture more difficult. <br />
  • The second challenge for agriculture relates to climate change adaptation. And if there is a single graph to show this challenge then it is this one for SSA. <br /> Thornton from ILRI uses a four degree temperature rise scenario, which based on current commitments to reduce GHGs is a distinct possibility. <br /> By 2090 vast areas of Africa will have experienced >20% reduction in growing season length. And huge areas 5-20% reduction. Almost no areas have rises in growing season. This illustrates the magnitude of potential impacts on agriculture from climate change. <br />
  • The third challenge for agriculture relates to its environmental footprint. Recent compilations suggest that food systems contribute 19-29% of global greenhouse gasses, including those through land cover change. <br />
  • Excuse the complicated title. <br /> In a few words I have tried to capture how we approach research. <br /> We vision with our partners where we want to go; we then work backwards as to what we must do, with whom, when and how. <br /> And we work from farmers fields at the one extreme up to the global negotiations on climate at the other extreme. <br /> I will explain further. It is a new era for research. <br /> I am xxxxxxxxxx, from the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) <br />
  • Excuse the complicated title. <br /> In a few words I have tried to capture how we approach research. <br /> We vision with our partners where we want to go; we then work backwards as to what we must do, with whom, when and how. <br /> And we work from farmers fields at the one extreme up to the global negotiations on climate at the other extreme. <br /> I will explain further. It is a new era for research. <br /> I am xxxxxxxxxx, from the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) <br />
  • CCAFS is focusing on climate change adaptation and mitigation, and its role in food security – and especially the synergies and trade-offs amongst these. <br /> Not just agricultural practices, but interested in the whole food system – from production to consumption <br /> In terms of adaptation, interested in the challenges poses by variability/extremes and longer term progressive changes. <br /> Interested in not only incremental changes (e.g. changing practices) but also transformational options (e.g. switching farming systems) <br />
  • Excuse the complicated title. <br /> In a few words I have tried to capture how we approach research. <br /> We vision with our partners where we want to go; we then work backwards as to what we must do, with whom, when and how. <br /> And we work from farmers fields at the one extreme up to the global negotiations on climate at the other extreme. <br /> I will explain further. It is a new era for research. <br /> I am xxxxxxxxxx, from the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) <br />
  • For example, there is great potential for conservation agriculture as a strategy for long-term adaptation, short term risk management, and also to reducing GHG emissions from agriculture <br /> The column on the right is biophysical potential <br /> Soil carbon sequestration contributes 89% of the technical mitigation potential from agriculture <br /> (Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, Kumar P, et al. Agriculture. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.) <br /> The question is: how realistic is this, and can we do it in Africa? <br />
  • CCAFS is addressing some of these issues through its research <br /> Most of CCAFS Theme 3 work on conservation agriculture is the work that is supported through the CGIAR centers and regional program leaders, (CIMMYT, ICRISAT, CIAT, ICRAF, Robert) <br /> SIMLESA is an example of this- will be presented later <br /> SAMPLES is testing some of this <br /> ML Jat and Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio from CIMMYT are participating <br /> We (CCAFS overall) is a program that has opportunity to look at broader issues with conservation agriculture- gender, social impacts, etc.- lots of potential <br />
  • The concept of climate-smart village is used to capture the desire to take integrated approaches to climate adaptation – but not doing everything – doing what is needed in a specific context to enhance adaptation. <br /> This shows some of the activities that may be conducted in a community. <br /> CSVs are learning sites, where multiple partners come together to innovate with communities, to build capacity to innovate <br /> Our eyes must be constantly on scaling up – feeding lessons into policy processes, working with the private sector so they can stimulate uptake, or mainstreaming successes into the work of major initiatives or agencies. <br />
  • Stone bunds = effective way of reducing runoff. Capturing topsoil and allowing rainfall more time to soak into the soil. <br /> Zai pits = shallow bowls filled with compost or manure in which crops are planted. <br />

Conservation agriculture in the context of climate change in West Africa Conservation agriculture in the context of climate change in West Africa Presentation Transcript

  • Development of Conservation Agriculture based cropping systems for sustainable soil management in West Africa, 05 Feb 2014, Ouagadougou Promoting Conservation Agriculture in the context of the CCAFS Research Program in West Africa Dr Robert Zougmoré CCAFS Regional Program Leader West Africa
  • Outline 1. Major constraints in West Africa 2. Key challenges 3. CA: a proven climate-smart agriculture option 4. Way forwards 2
  • The major constraints 3
  • WEST AFRICA REGION 70% rural populations – natural resources Poverty Desertification Rain-fed agriculture Chronic Food High climate variability (droughts, flooding) 4
  • Population and income 1. A significant increase in the population of all countries except Cape Verde – pessimistic: population of all countries will more than double except Cape Verde 2. Income per capita in the optimistic scenario could range from US$ 1,594 for Liberia to US$ 6,265 for Cote d’Ivoire. 3. Income per capita does not improve significantly in the pessimistic scenario.
  • Rainfall Despite variations among models, there is a clear indication of: 1.changes in precipitation with either a reduction in the heavy-rainfall areas, particularly along the coast, 2.or an increase in areas of the Sahel hitherto devoid of much rain. 3.Southern parts of Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria will be dryer Change in average annual precipitation, 2000–2050, CSIRO, A1B (mm) MIROC, A1B (mm)
  • Changes in yields (percent), 2010–2050, from the DSSAT crop model: CSIRO A1B MIROC A1B Maize Groundnut Sorghum
  • The key challenges 8
  • Greater demand for food due to population & income growth 9
  • Length of growing season is likely to decline.. Length of growing period (%) To 2090, taking 18 climate models Four degree rise Thornton et al. (2010) Proc. National Academy Science >20% loss 5-20% loss No change 5-20% gain >20% gain 10
  • Environmental footprint 19-29% global GHGs from food systems Vermeulen et al. 2012 11 Annual Review of Environment and Resources (2012)
  • How can smallholder farmers achieve food security under a changing climate?
  • Agriculture must become “climate-smart” • contributes to climate change adaptation by sustainably increasing productivity & resilience • mitigates climate change by reducing greenhouse gases where possible • and enhances the achievement of national food security and development goals
  • CCAFS PROGRAM FOCUS Whole food systems Synergies and tradeoffs 14
  • We need climate-smart agriculture actions at all levels 15
  • Farm and community: climate-smart practices, institutions Climate-smart agriculture happens at multiple levels National and regional: enabling policies, extension, support, research, finance Global: climate models, international agreements, finance 16
  • “Climate-smart villages” • Approach where CCAFS in partnership with rural communities and other stakeholders (NARES, NGOs, local authorities…), tests & validates in an integrated manner, several agricultural interventions • Aims to boost farmers’ ability to adapt to climate change, manage risks and build resilience. • At the same time, the hope is to improve livelihoods and incomes and, where possible, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to ensure solutions are sustainable
  • CSV: Key components Climate Smart Village Action research 18
  • Conservation agriculture is an effective Climate-Smart Agriculturethat contribute to • CA: farming practices option the three key principles of: reducing soil disturbance, maintaining soil cover and practicing crop rotation • We adopt a broader view of CA (than its current definition): concept for natural resource-saving that strives to achieve acceptable profits with high and sustained production levels while concurrently conserving the environment (FAO, 2009). • CAWT, where a woody perennial is used as a technological element within the practice (Bayala et al., 2013) Slide from J. Bayala
  • CA potential: Soil C sequestration seen as #1 priority (IPCC 2007), has vast potential for climate change mitigation Mitigation options Mt CO2-eq. yr-1
  • CCAFS CA work • Measuring C sequestration from CA and assessing as a low-emissions agriculture option (Ghana, Burkina, Benin, Senegal, Mali) • Meta-analysis of crop responses to Conservation Agriculture (Ghana, West Africa) • SAMPLES Program for GHG quantification, • CA for adaptation and risk management in maizelegume systems (SIMLESA) • Identifying incentives for adoption of CA (IndoGangetic Plains, East Africa) 21
  • Parklands • • • • • • Parklands of preserved trees from natural vegetation: F. albida, V. paradoxa, P. biglobosa…; Some species are regularly pruned for fodder  healthier livestock; FMNR consists in selecting & thinning stems which sprout from indigenous tree and shrub stumps; Adoption rate may be as high as 63% like in Maradi region where tree density varies from 60 to 374 individuals ha-1 (Adam et al., 2006); Plantation on communal lands: A. macrostachya, A. nilotica, B. rufescens, E. camaldulensis, F. albida, L. leucocephala, M. indica, P. aculeata, P. biglobosa, P. juliflora, Z. mauritiana; Plantations on individual lands: A. occidentale, A. indica, Citrus spp., M. indica, P. guayava, P. africana, etc. Slide from J. Bayala 22
  • Coppicing trees • Trees/shrubs leguminous species planted at high density as fallows or in associations with crops for biomass production to be used for soil fertility replenishment. Trees are regularly cut to ground level and allowed to re-grow. • Woody species: Acacia senegal, Sclerocarya birrea and Acacia raddiana, Acacia seyal, A. raddiana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Prosopis africana, Parkia biglobosa, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Albizzia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala; • Sometimes associated with annual legumes: Stylosanthes hamata or Mucuna spp. 23 Slide from J. Bayala
  • Green manure • Green manure is the biomass from herbaceous cover crops grown to be turned under soil as soil amendment and nutrient sources for subsequent crops. Usually the cover crop is established through relay cropping with the staple food crop • Some tested species: Stylosanthes hamata, Mucuna spp, Crotalaria sp., Tephrosia vogelii, Indigofera astragalima, Tithonia diversifolia; Mucuna spp., Dolichos lablab, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan; Calopogonium mucunoides, Lablab purpureus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, etc.; • Cover crops are used in rotation or in association with crops. Mucuna spp 24 Slide from J. Bayala
  • Mulching Mulching consists of covering the ground with a layer of plant materials in order to conserve soil water, to stimulate the activity of soil biota (e.g. termites) and to reclaim a degraded soil for crop production Tree/shrub prunings • • • Crop residues • The two most widespread species in farmed fields are G. senegalensis and P. reticultaum (Lufafa et al., 2009); This practice exits alone through biomass • transfer (northern Burkina) or associated with FMNR (Niger, Mali, Burkina); Tested species: Cassia sieberiana, C. lecardi, G. senegalensis, P. reticulatum. Protecting soil surface using crop residues reduces water erosion, run off, soil T° and soil evaporation; Main constraints are: low availability of the straws and their fraudulent collection and uses for other purposes (feed, building materials, sales, etc.) Slide from J. Bayala 25
  • Rotations/Associations • Legumes (e.g. cowpea, groundnut) are frequently • • • • intercropped or rotated with cereals in the drylands Most common association is legumes-cereals (sorghum or millet-cowpea). Other types of associations are: peanut-cereals, millet+sorghum+cowpea, Mucuna-cereals, cereals-pigeon pea; Rotations vary: cotton-maize-sorghum, peanutcereals and other legumes-cereals Types of fields (homestead, bush fields) and the types of soil (sandy, loamy, clay) or toposequence. 26 Slide from J. Bayala
  • Soil and Water Conservation practices Traditional practices such as zaï, half-moon, stone and earth bunds and grass strips. Increased infiltration, soil moisture retention, SOM content and improving soil structure besides reducing soil erosion. • • • • • Technique for recovering encrusted soils that consists in digging pits of 20 to 40 cm in diameter and 10 to 15 cm of depth in order to collect surface waters and to increase infiltration; Production increase can go up to 428% in some cases (Reij et al. 2009). A basin of half-circle shape with the excavated soil laid out in a semicircular pad; Dimensions: 2 to 4 m in diameter, 15 to 25 cm depth and spacing 2 to 4 m; Increase in yield of 49 to 112% (Belemviré et al., 2008). Slide from J. Bayala 27
  • Scaling up and out Climate-smart villages Climatesmart technologies Local knowledge & Institutions Climate information services Local adaptation plans Scaling up •Policy •Private sector •Mainstream successes via major initiatives • Learning sites • Multiple partners • Capacity building 28
  • Outputs/Pathways Policy impacts Policy impacts Informed Informed Capacity Capacity scientific scientific enhancement enhancement research research Policy analysis/ engagement and communication Models and data Participatory research and capacity building Activities Partners Policy makers Policy makers Policy makers Village leaders Policy makers Met agencies Input suppliers Farmers Outcomes •Enhanced adaptation plans •Technology targeted at climate resilience •Improved early warning and social safety nets •Carbon management for 29 improved soils
  • WEST AFRICA SAHEL Water harvesting boosts yields in the Sahel oSahel – Droughts common and farming difficult with sparse rainfall. oChanges in land management – stone bunds and zai pits. 30
  • WEST AFRICA SAHEL Success at scale oContour bunds established on 200,000 to 300,000 ha. oYields double those on unimproved land. oTree cover and diversity increased. oGroundwater levels rising. 31
  • WEST AFRICA SAHEL Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation oFood production: predicted that the improved land will produce enough to feed 500,000 to 750,000 people. increased diversity of food, health benefits. oAdaptation: contour bunds able to cope with changing weather. oMitigation: land management prevents further worsening of soil quality. 32
  • How do we scale up CA to Landscapes? • What works? • Where does it work? • When does it work? • Why does it work? • Who does it work for? • How does it work?
  • The broad framework: Determinants of adoption of CA: Adoption (A) is conditioned by its technical performance (P), subject to the opportunities and tradeoffs (T) that operate at farm and village scales and constrained by different aspects of the context (C) in which the farming system operates including market, socio-economic, institutional and policy conditions
  • CSA research & development in West Africa: way forwards Low adoption rate of CA in West Africa •Cost-effectiveness of CA options •Enabling environment of existing technologies •Participatory testing of CA options •Tools for defining the potential of CA options in various regions •Incentives needed to promote CA and bring it at scale (institutional arrangements and policy measures) •Bring policy and science together to support farmer-led innovations and options in order to achieve outcomes and impacts at national level 35
  • Thank you! www.ccafs.cgiar.org 36