Participatory Action Research (PAR) forincreased adoption of climate smart agriculture by rural poor in West Africa Robert Zougmoré Regional Program Leader West Africa, CCAFS
Crop suitability is changingAverage projected % change in suitability for 50 crops, to 2050
Food security is at riskIn order to meetglobal demands, we will need 60-70%more food by 2050.
Climate change and Agriculture• Climate change is making it increasingly urgent for more widespread and significant changes in farming practices to increase productivity and, at the same time, use natural resources more efficiently and sustainably.• shifts to new crops and varieties,• water and soil conservation measures• planting trees on farms;• …..
Agriculture must become“climate-smart”• contributes to climate change adaptation by sustainably increasing productivity & resilience;• mitigates climate change by reducing and removing greenhouse gases;• and enhances the achievement of national food security and development goals.
Participatory Action Research• More research and development work is called for to ensure that the most appropriate options for change are adopted.• PAR is an approach that combines both research and development work.• PAR approach: particular actions, interventions, are tested and implemented simultaneously with local partners, researchers & development workers cooperating closely;• PAR is not easy to undertake.
Improved livelihoods/food security/reduced poverty Impact amongst farmers in AfricaEnabling policy Eventual widerenvironment created 8. Community livelihood adoption improvements OutcomesChanges in knowledge 7. Adopting farmers/ Changes in knowledgeand attitudes of communities enjoy higher & & attitudes of farmers/stakeholders more stable income communities 4. Adoption of Scaling-out Scaling up Scaling-up6. Stakeholders Scaling up technologies & 5. Adoption inlearning of NRM changes in practices other villages3. Farmers/communities Iterations of 2. Changes in farmers’/modify and innovate learning cycle communities’ attitude & perceptions 1. Improved knowledge of farmers PLAR to adapt, develop and Outputs validate technological options Generation of knowledge & tools (diagnosis, vulnerability assessment, trade-offs betweenParticipatory diagnosis to identify adaptation & mitigation, technologies,pilot sites and scope of options practices & policies) Pathways to Impact
Objectives of CCAFS PARTest and validate, in partnership with rural communities & otherstakeholders, a scalable climate-smart model for agriculturaldevelopment that includes a range of innovative agricultural riskmanagement strategies
Place-based field work Indo- Gangetic Plains: There is risk of heatWest stress, meltingAfrica: East glaciers, and sea levelExtreme rainfall variability Africa: rise; the intensity andimpedes precipitation Climate change will probability of extremepredictions, but the Sahel likely intensify events will likelywill likely experience surface and increase.shorter growing periods. groundwater stress. Regional director:Regional director: Regional director: Pramod AggarwalRobert Zougmoré James Kinyangi
PAR: test of integrated adaptation andmitigation technologies/practicesPriority production interventions with expected mitigation and adaptation synergies:• Soil nutrient management (e.g.: organic manure and fertilizer management through micro-dosing)• Agroforestry (e.g.: Natural AGF parklands, biofuel and drought tolerant varieties of maize, millet and sorghum)…• Rehabilitation of degraded lands, soil & water management• Conservation agriculture for increased carbon sequestration and improved soil health Potential mitigation practices to be examined from the perspective of carbon sequestration, mitigation incentives, institutional arrangements, gender impacts…
PAR: test of integrated adaptation and mitigation technologies/practicesPriority interventions for mitigation and/or adaptation:• Use of the analogue method and methods for innovative knowledge sharing and networking among farmers;• Climate risk management strategies with focus on ground application for downscaled seasonal climate - crop forecasting – drought-tolerant varieties– Index-based crop insurance;• Capacity building on crop forecasting: National/regional teams established; capacity building workshops for local teams, data needs identified; stakeholders meeting organized
Support to policy decision makingand Capacity strengtheningPolicies to be oriented towards empowering localdecision making around natural resourcesconcerns: reconciling traditional laws and formallegal codes for managing natural resources:Use of existing tools & methods, data collectionand analysis that support decision making foradaptation and mitigation (When climate financebecomes a reality)
Recording and Management• Data requirement and management strategy to be developed by the partners• SHG to maintain a diary of all agricultural operations/interventions on a daily basis.• Some baseline soil & water samples to be collected and analyzed.• Weather Data of current season and past years to be collected from nearby Weather Station.• Village land use map to be procured from Local Government agencies.• All data to be entered in a Database.