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  1. 1. Please note that worksheets and teacher’s notes for the Messages can be found at © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  2. 2. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK Information on this title: © Cambridge University Press 2006 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2006 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-13 978-0-521-61441-2 Teacher’s Book ISBN-10 0-521-61441-4 Teacher’s Book ISBN-13 978-0-521-61439-9 Student’s Book ISBN-10 0-521-61439-2 Student’s Book ISBN-13 978-0-521-61440-5 Workbook with Audio CD / CD-ROM ISBN-10 0-521-61440-6 Workbook with Audio CD / CD-ROM ISBN-13 978-0-521-61442-9 Teacher’s Resource Pack ISBN-10 0-521-61442-2 Teacher’s Resource Pack ISBN-13 978-0-521-61443-6 Class Cassettes ISBN-10 0-521-61443-0 Class Cassettes ISBN-13 978-0-521-61444-3 Class Audio CDs ISBN-10 0-521-61444-9 Class Audio CDs ISBN-13 978-0-521-68000-4 Messages Level 3 and 4 Video VHS PAL ISBN-10 0-521-68000-X Messages Level 3 and 4 Video VHS PAL ISBN-13 978-0-521-69677-7 Messages Level 3 and 4 Video VHS NTSC ISBN-10 0-521-69677-1 Messages Level 3 and 4 Video VHS NTSC ISBN-13 978-0-521-67999-2 Messages Level 3 and 4 Video DVD PAL/NTSC ISBN-10 0-521-67999-0 Messages Level 3 and 4 Video DVD PAL/NTSC © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  3. 3. Map of the Student’s Book 4 Introduction 6 Teacher’s notes and keys Module 1 People and places 1 Getting together 10 2 Friends and neighbours 17 Module 1 Review 24 Module 2 New horizons 3 All in the mind 27 4 Journeys 34 Module 2 Review 40 Module 3 Changes 5 In the news 43 6 Attachments 50 Module 3 Review 57 Module 4 Talking points 7 Celebrations 60 8 Secrets and lies 67 Module 4 Review 74 Module 5 Living together 9 Groups 77 10 Food for thought 85 Module 5 Review 92 Module 6 Just imagine! 11 Challenges 95 12 Happy endings 102 Module 6 Review 108 Games 110 Workbook key and tapescripts 111 Acknowledgements 120 3Contents © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  4. 4. 4 Map of the Student’s Book Module3ChangesModule2Newhorizons REVISION ● Describing the present and the past ● Verbs + prepositions in Wh- questions ● Present continuous ● Expressions: contradictions ● Relative clauses with who, that, which ● Present simple ● Pronoun one/ones ● Expressions: asking for clarification ● Past continuous and past simple ● used to ● Expressions: expressing surprise ● must/mustn’t, have to/don’t have to ● Comparative adjectives ● Passive (present simple and past simple) ● Expressions: making travel arrangements Unit 1 Getting together Unit 2 Friends and neighbours Review Review Unit 4 Journeys Unit 3 All in the mind Unit 5 In the news Unit 6 Attachments Review Grammar check Study skills: Homophones How’s it going?: Progress check Coursework: Reviews ● Verbs + prepositions ● Postcards ● Words with some and every ● Pronunciation: stress and intonation ● Listen to biographies of famous people ● Read holiday postcards ● Skim and scan a text ● Life and culture: Welcome to Liverpool! ● Talk about a picture ● Write about famous people in the past ● Make a conversation at a café ● Write a postcard ● Flats and houses ● Friendship ● Nouns and adjectives describing personal qualities ● Pronunciation: /ə/ ● Listen to a guessing game ● Read a questionnaire about friendship ● Understand new words ● Life and culture: Poem ● Talk about where you live ● Tell the class about yourself and your neighbourhood ● Play a guessing game ● Write about yourself and friendships in your life Grammar and Expressions Vocabulary and Pronunciation Listening and Reading skills Communicative tasks Module1Peopleandplaces ● Fears and fantasies ● Dreams ● Link words ● Pronunciation: /j/ ● Listen to three conversations about coincidences ● Read a magazine article about dreams ● Identify the topic of a text ● Life and culture: Haunted Britain ● Talk and write about coincidences in the past ● Describe yourself when you were younger and compare with a friend ● Describe things that you imagine or worry about ● Write a description of a dream ● On the road ● Travelling ● Prepositions of movement ● Pronunciation: stress in sentences ● Listen to a song ● Read an account of a journey around the world ● Scan a text for information ● Life and culture: Journey into slavery ● Write and act a conversation at a travel agent’s ● Describe where things are/were made or produced ● Write a journal about a journey ● Present perfect + just, yet, already ● been and gone ● Present perfect and past simple ● its: possessive adjective ● so ... that ... ; such a/an ... that ... ● Expressions: offers and suggestions ● Topics in the news ● Yellowstone Park ● Pronunciation: /s/ + consonant ● Write an email to a friend or relative with your news ● Discuss what you have and haven’t done ● Write a radio report ● Write about recent events for a school newsletter ● Present perfect with for and since ● Present perfect with superlative adjective + ever ● Superlative adjectives ● give + direct and indirect object ● Expressions: time expressions ● Personal possessions ● Living abroad ● still, any more ● Pronunciation: / / /ɔ / ● Give details about your background ● Talk about your favourite possessions ● Describe important things and events ● Write an account of personal experiences ● Listen to an interview with a surfing champion ● Read an interview with a boy who has lived all over the world ● Skim a text for the general idea ● Life and culture: New Zealand ● Listen to news headlines on the radio ● Read a magazine article about a volcano ● Understand the main idea of a text ● Life and culture: Non-stop news Grammar check Study skills: Guessing what words mean How’s it going?: Progress check Coursework: Conversation with Grace Lawson Grammar check Study skills: Spelling How’s it going?: Progress check Coursework: Who’s who at Greenside? © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  5. 5. 5Map of the Student’s Book Module6Justimagine!Module5LivingtogetherModule4Talkingpoints ● Special occasions ● Invitations and replies ● Verbs with look ● Pronunciation: final /s/ and /z/ ● Describe special occasions ● Talk about superstitions ● Write about and discuss plans for a celebration ● Write and reply to an invitation Grammar and Expressions Vocabulary and Pronunciation Listening and Reading skills Communicative tasks Unit 7 Celebrations Unit 8 Secrets and lies ● Verbs and nouns that go together ● ‘Sales talk’ ● because, so ● Pronunciation: /ai/ /ei/ ● Listen to a discussion on the radio ● Read an article about a ‘con man’ ● Predict the topic of a text ● Life and culture: The code talkers ● Talk about events in the future and when they might happen ● Talk about what’s right and wrong ● Write an imaginary ‘sales talk’ Unit 11 Challenges ● Past perfect ● must, can’t, might, could for speculation ● Expressions: Neither do I. So am I. ● Adjectives describing feelings ● In the mountains ● Adverbs ● Pronunciation: stress in sentences, weak forms ● Describe a situation in the past and how you felt ● Imagine what different situations are like ● Write a short story Unit 12 Happy endings ● Reported speech ● say and tell ● whose ● Expressions: everyday expressions ● Words connected with money ● Sending messages ● Phrasal verbs ● Pronunciation: vowel sounds ● Report what people say ● Make a conversation at a party ● Write and reply to a message ● Food ● The fast food industry ● Adjectives ending in -ed/-ing ● Pronunciation: silent vowels ● Listen to a TV quiz programme ● Read a review of a book ● Recognise facts and opinions ● Life and culture: Make Poverty History ● Talk about things you’d like to change ● Prepare and ask questions for a quiz ● Write a review for a school magazine ● Verb/preposition + -ing form ● -ing form and to + verb ● want/ask/tell someone to do something ● Expressions: requests and responses ● People in groups ● A wildlife commentary ● too and enough ● Pronunciation: /ŋ/ /n/ ● Listen to phone calls making requests ● Read a commentary for a TV wildlife programme ● Use pronouns and possessive adjectives ● Life and culture: Romeo and Juliet ● Describe people’s likes and dislikes ● Interview a friend for a TV show ● Write and act a telephone conversation asking someone to do something ● Write a description of teenagers in your country Review Grammar check Study skills: Preparing for tests and exams How’s it going?: Progress check Coursework: Letters Unit 9 Groups Unit 10 Food for thought Review Grammar check Study skills: Preparing and giving a talk How’s it going?: Progress check Coursework: The ads page ● Listen to a story about a terrible night ● Read a story about an extraordinary experience ● Guess meaning from context ● Life and culture: Gandhi Review Grammar check Study skills: Learning English on your own How’s it going?: Progress check Coursework: Sports news ● Listen to a song ● Read three jumbled stories ● Follow the sequence of a story ● Life and culture: Keeping in touch ● Listen to a song ● Read invitations and replies ● Scan a text for information ● Life and culture: The number 13 ● First conditional with if and unless ● The future with will and going to ● Expressions: I hope so/not. I guess so/not. ● might and may ● when in future sentences ● should/shouldn’t ● Second conditional ● Expressions: responding to opinions ● Grammar index ● Communicative functions index ● Wordlist ● Phonetic symbols ● Verb forms and irregular verbs ● Songs ● Expressions of quantity ● Question words ● Subject and object questions ● Expressions: expressing preferences © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  6. 6. 6 Introduction Welcome to Messages, a lower-secondary course providing 80–90 hours of classwork per level. Messages is designed to meet the needs of you and your students by making both learning and teaching simple and effective. It has a clearly structured progression in both grammar and vocabulary, and a wealth of opportunities for students to practise the language they are learning. We hope that students will find Messages an enjoyable, engaging course, with its clear signposting of aims, interesting and motivating themes, and a wide range of rich resources, while teachers will find it offers practical, easy-to-use material that can be adapted to mixed-ability classes. Messages 4 is designed for students who have studied English for three years at secondary level, and includes revision of many basic structures. Course components Student’s Book ● Six modules of two units each ● Module opening pages ● Extra exercises page with KET and PET-style activities ● Extra readings on Life and Culture ● Review sections at the end of every module, containing grammar ‘work it out’ tasks and consolidation exercises, vocabulary summaries, study skills and a progress check ● Coursework ● Reference section containing: – Grammar index – Communicative functions index – Wordlist – Phonetic symbols – Verb forms and irregular verbs – Song lyrics Workbook ● Full range of exercises, including more KET and PET-style activities ● Extension activities for stronger learners ● Learning diary ● Comprehensive grammar notes ● CD-ROM Extra with a range of fun interactive activities practising grammar, vocabulary and reading. Also includes Workbook audio and animated tour of the Infoquests Teacher’s Book ● Step-by-step, easy-to-follow instructions ● Student’s Book answers ● Background information on texts ● Guidelines for how and when to include supplementary material ● Ideas for language games in the classroom ● Tapescript for the Student’s Book audio ● Workbook answer key and tapescript for the Listening exercises Teacher's Resource Pack ● Photocopiable activities: – Entry test – Communicative activities – Grammar worksheets – Module tests – Final test ● Pattern drills ● Teaching notes and answer key Audio CDs/Cassettes ● Student’s Book audio ● Pattern drills ● Tests audio Messages DVD/VHS videos for Levels 3 and 4 ● a collection of eight documentary-style programmes based around a teenage TV series, Get The Message! ● activity booklet including worksheets, teacher’s notes and key, plus full video scripts Web material ● Infoquests at ● Downloadable worksheets and Teacher’s guides for Infoquests at ● Downloadable grammar worksheets for weaker learners at About Messages 4 A sense of purpose and achievement In Messages, there are three levels at which students focus on what they can do in English: ● The 12 units are divided into three steps. Each step opens with a summary of the target language and the communicative task(s) (Use what you know) which students will be able to do, using that language. Each step takes students through a series of related activities, which lead them quickly from ‘input’ to meaningful, communicative ‘output’. Short, carefully prepared and guided tasks ensure that even weaker students can enjoy a sense of success. ● At the end of each module, students complete one part of a portfolio of work entitled ‘Our school magazine’. This is a continuous Coursework project, based on different aspects of the overall theme of the book (see below) and on the language of the preceding units. In Book 4, the Coursework invites students to write a range of pieces for a school magazine. Language is recycled and revised in the modules themselves and in the reviews, tests and additional material. ● There is an overall purpose to each year's work. Each book has its own theme, exemplified in the six Coursework tasks. In Book 4, the theme is ‘today’s world’. By the end of the year, students should be able to express and discuss their opinions in English and to produce a greater variety of written ‘genres’: for example, an interview, advertisements, reviews, letters and reports. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  7. 7. 7Introduction Authentic and meaningful language learning As in previous levels of Messages, the language is carefully controlled but is as natural and realistic as possible, presented and practised in authentic contexts. Students will continue to learn about their English-speaking counterparts, and about the world around them. Active, responsible learners In the units, students engage actively with the material and use a range of cognitive skills such as guessing, deducing, comparing, matching, sequencing. Students are asked to discover sentence patterns and grammar rules for themselves, to make their own exercises and to ‘test a friend’. There are frequent opportunities for students to talk about themselves, their interests and their opinions. In the reviews, a series of exercises and tasks help learners to monitor what they can do. In How’s it going? they make their own assessment of their grasp of the language points covered. This is reinforced when they complete the Learning diary in the Workbook. Using Messages 4 Module openers These two pages allow teachers to ‘set the scene’ for their students and help to motivate them by creating interest. The pages contain a list of what students will study in the module, the communication tasks they will carry out, a selection of visuals from the coming units and a brief matching exercise. Encourage all students to say as much as they can about the pictures before they do the matching exercise. With stronger classes, you may want to ask students to identify which language point each of the sentences relates to, or to supply similar sentences. Presentation In Steps 1 and 2 of each unit, there is a variety of grammar presentation texts and dialogues. They each present the new grammar point in a context which illustrates its concept and meaning, as well as providing plenty of natural examples of it. In some cases, students listen first with their books closed (or the text covered). This will enable them to focus on the sounds of the language without being distracted – and sometimes confused – by its written equivalent. Ask plenty of comprehension questions, and get students to repeat the key sentences. They should listen to / read the conversation/text at least twice during this phase of the lesson. Share your ideas The presentation is often preceded by this preparatory discussion, which reactivates and revises known language and sets the scene for the students, so that they can anticipate what they are about to hear or read. Key grammar Key grammar activities follow on from the presentations and focus on the target language within them. Give students a few moments to look at the grammar box and reflect before they discuss and complete the examples and explanations orally. They can then copy the completed sentences into their notebooks. In some cases, students translate the examples and compare them with the mother tongue equivalent. Practice The controlled practice exercises which always follow Key grammar sections can be done orally with the whole class, and then individually in writing. Students are then often asked to make their own ‘exercise’ and Test a friend. Look at the example in the book with the whole class first, adding further examples on the board if necessary. This is an excellent opportunity for students to focus actively on the new grammar and test their understanding. It also gives you a chance to monitor and deal with any difficulties they may have before you move on. For additional oral practice, there is a set of pattern drills in the Teacher’s Resource Pack, with the corresponding audio on the class CDs/cassettes. Recommendations for when to use the pattern drills are given in the unit notes of the Teacher’s Book. We suggest you play the complete drill through at least once, before pausing for the students to respond each time. You may prefer to do the drills yourself, without the recorded version. Key vocabulary In Book 4 there is more emphasis on using words in context, as well as exercises based on matching words and pictures. Some of the lexical groups recycle items which students should know, as well as introducing new words. Students can work alone or in pairs, and use their dictionaries for words they don't know. The core vocabulary of each unit is practised further in the Workbook. Encourage students to start their own vocabulary notebooks and to record new vocabulary in them. Key expressions In each unit, students learn a set of practical, functional expressions that they can use in everyday situations (for example, asking for clarification, making travel arrangements, responding to other people’s opinions). These expressions are first encountered in the presentation dialogues, and students then practise them further through pairwork. There is additional practice of the expressions in the Workbook. Key pronunciation Messages 4 further develops basic areas, such as stress and intonation in sentences and contrasting vowel sounds. The pronunciation activities are always linked to the language of the unit. Use what you know The Use what you know tasks at the end of each step enable students to use what they have learnt for an authentic, communicative purpose. Many of these tasks can be prepared in writing and then done orally, or vice versa. Students are always given examples to follow, and you will find a model answer where applicable in the notes that follow in this Teacher’s Book. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  8. 8. 8 Introduction Speaking Students are encouraged to repeat key vocabulary/expressions and the key sentences of each presentation. New language is practised in meaningful contexts that involve an element of creativity on the part of the learner, with an emphasis on moving from accuracy to fluency. Students ask questions, share opinions, talk about themselves, their country and the world around them. In addition, students can engage in role plays and act out rough or reduced versions of some of the presentation dialogues. The aim here should be to reproduce the situation rather than the original conversation word for word. Stronger students can work in groups and write a slightly different conversation. Writing Writing is involved in many of the Use what you know activities, where students write sentences, paragraphs or short dialogues. In Messages 4, a more extended writing task comes at the end of Step 3 in each unit. Here students are asked to write a variety of text types, for example, a postcard, a journal, invitations and replies, a short story. To help them to organise their work and choose appropriate language, a step-by-step Writing guide is provided, with practical advice and examples that they can use or adapt. These writing tasks can be prepared in class and done for homework. For longer writing tasks, encourage students to first write a rough draft, then read through and check their work before writing a final version. They could also check each other’s work. Listening Messages 4 provides plenty of practice of this skill. Students listen to presentation and reading texts, and in each unit there is a specific listening task, covering a variety of text types, for example, conversations, the news on the radio, an interview, a TV quiz programme. Three authentic songs are included for listening comprehension. The words are given on page 144 of the Student’s Book. The listening texts may include language which is slightly beyond the students' productive level. However, they are not expected to understand or reproduce everything they have heard. You should focus on the key sentences only. Remember that learners may need to listen more than twice during these activities. Reading Step 3 of each unit opens with a reading text connected with the unit theme, with a ‘warm-up’ Share your ideas exercise. The texts are recorded, but students are asked to read the text quickly themselves before they listen and read as a second step. Tasks provide practice in specific reading skills (for example, identifying the topic, skimming, scanning, guessing meaning from context), and there are also questions to check comprehension. A Word work section highlights certain word patterns or grammatical forms, based on language used in the text. Additional reading practice is provided through an extra reading text with each unit, dealing with Life and culture in the English- speaking world. Consolidation and testing At the end of each unit, there is a page of extra exercises on the language of the unit, providing practice of KET and PET-style tasks. At the end of every module, preceding work is pulled together in the Review. For each language point, students work through a simple analysis of the grammar and complete one or two tasks showing how they can use the language. In addition, the Review section includes work on study skills to help students become more independent and effective learners, and a chance for students to assess their own progress. Each Coursework provides a model, based on the school magazine produced by two of the characters in the book, for you to study with the whole class. Individual coursework can then be done at home over a period of a couple of weeks or so. At the end of the year, the student’s coursework portfolio comprises a series of different pages for a school magazine in English. For further consolidation of the language you can use the communicative activities and grammar worksheets from the Teacher’s Resource Pack, and the accompanying Infoquests on the web (see below). These should be done at the end of each unit when all the work has been covered. Students’ progress can be more formally tested through the use of the photocopiable module tests in the Teacher’s Resource Pack, which examine grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, listening and speaking, often through KET and PET-style activities. The audio for the listening element of the tests can be found on the class CDs/cassettes. Workbook Workbook activities should, in the main, be done for homework, though they can be prepared in class with weaker students if necessary, and you can also give stronger students the Extension exercises if they finish earlier than their classmates. Make sure you have covered the relevant part of the step before students begin the corresponding Workbook exercises. Sentences for translation are included in Step 3. At the end of the unit, students complete their Learning diary. The Workbook answer key and tapescripts can be found on pages 111–120 of the Teacher’s Book. Infoquests Each module of the course is accompanied by an Infoquest, in which students are encouraged to find information on specially designed websites and to work co-operatively. The websites are housed at and are designed to reinforce the language of each module, and should therefore be done at the end of the module. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  9. 9. Free accompanying worksheets and clear Teacher’s guides can be found at teacherquest. You will need to complete a simple form to register and then get access to these items, and will need to log in with your user name and password each time you want to use them. Classroom management Creating an ‘English’ atmosphere Use every opportunity to bring ‘the real world’ into the classroom: maps, posters, magazines etc. Encourage students to look for examples of English ‘text’ outside the classroom: words from pop songs, instructions for a machine, English food packaging in a supermarket etc. Use classroom instructions in English from the beginning, and get students to address you in English as much as possible. Making good progress A wide variety of task types ensures regular changes of pace and activity, with frequent opportunities for students to work at their own level. Work at a lively pace and have the courage to move on even though students may not have learnt everything in a lesson perfectly. Some of the activities include a time limit, to encourage students to work quickly and to introduce a ‘game’ element. Dealing with classes of mixed ability There are a large number of personalised and open-ended activities which allow students to respond in different ways, depending on their ability. The rubric do at least … also enables students to work at their own level. Other activities (If you have time, Try this! and the Extension exercises in the Workbook) can be used by students who finish early. Try to find ways to involve all the students. For example, ask weaker students to suggest single words to describe a photo, while stronger students might think of a question to ask about it. When you ask a question, give everyone the chance to think of the answer before calling on individuals to do so. When doing individual repetition, ask stronger students first, but be careful not to make this too obvious by always varying the order, and who you call on. Use the different skills of the students in as many ways as you can. The student who hates speaking may enjoy writing vocabulary on the board, while another student may be good at drawing, or making posters. Try to build an atmosphere in which students communicate with you and with each other in a respectful, courteous and good- humoured manner. Never underestimate the importance of praise and encouragement: That’s great! Well done! Good! Explaining new words New vocabulary which arises other than in the Key vocabulary section can be explained using visual aids, pictures on the board, mime, contextualised examples or, if necessary, translation. Encourage students to guess the meaning of new words as well as using their dictionaries. Controlled oral repetition Key vocabulary and expressions and key sentences in presentations can be reinforced through choral and individual repetition. This helps students ‘get their tongues round’ the sounds of the new language. When two or three individuals have responded, finish by getting the whole class to repeat. Get students to ask as well as answer questions. Questions and answers can be drilled by dividing the class in two and getting the groups to take it in turns to ask and answer, before moving on to drilling with two individual students. When drilling words or sentences, you can beat the stress of words and sentences with your hand to show where the main stress is – exaggerate slightly if necessary. You can also use your hand to show whether the sentence goes up or down at the end. With longer sentences, use ‘back-chaining’: … outside the cinema. … meeting us outside the cinema. He’s meeting us outside the cinema. Pairwork and group work Getting students to work in pairs will greatly increase the amount of English spoken in the classroom, even if some students may use the mother tongue at times. Walk round and listen whilst students are speaking. Vary the pairings so that students do not always work with the same partner. Always give examples of what you want students to do and check that they understand the activity clearly. Some of the activities in Messages 4 can be done in groups if you wish. Ensure first that everyone is clear about what they are doing, then monitor their work and don’t let the activity drag on for too long. Use mixed-ability groups and appoint a group leader. Correcting oral mistakes When correcting students, be sensitive and realistic about what you can expect at their level. Give them an opportunity to correct their own or each other’s mistakes whenever possible. Focus on fluency rather than on accuracy when students are engaging in communicative activities such as pairwork and talking about themselves. You can note down any important and recurring errors and go over them with the whole class at the end of the lesson. Remember to focus on content as well as on accuracy, and respond accordingly to students’ stories and points of view. Correcting written work Make your corrections clear by indicating the type of error, for example, vocabulary, grammar, spelling etc. Comment positively on content where applicable, e.g. This is very interesting, Carlos. Again, bear in mind the student’s level and the focus of the activity, as you may not want to correct every mistake. Enjoy it We hope that the material in Messages 4 will motivate the students and facilitate their learning, making your job as straightforward and effective as possible. Most of all, we hope it proves a rewarding experience for you and your students. 9Introduction © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Frontmatter More information
  10. 10. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 10 1 People and places See page 7 of the Introduction for ideas on how to use the Module opening pages. Answers 1 b 2 d 3 a 4 c Revision: Present simple Present continuous Past simple Communicative tasks: Talking about a picture Writing about famous people in the past STEP1 ● Draw attention to the title of the painting and explain that a nighthawk is a person who normally stays up late at night. Ask students to suggest what the ‘broken dreams’ could be. For example, perhaps they are dreams of happiness, fame and success that never came true. ● Ask students to read the text all the way through first, and then to find examples of the verbs. Explain that there are many more than three examples of each type in the text. ● Check that the meanings of all the verbs are known. For question 2, ask students to pick out irregular past forms and to say them in the infinitive form. a 1 Share your ideas ● Give students a few moments to look at the painting before asking them to describe it. ● If necessary, prompt them with questions, for example: – Where are the people? – What’s the woman / the man on the right doing? – What’s she wearing? – How do you think he’s feeling? Encourage students to answer in sentences, using the present simple form of be and the present continuous form of other verbs. ● (Note that the verb to look can be used in the present simple or the present continuous here: He doesn't look/isn't looking very happy.) ● Write key words on the board and use the discussion to introduce new vocabulary (for example, diner, counter, suit, tie). You may also want to introduce the word fur to help describe the woman’s clothing. ● If students recognise any of the four celebrities depicted in the painting, ask them to say what they know about them. Make it clear that these people were among the world’s most successful popular stars, known to millions of people. Help students to see the contrast between the glamour of their public lives and the appearance of loneliness and failure in the painting. Unit 1 2 Reading Idols of the 20th century Gottfried Helnwein was born in 1948 in Vienna. The title of this painting, Nighthawks, refers to a famous painting of the same name by the American artist Edward Hopper. Helnwein based his work on Hopper’s, but substituted the four celebrities for the lonely and isolated people in the original painting. Humphrey Bogart’s early film roles were mostly gangsters and villains, but he was later cast as a strong, heroic individual. Other famous films include The Maltese Falcon, To Have and Have Not, Key Largo and The Big Sleep. James Dean became an instant celebrity with his first film, East of Eden, followed by Rebel Without a Cause and Giant. In his roles in these films, he represented the troubled and rebellious youth of modern America. He died in his speeding sports car at the age of 24. By the late 1950s, Elvis Presley was the world’s most famous entertainer and his songs are still tremendously popular. Over 1 billion of his records have been sold around the world. Marilyn Monroe’s other film titles include How to Marry a Millionaire, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and The Misfits. She died in 1962 from an overdose of sleeping pills. BACKGROUND
  11. 11. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 11Getting together Answers 1 is, shows, are sitting, is standing, is wearing, doesn’t look, is laughing, (is) talking, isn’t listening, are 2 was born, acted, wasn’t, started, became, made, were, died ● Play the recording of the first paragraph. Students listen and follow in their books. ● Ask students to find the listed items in the text. Answers 1 Austrian 2 the USA 3 painter, waiter 4 suit, tie ● Ask students to look at the fact file on Humphrey Bogart. Play the recording of the second paragraph. ● Before students write, you could ask questions to check comprehension, for example: – What was Humphrey Bogart’s nationality? (American.) – Where was he born? (In New York.) – What was his job when he was young? (He was an actor in the theatre.) – How old was he when he became successful? (40.) – Where was Bogart living when he died? (In Hollywood.) ● Students copy and complete the fact file. Answers 1 1957 2 New York 3 Warner film studio 4 The African Queen, Casablanca 3 Revision Describing the present and the past ● In the first paragraph of the text, point out that we use the present continuous to describe paintings or photos. However, we almost never use the verb be in the present continuous. ● In the second paragraph, remind students of the regular -ed ending and the irregular forms of past simple verbs. ● Students complete the text with the correct verbs. Answers 1 ’s 2 ’s wearing 3 isn’t talking 4 ’s 5 was 6 acted 7 became 8 made 9 died c b 4 Listening Biographies ● Elicit or explain the meaning of biography. ● Give students a few moments to read the fact files. Explain the meaning of suede and help with the pronunciation: /sweid/. ● Ask students to write the numbers 1–10 in their notebooks. ● Play the recording several times. Students listen, look at the fact files in the Student’s Book and write the information in their notebooks. Answers 1 1962 2 Real 3 20th 4 Hot 5 35 6 guitar 7 eleven 8 Records 9 Don’t 10 Blue Tapescript Marilyn Monroe was born in 1926 and she died in 1962. She was born in Los Angeles and her real name was Norma Jean Baker. She was one of Hollywood's most famous actresses. For much of her career, she worked for the film studio 20th Century Fox. Her most famous film was called Some Like it Hot. Elvis Presley was born in 1935 and he died in 1977. He was born in Tupelo, Mississippi and he started to play the guitar when he was eleven. He was one of America's most famous singers. For much of his career, he worked for RCA Records. His most famous hit records were: Don't Be Cruel, Jailhouse Rock and Blue Suede Shoes. 5 Writing Elvis or Marilyn ● Students should choose one of the two stars and write two short paragraphs. Tell them that they don’t need to include all the information in the fact file if they don’t want to. Example answer In the painting, Marilyn Monroe is sitting at the counter next to Humphrey Bogart. She’s wearing a beautiful red dress. She’s laughing, but the other people aren’t looking at her. Marilyn Monroe was a famous actress. She was born in Los Angeles in 1926 and she died in 1962. She worked for 20th Century Fox and her most famous film was Some Like It Hot. You may want to do some quick revision of other irregular past verbs here. Choose verbs from the list on page 143 of the Student’s Book. Say each one in the infinitive and ask students to give the past simple. OPTION
  12. 12. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 12 Unit 1 ● As you will see, the main characters in Messages 4 live in Liverpool, and you will find that on the recordings Danny, Beth, Mr and Mrs Gray and Nadia speak with a Liverpool accent. In addition, Karim has a Pakistani accent, and Winston and Lorina have Jamaican accents. This is to give students practice in listening to a variety of spoken English. Although these accents are not strong, it means that certain phonemes are pronounced differently. Where this is particularly noticeable, we point it out in the teaching notes. We suggest that, when you repeat key sentences for the students to practise orally, you may want to modify these different accents. ● Play the recording again. Pause from time to time and refer back to the photos. Ask students to identify the people and describe what they are doing, for example: – Who’s sitting at the table? (Danny and Nadia.) – Who’s coming into the café? (Clare.) – Who’s Nadia talking to on the phone? (Luke.) – Why did she ring him? (Because he’s late, and they must leave soon to go to the cinema.) – Is Luke coming to the café? (No.) – Where are they meeting him? (Outside the cinema.) – Who’s got the tickets? (Clare.) ● Drill the questions containing the target language: – Who are we waiting for? – Who’s Nadia talking to? – What are you looking for? Give special attention to the unstressed prepositions at the end of the sentences. ● Check that students understand the ‘disagreements’ between the three speakers. ● Read out sentences 1–6 or choose students to do so. Ask students to say the full form of the contracted forms (Luke is, Danny is, are not). ● Students look back at the dialogue to find the answers. Remind them to correct the false sentences. Answers 1 False. Clare and Luke are late. 2 False. Danny and Nadia are waiting for Luke. 3 False. Luke’s talking to Nadia on the phone. 4 False. Clare has got them. 5 True. 6 True. c 1 Key vocabulary Verbs + prepositions ● Look at the example in sentence 1. Draw attention to the other verbs in bold type and explain that they are all followed by a preposition + an object. ● Set the time limit and ask students to choose the correct prepositions. They can work on this individually or in pairs. ● Play the recording. Students listen and check their answers. ● Make sure that students understand the difference between look for and look at, and between talk to and talk about. Ask them to translate these verbs into their own language. ● You may want to tell the class that the verb argue can be followed by with + person. For example, sentence 8 could be expressed as: I often argue with my father about football. Answers 2 at 3 about 4 from 5 about 6 for 7 to 8 about ● You could demonstrate this activity by choosing two or three of the sentences and telling the class about yourself, for example: I don’t like waiting for people when they’re late. I get angry! My friends and I sometimes argue, but we don’t argue about football. ● In pairs, students make sentences about themselves. Encourage them to add extra information if they can. ● You could ask some students to report to the class at least one thing that their partner told them. 2 Presentation Who are we waiting for? ● Look at the two photos and ask students to say what they can see. Establish that the larger photo shows a café scene. ● Ask the question and then play the recording. With books closed, students listen for the answer to the question. Check that students understand the disagreements by drawing attention to: – He’s always late. – No, he isn’t! – Yes, he is! etc. Answer They’re going to the cinema. b a b a You can ask students to practise the conversation in groups of three. However, you may choose not to organise this activity here, as the writing and speaking task in Exercise 7 is also based on this dialogue. OPTION Grammar: Present continuous Verbs + prepositions in Wh- questions Vocabulary: Verbs + prepositions Expressions: Contradictions Communicative tasks: Contradicting someone Making a conversation about going out with friends STEP2
  13. 13. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 13Getting together ● Focus on the second dialogue. Remind students of the use of have for short answers in the present simple form of have got – the form is the same for contradictions. Give a statement in the affirmative (for example, He’s got a guitar) and elicit the contradictory replies (No, he hasn’t! Yes, he has!). ● Focus on the third dialogue. Remind students of the use of do for short answers in the present simple – the form is the same for contradictions. Give a statement in the affirmative (for example, He plays the guitar) and elicit the contradictory replies (No, he doesn’t! Yes, he does! ). ● You may also want to mention the past simple form here, for example, We saw you. No, you didn’t! Yes, we did! ● Students complete the dialogues. ● Play the recording. Students listen and check their answers. Answers 2 have 3 you don’t 4 is, No, it isn’t ● Students practise the dialogues in pairs. ● If you have time, supply some more statements, for example: Your room’s a mess. I haven’t got time. They don’t speak English. Ask pairs to make dialogues. ● Pattern drill: TRP page 11 (Unit 1, Step 2, drill 2) b 3 Key grammar Verbs + prepositions in Wh- questions ● Students complete the example. Emphasise the position of the prepositions in these questions. ● Point out that the example sentences given here are in the present continuous, but the rule about the prepositions applies to verbs in other tenses as well. For example: What did you talk about? Who was she looking for? Answer to 4 Practice ● Students use the cues to form questions. They can do this orally and/or in writing. ● Look at the Remember! box and remind students of the uses of the present continuous. You could make comparisons with the present simple, for example: – Nadia’s phoning Luke. (= She’s doing it now.) – She often phones her friends. (= She does it regularly, as a normal habit.) – Clare’s sister is working in Japan. (= She’s there at the moment.) – She works for an international company. (= This is her permanent job.) ● Note that there is further practice work on verbs + prepositions in Wh- questions in the Module 1 Review at the end of Unit 2. Answers 2 What’s Danny looking at? 3 What’s Clare listening to? 4 What’s Luke looking for? 5 Who’s Nadia talking to? 6 Who are you waiting for? 7 What are Nadia and Danny arguing about? ● Pattern drill: TRP page 11 (Unit 1, Step 2, drill 1) For further revision of the present continuous, you could use a ‘Miming’ activity (see Games, page 110 in the Teacher’s Book). OPTION As a light-hearted activity to give further practice with contradictions, you could make some false statements about things/people in the class – the more absurd, the better. Invite students to contradict you, and prolong the argument a little. For example: Teacher: That’s a crocodile. Student: No, it isn’t! It’s a desk. Teacher: No, it isn’t! Student: Yes, it is! Teacher: Karel’s got green hair. Student: No, he hasn’t! He’s got brown hair. Teacher: No, he hasn’t! Student: Yes, he has! OPTION 5 Key expressions Contradictions ● Begin by referring students back to the presentation dialogue (Exercise 2). Ask them to find examples of disagreements. ● Look at the first dialogue. Point out that contradictions have the same form as short answers to questions. Emphasise the connection between the verb in the first statement (’re = are) and the verbs in the contradictions (’m not, are). a 6 Key pronunciation Stress and intonation ● Ask students to read the four dialogues. Then play the recording while they listen and read. ● Emphasise the stress, especially on the final word in the replies. Also use your hand to show the intonation in the replies, often starting on a high note and with a fall–rise pattern at the end of the sentence. You could point out that our voices often make sharp rises and falls when we are expressing strong feelings. ● Play the recording again and ask students to repeat.
  14. 14. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 14 Unit 1 1 Share your ideas Keeping in touch ● Explain the meaning of keep in touch. Note that we can use this phrase on its own (Let’s keep in touch) or followed by with + person (I want to keep in touch with you). ● Ask the questions and invite students to discuss them. You may want to focus particularly on postcards – ask: – When do you usually write a postcard? – What sort of things do people talk about in postcards? 2 Reading Hi there! Reading skills Skimming and scanning ● Focus on the three photos. Ask students to say what they can see and to offer ideas about where the places are. ● Point out that the aim of the first reading is to get a general sense of the texts as a whole, not to take in all the details. Set the time limit and ask students to read very quickly through to the end. If there’s something they don’t understand, they should ignore it and keep going. ● Students match the texts with the photos. Answers 1 b 2 c 3 a ● Read through questions 1 and 2 with the class and point out that the aim here is to find particular information. Students aren’t expected to deal with the whole of the texts. Instead, they should look for the part which contains each piece of information and then read carefully to extract it. ● Students read the texts again and answer the questions. a Answers 1 Nick’s (in the Shimba Hills) in Africa. Sara’s (in a café) in Moscow. Jared’s (in a plane) between Atlanta and Los Angeles. 2 b Comprehension check ● Play the recording while students listen and read. Pause after each text to help with new vocabulary, for example, butterfly, sunset, halfway, low, headphones, I wonder. ● Ask questions about each text, for example: – Is Nick outside or inside? (Outside.) – What’s he looking at? (The sunset and lots of butterflies.) – Who’s with Sara in the café? (Natasha.) – Are Sara and Natasha good friends? How do you know? (No. Sara says ‘Natasha seems nice’ – she doesn’t know her very well yet.) – What do you think the relationship is? (Perhaps they’re pen friends.) – Why are the lights low in the plane? (Because it’s late and nearly everyone’s asleep.) – Is Jared listening to music? (No.) – What does he mean when he says ‘I miss you’? (Students’ translation.) ● You might like to ask students to pick out examples of the present continuous in the three texts. Point out that we often use this tense in postcards to describe what we’re doing and what’s happening around us at the time of writing. ● Ask students to read the questions and to look carefully at the text to find the answers. Answers 1 Example answers Nick: someone at work / at his office / he works with Sara: her family Jared: his girlfriend or wife 2 At the end of the day. 3 No, he doesn’t. 4 It’s really cold. 5 Yes, she is. 6 The USA. 7 A full moon. 8 No, they aren’t. 3 Word work someone, everywhere ● Look at the examples. Make sure it’s clear that words with -one refer to people, while words with -where refer to places. ● Ask students to make the other words with some- and every-. a b Reading skills: Skimming and scanning Word work: Words with some and every Communicative task: Writing a postcard STEP3 7 Writing and speaking At the café ● Explain to the students that they don’t have to use the whole of the dialogue in Exercise 2, and that they can add different information as well as different names. ● Students write and practise their dialogue in pairs. Walk round the class, giving help where necessary. ● Ask some pairs to act out their dialogue for the class. Example answer A: Who are we waiting for? B: Teresa. I’ll phone her … Hi, Teresa. Where are you? … Are you coming to the café? We’re waiting for you … OK, bye. A: Is she coming? B: No, she’s meeting us later at the station.
  15. 15. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 15Getting together ● Point out that someone refers to a particular person (but we don’t know who it is). Everyone means ‘all people’. In each case, the word is singular. The same pattern applies to the other words with some- and every-. ● Draw attention to the Remember! box. Demonstrate the point by substituting in the example: Somebody’s listening to music. Make it clear that everybody and somebody are singular, like everyone and someone. ● With stronger students, you could also mention the use of the negative forms: no one / nobody, nothing and nowhere. Note that these are always used with verbs in the affirmative, for example: No one was at home. There’s nowhere for us to sit. Answers everyone, everything, something, somewhere ● Students read and complete the sentences. Answers 1 something 2 somewhere 3 everywhere 4 someone 5 everything 6 everywhere 7 someone 8 Everyone 4 Writing A postcard ● This exercise can be started in class and finished for homework. ● Read out the instructions for the writing task. Explain to students that the situation they choose can be one that they have really experienced or an imaginary one. Ask for some examples of possible situations. ● Read through the Writing guide with the class. Remind students of the use of the present continuous to describe what they and other people are doing and what they’ve arranged to do in the future. ● Draw special attention to the different ways of greeting and saying goodbye to someone. Point out that Dear … can be formal or informal, but Hi! is informal, normally used for someone we know well. Best wishes and All the best are more formal ways of signing off than the other expressions listed. ● Students use the Writing guide and the models in Exercise 2 to write their postcard. Example answer Hi Jana! I’m in Rome now and I’m waiting for Helena in my hotel room in the Piazza della Rotonda. We’re going to the Colosseum this afternoon. Outside there are people everywhere. They’re sitting at the café tables and the waiters are bringing drinks and amazing ice creams. The sun’s shining and I’m feeling great! Say hello to your family from me. Love, Elise b The Extra exercises can be used as consolidation at the end of the unit. The teaching notes explain how they can be exploited in class, but they can also be given as homework, depending on time available. 1 ● Go through the exercise with the class. Ask students to say whether the questions are in the present or the past, and elicit possible answers. ● Students write their own answers to the questions. ● Choose pairs of students to ask and answer the questions across the class. Example answers 1 Yes, I do. 2 Three. 3 Mr Gordon. 4 Yes, I did. I met an American girl called Josie and we talked in English. 5 Yes, I’m learning German. 2 ● Students read the sentences and choose the right words. Answers 1 c 2 b 3 a 4 b 5 b 6 b 3 ● Ask students to read through the text before choosing the right words. Remind them to look for time expressions to help with the verb tenses. Answers 1 b 2 a 3 c 4 c 5 b 6 c 7 a 4 ● Students complete the sentences with prepositions. Answers 2 for 3 to 4 for 5 about 6 at 5 ● Make it clear that the replies (a–f) are all contradicting the sentences in 1–6. ● Students match the sentences with the replies. Answers 1 e 2 d 3 a 4 c 5 f 6 b 6 ● Ask students to work on the translations in pairs or small groups, and then discuss with the whole class.
  16. 16. © Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-61441-2 - Messages Teacher’s Book 4 Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey Excerpt More information 16 Unit 1 Lead in ● If possible, show the location of Liverpool on a map of Britain. Point out its important position on the coast with access to the Atlantic Ocean, and its closeness to Ireland and to Manchester. ● Ask the question. Students will probably know something about Liverpool Football Club and may be aware that the Beatles came from Liverpool. Write notes on the board as they suggest ideas. Task ● Look at the photo of the boy and ask: Who is he? (Danny.) ● Look at the photos of Liverpool and ask students to say what they can see. Use the photos to revise key words and to introduce new ones (for example, port, dock, Chinatown). Add these words to the notes on the board. ● Give students time to read the text themselves. Then ask them to add any information they found to the notes on the board. ● Read the text aloud and help with vocabulary. Ask students to guess the meaning of Liverpudlian, proud, passionate, musician and tour. ● Ask some questions to check comprehension, for example: – What’s Danny’s surname? (Gray.) – How many people are there in Liverpool? (450,000.) – Who were ‘the Fab Four’? (The Beatles.) – Where did they start playing their music? (At the Cavern Club.) – What can you find at the Albert Dock? (Shops, cafés, museums and galleries.) – Who do you think ‘we’ are in the last paragraph? (Danny and his family.) ● Ask students to complete the matching task. Answers 1 b 2 d 3 e 4 c 5 a Liverpudlian / livə p dliən / is the word for a person from Liverpool (another word is Merseysider, from the Mersey River) and it also refers to the distinctive Liverpool accent. Liverpool / livə pu l/ expanded as a city during the 18th century, when it became a great centre for shipping to and from Britain’s colonies abroad, especially those in North America and the Caribbean (see Background notes on the slave trade on page 39). In the 19th century, it was the country’s most important port after London and had one of the greatest systems of docks in the world. The Albert Dock was opened in 1846. Over seven acres of water are enclosed by large warehouses with iron colonnades. The dock was redeveloped in the 1980s and is now a major tourist attraction. The Beatles Museum, the Maritime Museum and a branch of the Tate Gallery are located here. The Beatles – John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) – were all from Liverpool. The band was formed in 1960 and broke up in 1970. The original Cavern Club was demolished but has been rebuilt on its former site. The Liverpool Football Club is the larger of the city’s two great clubs. At the time of writing, it has won the English League 18 times and the European Cup five times. BACKGROUND Life and culture Welcome to Liverpool!