Special relationship between God and man initiated and sustained by the grace of God.Second between God and AbrahamThen between God and Abraham descendents, the children of Israel. So the Old testament tells the story of the Jews and their ancient worship of God.
He rejected Matthew, Mark, Acts, and Hebrews. He also rejected any writing that contradicted his teachings. 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus were also rejected. He only left a mutilated version of Luke minus the nativity and the ten letters of Paul.
The list of the books of the Bible was published by A.D 190. By the early third century only a handful of books continued to create question. Hebrews in the western regions and Revelation in the eastern region. The first list of books as we have them today came in an Easter letter written in 367 by Bishop Athanasius from Alexandria. Shortly afterward councils in North Africa at Hippo 393 A.D and at Carthage 397 A.D published the same list.
THE RULE OF BOOKSTHE FORMATION OF THE BIBLE 1
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BIBLE• A Roman Governor had a Christian brought before him, and found that he possessed a copy of the four gospels. He immediately asked where it came from and found that the scriptures were in circulation even in the fourth century.• Today we find it almost impossible to think of the Christian faith without the Bible. It is the foundation of Christianity’s evangelism, its teaching, its worship, and its morality. The constant test of our teaching today is based upon this phrase, “what does the Bible say.” 2
THE BASICS OF THE BIBLE• The word Bible means= book. Jerome the fourth century translator called the “the Divine Library”. The word shifted from Biblia meaning books, to Bible.• Today we find the Scriptures grouped under Old Testament and New Testament. In the ancient world a “testament” or more often a covenant was the term for a special relationship between two parties.• The term “canon” means measuring rod, ruler. It was the standard used in measuring something straight. John 10:35; Luke 24:44 3
TENETS OF THE BIBLE• Christians of the fourth century went through great lengths to make the Old Testament apply to the modern church. They soon developed a method of interpretation called the allegorical, which found Jesus throughout the Old Testament.• The Scriptures have both a literal meaning and a spiritual meaning which is hidden from most readers. Origen was a master at finding the Christian message just below the surface of the Old Testament. 4
THE QUESTION OF THE APOCRYPHA• A LIST OF 12-15 BOOKS THAT THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH RECOGNIZES AS CANONICAL, AND PROTESTANTS DO NOT.• PROTESTANT CHRISTIANS HAD 39 BOOKS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, SIMILAR TO THE JEWS. JESUS SPOKE OF THESE BOOKS, LAW OF MOSES, PROPHETS, AND THE PSALMS. Luke 24:44• THE TERM SEPTUAGINT MEANS THE GREEK TRANSLATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 5
THE FOUR GOSPELS• Churches also relied on accounts about the life of Jesus. The first Gospels were not written before A.D 60 or 70 but their content were partly in written form before this.• How were the 27 books of the New Testament chosen? Some internal characteristics of the developing life of churches, others were external. 1. Self evidencing quality. 2. They carry uniqueness on their face. 3. They exercise power over the lives of men. 4. Ties to the Apostles. Colossians 4:16; Matthew 10:40 6
LIST OF CHRISTIAN BOOKS• The church had to complete the New Testament because of marcion and his teachings. So they chose the letters of the Apostles and to link all the letters to the four Gospels by using the book of Acts as the bridge.• By retaining the Old Testament the church scored two important points. 1. Faith for the Christian would have to reconcile both the wrath and love of God. 2. The Old Testament shows the importance of the history of Christianity. 7
MARCION TEACHINGS• About A.D 140 a wealthy ship-owner marcion from Sinop e traveled to Rome. He fell under the spell of Gnostic teachings. Who believed that the God of the Old Testament was different from the God of the New Testament. The Old Testament God Jews only and was sheer justice. New Testament God love and grace.• He rejected the Old Testament completely, and any New Testament scripture that favored the Jews. Marcionite churches appeared, and had influence in the east for many decades. 8
FRESH VOICES FROM GOD• In A.D 156-172 Montanus appeared on the church scene, with his two prophetesses Prisca and Maximilla. They went around prophesying of the speedy second coming of Christ.• Montanus taught a doctrine of new age of the Spirit. The Old Testament had passed, Christian period centering on Jesus had ended.• The church did not believe the Spirit had quite speaking. The difference was that in the first days The Holy Spirit had enabled men to write the sacred books of the Christian faith; in later days the Holy Spirit enabled men to understand, interpret, and to apply what had been written. 9
VOCABULARY OF THE BIBLE• Septuagint=Greek Old Testament. Translation from the 70 interpreters. Ptolemy had this done for the Jews that spoke Koine Greek and not Hebrew.• The Talmud=teach, study. Rabbinic Judaism considered second to the torah. Has two components, the mishnah (oral law), gemara (other subjects) expounds broadly Hebrew Bible. 63 tractates, 6,200 pages long. Opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects. Law, ethics, philosophy, customs, history, theolog y, lore, history, and many other subjects. 10
VOCABULARY OF THE BIBLE CONT.• DEAD SEA SCROLLS=are a collection of 972 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 that consist of biblical manuscripts from what is now known as the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents found on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name.• TORAH=(teaching) the first five books of the Hebrew Bible.• TANAKH=is the name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible. Also know as the Masoretic Text. 11
VOCABULARY OF THE BIBLE CONT.• LATIN VULGATE=the late fourth century Latin translation of the Bible.• PENTATEUCH=The first five books of the Jewish and Christian scripture called the Torah.• MASORETIC TEXT=Is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible. It also defines letter text of these biblical books. With their vocalization (vowels) and accentuation (accents) known as the Masorah. 12
VOCABULARY OF THE BIBLE CONT.• CODEX ALEXANDRIUS=is the 5th century manuscript of the Greek Bible. Containing a majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible.• CODEX VATICANUS=Greek Bible which was kept in the Vatican library. Best New Testament.• CODEX SINAITICUS=one of the best Greek Text. Handwritten copy. 13