A new social frontier church history ii lesson 4

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  • Both of these were nourished by a devotion to the Bible, and God’s love revealed in Christ. The necessity of salvation through faith, and a new birth experience wrought by the Holy Spirit.

Transcript

  • 1. A NEW SOCIAL FRONTIER THE CLAPHAM SECT/OXFORD MOVEMENT 1
  • 2. TWO CHRISTIANS MOVEMENTS• No one in the nineteenth century England could ignore the pace of change. But two outstanding Christians movements helped literally millions of the fellow believers adjust to life’s little day and in the process won for themselves a respected place in Christian memory.• The Clapham Sect of evangelicals, and the Oxford movement of Anglican high churchmen. The Clapham Sect was a model of Christian social concern. The Oxford Movement was a wellspring of devout churchmanship. 2
  • 3. EVANGELICALS IN THE WORLD• The church is under a twofold commission: 1. God has sent His people into the world to proclaim the Gospel. 2. Believers are called from the world to worship and learn of Christ. Mission without worship can produce empty service, just as worship without mission can lead to careless religion.• The dawning of the Age of Progress found English Protestants either in the established Church, Anglicanism, or in the Nonconforming denominations, Methodist, Baptists, Congregationalist. But a new movement was coming on the seen. 3
  • 4. THE NEW MOVEMENT• The greatest power in the English religion was the evangelical movement, sparked and spread by John Wesley and George Whitefield. The chief marks of the movement were its intense personal piety, usually springing from a conversion experience, and its aggressive concern for Christian service in the world.• Impelled by the enthusiasm of the Methodist revival, the Evangelicals viewed the social ills of British society as a call to dedicated service. They threw themselves into reform causes for the neglected and the oppressed. 4
  • 5. THE CLAPHAM COMMUNITY• A group of wealthy and ardent Evangelicals who knew what it was to practice saintliness in daily life, and to live with eternity in view.• The groups spiritual leader was a minister named John Venn, a man of culture and sanctified good sense. The unquestioned leader of the sect was William Wilberforce (1759-1833)• They held “Cabinet Councils” in which they discussed the wrongs and injustices of their country, and the battles they would need to fight to establish righteousness. They all moved as one body, delegating to each man the work he could do best to accomplish their common purpose. 5
  • 6. EVANGELICALS AND SOCIAL ISSUES• Causes the Clapham Movement championed:• 1. The Church Missionary Society (1799).• 2. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1804).• 3. Society for bettering the Condition of the Poor (1796).• 4. Society for Reformation of Prison Discipline.• The greatest labor of the group centered on a campaign against slavery. Their first battle was for abolition of the slave trade, that is the capturing of Negroes in Africa, and shipping them for sale to the West Indies. 6
  • 7. THE SLAVE TRADE IN HISTORY• In 1562 the English entered this trade when Sir John Hawkins took a cargo of slaves from Sierra Leone and sold them in St. Domingo.• In 1770 out of a total of 100,000 slaves a year from West Africa, British ships transported more than half.• In 1789 Wilberforce made his first speech to the House of Commons on the traffic of slaves. Stage by stage the Clapham Sect learned two basics of politics in a democracy: first how to create public opinion; and second; how to bring pressure of that opinion on the government. 7
  • 8. THE END OF THE SLAVE TRADE• On February 23, 1807 the back of the opposition was broken. Enthusiasm in the House mounted with the impassioned speeches of supporters of abolition.• That halted the legal traffic in human lives, but slaves were still in chains. Wilberforce continued the battle for complete emancipation until age and poor health forced him from Parliament.• Thomas Fowell Buxton continued the enterprise, and on July 25, 1833 the Emancipation Act was passed freeing the slaves in the British Empire four days before Wilberforce died. 8
  • 9. OXFORD MOVEMENT• The Oxford Movement represents a contrasting response to the social crisis of the nineteenth century. The Oxford men were deeply troubled by the direction of English society.• Reforms in the government to them were attacks upon the sanctity of the Church of England.• The Reform Act of 1832 shifted the balance of power from the landed gentry to the middle class, and that meant non members of the Church of England wielded significant power over the Church. 9
  • 10. A SIGNIFICANT CRY• Some deeply religious men at Oxford University raised a cry against the thought. John Keble, a nation stands convicted of God’s sovereignty he said, “ when it shows disrespect for the successors of the apostles, the bishops of the Church, and appeals only to reasons based on popularity or expediency.• John Henry Newman (1801-1890) staunch supporter of Keble. Edward Pusey also joined the fight. By their preaching and writing these influential men turned their protest into a movement. 10
  • 11. TRACTARIANS• To spread their views the Oxford men launched in 1833 a series of “Tracts for the Times” which were labeled “Tractarians”.• They emphasized the apostolic succession of bishops through history and the Church’s God given authority to teach the truth and rule men’s lives.• They called themselves Catholic, on the grounds that they believed in early catholic Christianity, and they shunned the name Protestant, because it referred to a division in the church. 11
  • 12. PUBLIC WORSHIP• Public worship was vital to the Oxford men. They believed strongly in the religious value of symbolic actions in worship, such as turning toward the alter, bending the knee and elevating the cross.• Step by step the Oxford men moved toward the Church of Rome. Then in 1841 John Henry Newman wrote Tract 90 and asserted that the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England were not necessarily Protestant. They could be interpreted in the spirit of the Catholic church. He converted to Roman Catholic in 1845, and hundreds of clergyman of the Anglican Church followed him. 12