Currecny crisis


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Currecny crisis

  1. 1. CURRENCY CRISIS Dr. Archana Pillai Avinash | Tanay
  2. 2. Financial Crisis  A situation in which the supply of money is outpaced by the demand for money. This means that liquidity is quickly evaporated because available money is withdrawn from banks, forcing banks either to sell other investments to make up for the shortfall or to collapse.
  3. 3. Financial Crisis  A situation in which the value of financial institutions or assets drops rapidly
  4. 4. Currency crisis   A currency crisis is brought on by a decline in the value of a country's currency. This decline in value negatively affects an economy by creating instabilities in exchange rates, meaning that one unit of the currency no longer buys as much as it used to in another Currency crisis, which is also called a balance-of-payments crisis, is a sudden devaluation of a currency which often ends in a speculative attack in the foreign exchange market
  5. 5. Currency crisis  A currency crisis may result from chronic balance-of-payments deficits or from market speculation about the ability of a government to back its currency
  6. 6. Anatomy of Financial crisis
  7. 7. Flow of financial crisis 1 2 3 4 5 6 • Rise in interest rates, stock market crash, and widening of the interest rate spread • Major failure of a financial firm and the beginning of the recession which increases uncertainty in market place • Increase in adverse selection and moral hazards leading to a decline in investment activity and aggregate economic activity • Bank panic occurs and further increases the interest rate and worsens the adverse selection and moral hazards • Sorting out of solvent from insolvent firms and banks • Crisis would then subside, stock market undergoes recovery, interest rates would fall, decline in the interest rate spread between low and high quality borrowers
  8. 8. Major causes of Currency crisis Inflation  Current account deficit  Collapse of confidence  Lower growth and lower interest rates  Price of commodities 
  9. 9. Five Most Reliable Early Warning Signals of Currency Crisis 1 2 3 Signal Real exchange rate Exports Stock prices 4 M2/international reserves 5 Output Warning is issued when: The home currency is overvalued. The value of exports fall. The stock market index declines. International reserves are too small relative to money. There is a recession.
  10. 10. Models of currency crisis First generation models:  Motivated by the collapse in the price of gold, an important nominal anchor before the floating of exchange rates in the 1970s  These models are from seminal papers by Krugman (1979) and Flood and Garber (1984), and hence called “KFG” models
  11. 11. First generation models    They show that a sudden speculative attack on a fixed or pegged currency can result from rational behaviour by investors who correctly foresee that a government has been running excessive deficits financed with central bank credit Investors continue to hold the currency as long as they expect the exchange rate regime remain intact, but they start dumping it when they anticipate that the peg is about to end This run leads the central bank to quickly lose its liquid assets or hard foreign currency supporting the exchange rate. The currency then collapses
  12. 12. Second generation models   These models show that doubts about whether a government is willing to maintain its exchange rate peg could lead to multiple equilibria and currency crises In these models, self-fulfilling prophecies are possible, in which the reason investors attack the currency is simply that they expect other investors to attack the currency
  13. 13. Second generation models    For example, this can occur when the government is pursuing two goals. It wants to have a fixed exchange rate on the other hand, but it also wants to keep unemployment down (or alternatively, keep interest rates low, protect banks' balance sheets, contain external debt burden, etc) on the other Tight money supports the fixed exchange rate but worsens the other situation. While the government is able to maintain exchange rate stability by tight money policy, it may choose to do so. But when a big attack comes, maintaining the exchange rate becomes too costly, and the government will switch to the other regime of floating the currency and achieving the domestic goal In other words, the policy of fixing the exchange rate under some domestic strain and the policy of giving up currency stability and achieving domestic goals are both possible. Which one will be realized depends on whether the market attacks or not. The first solution is chosen if the market does not attack, but the second solution is chosen if the attack comes. It is the market, not the government, who decides
  14. 14. Third generation models   These models explores how rapid deteriorations of balance sheets associated with fluctuations in asset prices, including exchange rates, can lead to currency crises These models are largely motivated by the Asian crises of the late 1990s. In the case of Asian countries, macroeconomic imbalances were small before the crisis – fiscal positions were often in surplus and current account deficits appeared to be manageable, but vulnerabilities associated with financial and corporate sectors were large
  15. 15. Third generation models    Models show how balance sheets mismatches in these sectors can give rise to currency crises This generation of models also considers the roles played by banks and the self-fulfilling nature of crises McKinnon and Pill (1996), Krugman (1998), and Corsetti, Pesenti, and Roubini (1998) suggest that overborrowing by banks can arise due to government subsidies (to the extent that governments would bail out failing banks)
  16. 16. Third generation models   In turn, vulnerabilities stemming from over-borrowing can trigger currency crises Burnside, Eichenbaum, and Rebelo (2001 and 2004) argue that crises can be self-fulfilling because of fiscal concerns and volatile real exchange rate movements (when the banking system has such a government guarantee, a good and/or a bad equilibrium can result)
  17. 17. Third generation models  Radelet and Sachs (1998) argue more generally that self-fulfilling panics hitting financial intermediaries can force liquidation of assets, which then confirms the panic and leads to a currency crisis
  18. 18. Mexican currency crisis        Sexenio Pegged peso Trade Deficit – subsequent financing Tesobonos Forex Reserves Devaluation Bailout
  19. 19. Asian currency crisis 
  20. 20. The Argentine Peso Crisis   The peso-dollar exchange rate, fixed at parity throughout much of the 1990’s, collapsed in January 2002 Initial positive economic effects:  Argentina’s chronic inflation was curtailed dramatically and foreign investment began to pour in, leading to an economic boom  Peso appreciated against the major currencies as the U.S dollar became increasingly stronger in the second half of 1990’s
  21. 21. The Argentine Peso Crisis Reason and effects:   A strong peso hurt exports from Argentina and caused a protracted economic downturn that eventually led to the abandonment of peso-dollar parity in January 2002 This downturn, in turn, caused severe economic and political distress in the country. The unemployment rate rose above 20 percent and inflation reached a monthly rate of about 20 percent in April 2002
  22. 22. Major causes     Lack of fiscal discipline Labour market inflexibility Contagion from the financial crisis of Brazil and Russia The federal Government of Argentina borrowed heavily in dollars throughout 1990’s. There was an increase in public sector indebtedness.
  23. 23. The Argentine Peso Crisis    As the economy entered a recession in the late 1990’s, the Government encountered an increasing difficulty in raising debts, eventually defaulting on its internal and external debts. The hard fixed exchange rate that Argentina adopted made it impossible to restore competitiveness by a traditional currency depreciation A powerful labour union also made it difficult to lower wages and thus cut production costs
  24. 24. The Argentine Peso Crisis    The situation worsened by a slowdown of international capital inflows following the financial crisis in Russia and Brazil A sharp depreciation of Brazil real in 1999 hampered exports from Argentina The government of Argentina ceased all debt payments in December 2001 in the wake of persistent recession and rising social and political unrest. It represents the largest sovereign default in history
  25. 25. After the Crisis   The Argentine Government made an offer amounting to a 75% reduction in the net present value of the debt. But the Foreign bond holders rejected the offer Argentina began a process of debt restructuring on January 14, 2005, that allowed it to resume payment on the majority of the USD82 billion in sovereign bonds that defaulted in 2002 at the depth of the worst economic crisis in the country's history. A second debt restructuring in 2010 brought the percentage of bonds out of default to 93%
  26. 26. Thank You