Vietnam War

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Vietnam War

  1. 1. The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975
  2. 2. PHASE 1 - A WAR OF COLONIAL INDEPENDENCE AGAINST THE FRENCH <ul><li>Vietnam had been a French </li></ul><ul><li>colony under the name of </li></ul><ul><li>French Indochina (along with </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia and </li></ul><ul><li>Laos) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam began to fight for its independence from France during WW II ( when France was preoccupied with European conflict) </li></ul><ul><li>the Vietnamese revolutionary leader was Ho Chi Minh , a Communist </li></ul><ul><li>wanted to be the leader of </li></ul><ul><li>an independent, communist Vietnam; Ho received support </li></ul><ul><li>from both the USSR and “Red” China </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>this colonial war raged from 1946-54, ending in French defeat at Dienbienphu </li></ul><ul><li>Fr. decided it wanted out and called a peace conference in Geneva, Switzerland (attended by France, Vietnam, the US, and the USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>the decision of the conference was to partition Vietnam into a communist North led by Ho and a “democratic” South Vietnam led by Ngo Dinh Diem </li></ul><ul><li>the settlement was an outgrowth of basic Cold War tensions between the Americans and Soviets and clearly reflected the US policy of containment with respect to Soviet communist expansionism </li></ul><ul><li>the US had come to see South Vietnam as a “ domino ” that they couldn’t afford to lose </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk
  5. 5. PHASE 2 – AMERICAN ESCALATION AND MILITARY INVOLVEMENT <ul><li>this phase originated with </li></ul><ul><li>JFK but was intensified under Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ), who assumed the presidency </li></ul><ul><li> after JFK’s assassination </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. never formally </li></ul><ul><li>issued a declaration of war, but </li></ul><ul><li> after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident , </li></ul><ul><li>where two American </li></ul><ul><li>destroyers were apparently </li></ul><ul><li>fired upon by the North </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese, Congress </li></ul><ul><li>passed the Gulf of Tonkin </li></ul><ul><li>Resolutions (August 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>- here Congress gave LBJ </li></ul><ul><li>their support in sending </li></ul><ul><li>American personnel and material </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>in spite of ongoing escalation </li></ul><ul><li>throughout the 1960s, the US </li></ul><ul><li>experienced a lack of success </li></ul><ul><li>against the Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>guerrilla forces in S. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam (the Vietcong ) as the </li></ul><ul><li>US Army was unprepared for </li></ul><ul><li>their tactics and mentality </li></ul><ul><li>The US was also never entirely </li></ul><ul><li>successful in shutting </li></ul><ul><li>down the Ho Chi Minh Trail , a </li></ul><ul><li>supply line that ran between </li></ul><ul><li>North and South Vietnam via </li></ul><ul><li>difficult jungle terrain, </li></ul><ul><li>often underground and </li></ul><ul><li>through neighboring nations </li></ul><ul><li>like Cambodia </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>the war definitely turned against the US in 1968, when the NVA’s General Giap began the Tet </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive , a surprise offensive on a major Vietnamese holiday that saw attacks all over the country, including in Saigon itself </li></ul><ul><li>ongoing US casualties and losses saw an increase in antiwar sentiment on the American Home Front, </li></ul><ul><li>in large part because Vietnam was a TV War where American audiences saw the brutality of war firsthand </li></ul>
  8. 8. Los túneles del Vietcong
  9. 11. The Tet Offensive, January 1968
  10. 12. <ul><li>this included American atrocities at My Lai (Lieutenant Calley) </li></ul><ul><li>they also witnessed the usage of weapons like napalm and Agent Orange , which devastated the environment </li></ul>
  11. 13. Anti-War Demonstrations Columbia University 1967
  12. 15. Hell no, we won’t go!
  13. 16. Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968 Student Protestors at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968 Anti-War Demonstrations
  14. 17. “ Hanoi Jane” Jane Fonda: Traitor?
  15. 18. Anti-War Demonstrations <ul><li>Counterculture gathered momentum (Hippies, Flower Children, etc.), protests became widespread and began to polarize the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified after the Kent State Massacre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Guardsmen opened fire on student protestors in Ohio, killing 4, wounding 11 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>increasingly the American people came to perceive the “ Credibility Gap ”, i.e. they no longer </li></ul><ul><li>believed that LBJ was telling them the truth about events in the war </li></ul><ul><li>in 1968, LBJ chose not to run for president, and Republican Richard M. Nixon was elected on a platform of “ Peace with Honour ” </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Nixon wanted the South Vietnamese to play a greater role in the war, a policy he labeled Vietnamization </li></ul><ul><li>in spite of that, he continues carpet bombing Hanoi and orders a secret invasion of Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>He relied on the diplomacy of Henry Kissinger to achieve peace and/or an American withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>the US does manage to extricate itself by Jan. 27, 1973 </li></ul>
  18. 21. PHASE 3 – VIETNAMESE CIVIL WAR, 1973-75 <ul><li>the NVA easily defeated the South by 1975; the South had appealed to Nixon for aid, which had been promised, but by 1975 Nixon was embroiled in the domestic Watergate Crisis, and he was in essence a “lame duck” </li></ul><ul><li>1975 – the US abandoned its embassy in Saigon, which was renamed </li></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh City in the newly unified and communist Vietnam </li></ul>South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country
  19. 22. The Fall of Saigon America Abandons Its Embassy
  20. 23. <ul><li>3,000,000 Vietnamese killed </li></ul><ul><li>58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Under-funding of Great Society programs </li></ul><ul><li>$150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. morale, Self-confidence, trust of government, decimated </li></ul><ul><li>26 th Amendment : 18-year-olds vote </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer army </li></ul><ul><li>War Powers Act, 1973 – Reaffirms Congress’s constitutional right to declare war. Sets 60 day limit on presidential commitment of U.S. troops for foreign conflicts without a specific declaration of war by Congress. </li></ul>The Impact
  21. 24. <ul><li>Wars must be of short duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Wars must yield few American casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict media access to battlefields. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and maintain Congressional and public support. </li></ul><ul><li>Set clear, winnable goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Set deadline for troop withdrawals. </li></ul>Lessons for Future American Presidents
  22. 25. Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton” Senator John McCain (R-AZ)
  23. 26. The Vietnam Memorial, Washington, D.C.
  24. 27. Memorial to US Servicemen in Vietnam
  25. 28. Memorial to US Nurses in Vietnam
  26. 29. 58,000
  27. 30. President Clinton formally recognized Vietnam on July 11, 1995
  28. 31. Formerly Saigon A United Vietnam

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