U2 nutrition fernando

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digestive system, food and diet,

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  • Use some facts to introduce the digestive system and have the students explore what they already know about it.
  • Use models, posters and pictures to explain the role of each part of the digestive system
  • Use models, posters and pictures to explain the role of each part of the digestive system
  • Use models, posters and pictures to explain the role of each part of the digestive system
  • Use models, posters and pictures to explain the role of each part of the digestive system
  • Worksheet where students label the digestive system parts.
    They can use background resources to assist them
  • Solution to the worksheet
  • Use models, posters and pictures to explain the role of each part of the digestive system
  • U2 nutrition fernando

    1. 1. Food, diet and digestive system.
    2. 2. • We need food for energy. Our body uses energy to function.
    3. 3. • When we exercise additional energy is needed. – This energy initially comes from carbohydrates. – When our carbohydrates run out the body uses fats.
    4. 4. • We also need food for growht and repair. And to be healthy.
    5. 5. Why do we need vitamins and minerals? • Why do we need minerals? • We need Calcium for bones • We need Iron in order that red blood cells will be able to transport oxygen and CO2 • We need Fluorine for healthy teeth • We need common salt (sodium chloride) for physiological processes in cells • We need Potassium for kidney functions • Why do we need vitamins? • If you don’t have enough vitamins, you can suffer from : • Vit. A : unhealthy skin, poor night vision • Vit. B: Retardeed growth, and a deficience disease called beri-beri • Vit. C: scurvy (escorbuto) • Vit. D: rickets (raquitismo)
    6. 6. WaterWater functionsfunctions http://www.advancedhealthplan.com/Mayo_Clinic_Water.htmlhttp://www.ener-gie.com/h2o-water_molecule.html
    7. 7. Why do we need water?Why do we need water? • In our cells, chemical reactions take place in water • Waste chemicals are diluted in water in our body in order to be passed out of our bodies • Blood transport substances are dissolved in water
    8. 8. The main function of fibre is to keep the digestive system healthy and functioning properly. Fibre aids and speeds up the excretion of waste and toxins from the body, preventing constipation. No. To digest fibre, the enzyme cellulase must be present to break down cellulose, which compose the cell wall. In our digestive system, we can't synthesis this enzyme. Thus, we can't digest fibre. http://www.helpwithcooking.com/nutrition-information/dietary-fibre.htm http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070827021030AA78Smu l b)b) a)a) Guess the questionsGuess the questions
    9. 9. The main function of fibre is to keep the digestive system healthy and functioning properly. Fibre aids and speeds up the excretion of waste and toxins from the body, preventing constipation. Can we digest fibre? No. To digest fibre, the enzyme cellulase must be present to break down cellulose, which compose the cell wall. In our digestive system, we can't synthesis this enzyme. Thus, we can't digest fibre. http://www.helpwithcooking.com/nutrition-information/dietary-fibre.htm http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070827021030AA78Smu l b)b) a)a) Guess the questionsGuess the questions
    10. 10. What is the function of fibre? The main function of fibre is to keep the digestive system healthy and functioning properly. Fibre aids and speeds up the excretion of waste and toxins from the body, preventing constipation. Can we digest fibre? No. To digest fibre, the enzyme cellulase must be present to break down cellulose, which compose the cell wall. In our digestive system, we can't synthesis this enzyme. Thus, we can't digest fibre. http://www.helpwithcooking.com/nutrition-information/dietary-fibre.htm http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070827021030AA78Smu l b)b) a)a) Guess the questionsGuess the questions
    11. 11. Balanced diet
    12. 12. DISEASES • Cardiovascular diseases • Anorexia • Bulimia • Obesity
    13. 13. Excess of fat in adiposeExcess of fat in adipose tissuestissues Levels have been rising sinceLevels have been rising since the 1980sthe 1980s 1 in 4 Americans is now obese1 in 4 Americans is now obese Possible reasons for the risePossible reasons for the rise -Increased portion sizes-Increased portion sizes -Increased intake of refined-Increased intake of refined carbohydrates (may alsocarbohydrates (may also be implicated in rising ratesbe implicated in rising rates of diabetes)of diabetes) Obesity
    14. 14. Digestion • Digestion is the breakdown of large food molecules into small food mollecules in the digestive system, so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to every cell of the body.
    15. 15. Digestive system • Digestive truct • Glands Esophagus Stomach Small intestines Large intestines Rectum and anus Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas
    16. 16. Path of FoodMouth--chewing Pharynx--conscious swallowing Esophagus--transport to stomach Stomach--mechanical and chemical breakdown Small Intestines-- chemical digestion and absorption Large Intestines-- resorb water, form feces Rectum---collect and expel feces
    17. 17. MOUTHMOUTH MechanicalMechanical and chemical digestionchemical digestion start in the mouth.mouth. http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/biology/digestive_system.html Saliva contains the enzyme amylase ( it breaks down starch into sugar). Saliva also contains mucus which lubricates the food and helps it pass down the oesophagus.
    18. 18. PeristalsisPeristalsis The oesophagus has circular muscles in the wall. These muscles contract behind the bolus to push it along and the muscles in front of the food relax. This way food passes along the oesophagus to thestomach. This movement is known as peristalsisperistalsis. http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/biology/digestive_system.html
    19. 19. EnzymesEnzymes in digestion. http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/biology/digestive_system.html EnzymesEnzymes are chemicals that break down large food molecules into small food molecules.
    20. 20. STOMACH FUNCTION – Protein breakdown-- pepsin secreted by epithelial lining – Acidic conditions--for pepsin to work and to kill bacteria –Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food gastric juices gastric juices The gastric juices contain protease enzymes and hydrochloric acid
    21. 21. STOMACH – From esophagus (cardiac orifice) – To small intestine (pyloric sphincter)
    22. 22. FOOD CHYME CHYLE
    23. 23. INTESTINES • Small Intestine • Large Intestines Resorption of water Absorption of nutrientsDuodenum / Jejunum / Ileum CecumCecum,, coloncolon,, rectumrectum andand anal canalanal canal.. thethe ascending colonascending colon, the, the transverse colontransverse colon, the, the descending colondescending colon, and the, and the sigmoid colonsigmoid colon..
    24. 24. Small Intestine: Modifications for absorption Transverse ridges of mucosa Increase surface area Microvilli: Increase surface a Modifications decrease distally Villi Move chyme, increase contact Length Increase surface area
    25. 25. Glands Digestion function Role in glucose metabolism • Salivary glands • Liver • Gallbladder • Pancreas
    26. 26. Interesting Facts about the Digestive System…•We eat about 500kg of food per year. •We produce 1.7 litres of saliva each day. •In the mouth, food is either cooled or warmed to a more suitable temperature. •The oesophagus is approximately 25cm long. •Muscles contract in waves to move the food down the esophageus. This means that food would get to a person's stomach, even if they were standing on their head. •An adults stomach can hold approximately 1.5 litres of material and produces about 2.5 litres of gastric juice everyday. •In an average person, it takes 8 seconds for food to travel down the food pipe, 3-5 hours in small intestine and 3-4 days in the large intestine. •The human body takes 6 hours to digest a high fat meal and takes 2 hours for a carbohydrate meal. •Every day 11.5 litres of digested food, liquids and digestive juices flow through the digestive system, but only 100mls is lost in faeces. •Most of us pass somewhere between 200 and 2,000 ml of gas per day. These emissions are composed of five gasses: nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), and methane (CH4).
    27. 27. Overview of the Digestive System 1 - the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food). - glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules. - the long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. - rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary - you cannot control it. It is also what allows you to eat and drink while upside-down. - a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins. - a sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food enters the stomach, it is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes. Salivary glands / Stomach / Mouth / Esophageus / Peristalsis / Liver 12 3 4 56
    28. 28. Overview of the Digestive System 1 - the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food). - glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules. - the long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. - rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary - you cannot control it. It is also what allows you to eat and drink while upside-down. - a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins. - a sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food enters the stomach, it is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes. Salivary glands / Stomach / Mouth / Esophageus / Peristalsis / Liver 1 3 2 4 5 6 12 3 4 56
    29. 29. Overview of the Digestive System 2 - food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. It goes on to the small intestine for further digestion. - a small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine. - a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine. - an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine. - the first part of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the stomach to the jejunum. 1 2 34 5Pancreas / Duodenum / Chyme / Gall bladder / Bile
    30. 30. Overview of the Digestive System 2 - food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. It goes on to the small intestine for further digestion. - a small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine. - a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine. - an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine. - the first part of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the stomach to the jejunum. 1 2 34 5Pancreas / Duodenum / Chyme / Gall bladder / Bile 1 3 2 4 5
    31. 31. The Digestive System
    32. 32. Answers
    33. 33. Overview of the Digestive System Ileum - the last part of the small intestine before the large intestine begins. Cecum - the first part of the large intestine; the appendix is connected to the cecum. Appendix - a small sac located on the cecum. Ascending colon - the part of the large intestine that run upwards; it is located after the cecum. Transverse colon - the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen. Descending colon - the part of the large intestine that run downwards after the transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon. Sigmoid colon - the part of the large intestine between the descending colon and the rectum. Rectum - the lower part of the large intestine, where faeces are stored before they are excreted. Anus - the opening at the end of the digestive system from which faeces (waste) exits the body
    34. 34. • We eat about 500kg of food per year. • We produce 1.7 litres of saliva each day. • In the mouth, food is either cooled or warmed to a more suitable temperature. • The oesophagus is approximately 25cm long. – Muscles contract in waves to move the food down the esophageus. This means that food would get to a person's stomach, even if they were standing on their head. • An adults stomach can hold approximately 1.5 litres of material and produces about 2.5 litres of gastric juice everyday. • In an average person, it takes 8 seconds for food to travel down the food pipe, 3-5 hours in small intestine and 3- 4 days in the large intestine. • The human body takes 6 hours to digest a high fat meal and takes 2 hours for a carbohydrate meal. • Every day 11.5 litres of digested food, liquids and digestive juices flow through the digestive system, but only 100mls is lost in faeces. • Most of us pass somewhere between 200 and 2,000 ml of gas per day. These emissions are composed of five gasses: nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), and methane (CH4).
    35. 35. http://biodeluna.wordpress.com/

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