Environmental Detectives Prospero’s Island PhET: Eating and Exercise
Some Fun: My Solar System Go to: http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=My_Solar_System Click: Run Now Gravitational Force: F=G(m1m2)/d2 Celestial orbits depend on the initial velocity vectors of the objects.
Experience the reality that words and symbols describe
Promote autonomy and choice
Consequences for every decision made
Challenging, collaborative, creative, competitive
Require a player to learn a variety of new and difficult skills and strategies
Master skills by advancing through ever-harder levels
Often requires outside research and collaboration with other players
Source: Aldrich 2008
Essential Elements of Educational Simulation Makes it EFFECTIVE: Tips, directions, graphs, context, learning strategies, facilitation, reflection, assessment Makes it EXECUTABLE: Content (driven by learning goals), actions, results, feedback, interactivity, dynamic Makes it ENGAGING: fun, rewards, competition, discovery, social worth Might be embedded, or more likely… require teacher support. (Source: Aldrich, 2008 )
One’s own quest for knowledge is at the forefront of the learning experience.
Cognitive conflict - puzzlement is the stimulus for learning.
Learning by trial and error
Social status is based on investing and hard work
Student owns his/her learning so it’s worth something
Spectrum of Simulations and Games Environmental Detectives Majestic Civilization III Revolution River City BioHazard Prospero’s Island PhET PhET ASPIRE Lab home.earthlink.net/~mmc1919/venturi.html Examples MathBlaster “ Edutainment” +Augmented Reality. Multiple media: desktop, PDA, cell phone, on location +Role Playing, collaboration, Negotiation +Complex Processes: social, scientific, cultural, etc. Points, Goal +Concept development Interactive, short or several periods +Illustration Dynamic, Short Engagement, Memorizing Ubiquitous Games Multi User Complex Games Single User Complex Games Dynamic Interactive Simulations Animation Drill & Skill
Evidence that simulations and games improve a variety of cognitive capabilities . (Source: Fletcher & Tobias, 2006, Trey & Khan 2008, White & Frederickson 1998, Colella, 2001 cited in Squire & Jenkins 2003)
Analogies that are dynamic, interactive, and integrated in a computer simulation have a strong effect on learning outcomes , particularly for unobservable phenomena in science. (Source Try & Khan, 2008)
Develops ability to draw distinctions between important and unimportant facts.
Marc Prensky (Games2train, The Digital Multiplier)
Clark Aldrich – Author, Simulation designer
Serious Games Initiative
Muzzy Lane (software developer)
"Breaking down the artificial barriers between what we learn and what we do, between business and academics, and between understanding history and controlling our future, simulation development will be a defining 21st century industry." - Clark Aldrich
Quiz Time http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title =simulations-gaming-in-authentic-learning
Aldrich, C. (2008). Clark Aldrich's style guide for serious games and simulations [Electronic Version]. Notes from an Analyst and Sumulation Designer . Retrieved 11/24/2008 from http://clarkaldrich.blogspot.com/search/label/Topic%20Heading .
Barbara Y. White, & Frederikson, J. R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16 (1), 3-118.
Dominguez, L. (2006). Reflective assessment [Electronic Version]. Teaching Central , 1. Retrieved 11/24/2008 from http://www.facit.cmich.edu/teaching-central/issues/may06/reflective-assessment.htm .
Fletcher, J. D., & Tobias, S. (2006). Using computer games and simulations for instruction: A research review . Paper presented at the Society for Applied Learning Technology Meeting, New Learning Technologies. Retrieved 11/24/2008 http://digiplay.info/node/3151
Galarneau, L. (2005). Authentic learning experiences through play: Games, simulations and the construction of knowledge. Paper presented at the DiGRA 2005 Conference: Changing Views - Worlds in Play.
Ibbitson, K. E. (2005). The use of complex digital games and simulations in the classroom to enhance engagement and learning. Irvine CA: An independent research paper.
Prensky, M. (2001). Do they really think differently? [Electronic Version]. On the Horizon , 9. Retrieved 11/26/2008 from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf .
Prensky, M. (2008). Are you lecturing about nouns or facilitating learning with verbs? [Electronic Version]. The Greentree Gazette . Retrieved 11/26/2008 from http://www.greentreegazette.com/articles/load.aspx?art=985 .
Squire, K., & Jenkins, H. (2003). Harnessing the power of games in education [Electronic Version]. IN>>SIGHT , 3, 5-33. Retrieved 11/24/2008.
Trey, L., & Khan, S. (2008). How science students can learn about unobservable phenomena using computer-based analogies. Computers & Education, 51 (2), 519-529.