The Use of Computer  Simulations & Gaming  to Enhance Authentic Learning By Alan Zollner Teaching with Technology ED 5700-...
Elluminate Poll Question: Have you used a computer simulation, or played a computer game, at any time in the past 5 years?...
Goals <ul><li>Introduce the role of simulations and games </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize connections with learning theory </l...
Some Fun:  My Solar System Go to:  http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=My_Solar_System Click:  Run Now Gravi...
“ My Solar System”  Experience <ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centered </li></ul>...
Complex Games and Simulations <ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>A game that simulates a real-life scenario.  </li></ul>...
Essential Elements of Educational Simulation Makes it EFFECTIVE: Tips, directions, graphs, context, learning strategies, f...
Alignment with Constructivism <ul><li>CONSTRUCTIVIST BELIEFS </li></ul><ul><li>Not simplified problems </li></ul><ul><li>N...
Spectrum of Simulations and Games Environmental Detectives Majestic Civilization III Revolution River City BioHazard Prosp...
Learning with Sims <ul><li>Evidence that simulations and games  improve a variety of cognitive capabilities . (Source: Fle...
Teaching with Sims <ul><li>Reflection   - Provides individual construction of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark  -  Test...
Reflective Assessment <ul><li>Examine Critical Issues - thoughts, feelings, observations </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the exp...
Key Players <ul><li>Univ of Wisc – Madison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurt Squire  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Paul Gee </...
Quiz Time http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title =simulations-gaming-in-authentic-learning
Homework <ul><li>Distributed Supercomputing: </li></ul><ul><li>Donate the time your computer is turned on, but is idle, to...
Sources <ul><li>Aldrich, C. (2008). Clark Aldrich's style guide for serious games and simulations [Electronic Version].  N...
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The Use of Computer Simulations and Gaming to Enhance Authentic Learning

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A presentation for Teaching with Technology ED 5700-01 at Mount Saint Mary College by Alan Zollner

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  • The Use of Computer Simulations and Gaming to Enhance Authentic Learning

    1. 1. The Use of Computer Simulations & Gaming to Enhance Authentic Learning By Alan Zollner Teaching with Technology ED 5700-01 Mount Saint Mary College Fall 2008
    2. 2. Elluminate Poll Question: Have you used a computer simulation, or played a computer game, at any time in the past 5 years? (yes / no)
    3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Introduce the role of simulations and games </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize connections with learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Tips on choosing and using effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Areas to watch future development </li></ul>Environmental Detectives Prospero’s Island PhET: Eating and Exercise
    4. 4. Some Fun: My Solar System Go to: http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=My_Solar_System Click: Run Now Gravitational Force: F=G(m1m2)/d2 Celestial orbits depend on the initial velocity vectors of the objects.
    5. 5. “ My Solar System” Experience <ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centered </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Discover </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul><ul><li>FUN </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Place the learner at center of the learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the learner to take an active role </li></ul><ul><li>Place the learning situation in a real world context , either physically or virtually. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Complex Games and Simulations <ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>A game that simulates a real-life scenario. </li></ul><ul><li>Model and present and abstracted reality </li></ul><ul><li>Players participate in a new world </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabit a role otherwise inaccessible </li></ul><ul><li>Experience the reality that words and symbols describe </li></ul><ul><li>Promote autonomy and choice </li></ul><ul><li>Require interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences for every decision made </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Games </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging, collaborative, creative, competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Require a player to learn a variety of new and difficult skills and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Master skills by advancing through ever-harder levels </li></ul><ul><li>Often requires outside research and collaboration with other players </li></ul>Source: Aldrich 2008
    7. 7. Essential Elements of Educational Simulation Makes it EFFECTIVE: Tips, directions, graphs, context, learning strategies, facilitation, reflection, assessment Makes it EXECUTABLE: Content (driven by learning goals), actions, results, feedback, interactivity, dynamic Makes it ENGAGING: fun, rewards, competition, discovery, social worth Might be embedded, or more likely… require teacher support. (Source: Aldrich, 2008 )
    8. 8. Alignment with Constructivism <ul><li>CONSTRUCTIVIST BELIEFS </li></ul><ul><li>Not simplified problems </li></ul><ul><li>Not basic skill drills </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter complex learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple perspectives and representations </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to research, explore, and discover </li></ul><ul><li>One’s own quest for knowledge is at the forefront of the learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive conflict - puzzlement is the stimulus for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>GAMES </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring points </li></ul><ul><li>Active Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>Problem based </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centered </li></ul><ul><li>Urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Social status is based on investing and hard work </li></ul><ul><li>Student owns his/her learning so it’s worth something </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIPLAYER GAMES </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational </li></ul>
    9. 9. Spectrum of Simulations and Games Environmental Detectives Majestic Civilization III Revolution River City BioHazard Prospero’s Island PhET PhET ASPIRE Lab home.earthlink.net/~mmc1919/venturi.html Examples MathBlaster “ Edutainment” +Augmented Reality. Multiple media: desktop, PDA, cell phone, on location +Role Playing, collaboration, Negotiation +Complex Processes: social, scientific, cultural, etc. Points, Goal +Concept development Interactive, short or several periods +Illustration Dynamic, Short Engagement, Memorizing Ubiquitous Games Multi User Complex Games Single User Complex Games Dynamic Interactive Simulations Animation Drill & Skill
    10. 10. Learning with Sims <ul><li>Evidence that simulations and games improve a variety of cognitive capabilities . (Source: Fletcher & Tobias, 2006, Trey & Khan 2008, White & Frederickson 1998, Colella, 2001 cited in Squire & Jenkins 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Analogies that are dynamic, interactive, and integrated in a computer simulation have a strong effect on learning outcomes , particularly for unobservable phenomena in science. (Source Try & Khan, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Develops ability to draw distinctions between important and unimportant facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Connections for students with disabilites </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations evoke real emotions ==> real memories </li></ul><ul><li>Failure + Feedback ==> Learning </li></ul>
    11. 11. Teaching with Sims <ul><li>Reflection - Provides individual construction of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark - Test simulation against known solutions or outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Measure against learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to form connections </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge theoretical knowledge with physical world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Pilots go on to train with physical airplanes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding , embedded or facilitated by the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust to the student’s zone of proximal development </li></ul>Civilization III
    12. 12. Reflective Assessment <ul><li>Examine Critical Issues - thoughts, feelings, observations </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the experience to coursework </li></ul><ul><li>Find personal relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection creates meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Self examination lead to better critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the learning experiences of your students </li></ul>Prospero’s Island
    13. 13. Key Players <ul><li>Univ of Wisc – Madison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurt Squire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Paul Gee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GAPPS (Games and Professional Practice Simulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seymour Papert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Jenkins (Comparative Media Studies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Education Arcade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christopher Dede </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George Mason University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MUVEES (Multi-User Virtual Environment Experiential Simulator) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UC-Berkley </li></ul><ul><li>American Association of History and Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Prensky (Games2train, The Digital Multiplier) </li></ul><ul><li>Clark Aldrich – Author, Simulation designer </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Games Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Muzzy Lane (software developer) </li></ul><ul><li>Digiplay Initiative </li></ul>&quot;Breaking down the artificial barriers between what we learn and what we do, between business and academics, and between understanding history and controlling our future, simulation development will be a defining 21st century industry.&quot; - Clark Aldrich
    14. 14. Quiz Time http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title =simulations-gaming-in-authentic-learning
    15. 15. Homework <ul><li>Distributed Supercomputing: </li></ul><ul><li>Donate the time your computer is turned on, but is idle, to computational simulation projects that benefit humanity! Research to Conquer Cancer, Fight AIDS, Climate Prediction, and more. </li></ul><ul><li>Please Visit: </li></ul><ul><li>World Community Grid: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Boinc http://boinc.berkeley.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>PS3Grid.net http://www.ps3grid.net/ </li></ul>
    16. 16. Sources <ul><li>Aldrich, C. (2008). Clark Aldrich's style guide for serious games and simulations [Electronic Version]. Notes from an Analyst and Sumulation Designer . Retrieved 11/24/2008 from http://clarkaldrich.blogspot.com/search/label/Topic%20Heading . </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara Y. White, & Frederikson, J. R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16 (1), 3-118. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominguez, L. (2006). Reflective assessment [Electronic Version]. Teaching Central , 1. Retrieved 11/24/2008 from http://www.facit.cmich.edu/teaching-central/issues/may06/reflective-assessment.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>Fletcher, J. D., & Tobias, S. (2006). Using computer games and simulations for instruction: A research review . Paper presented at the Society for Applied Learning Technology Meeting, New Learning Technologies. Retrieved 11/24/2008 http://digiplay.info/node/3151 </li></ul><ul><li>Galarneau, L. (2005). Authentic learning experiences through play: Games, simulations and the construction of knowledge. Paper presented at the DiGRA 2005 Conference: Changing Views - Worlds in Play. </li></ul><ul><li>Ibbitson, K. E. (2005). The use of complex digital games and simulations in the classroom to enhance engagement and learning. Irvine CA: An independent research paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2001). Do they really think differently? [Electronic Version]. On the Horizon , 9. Retrieved 11/26/2008 from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2008). Are you lecturing about nouns or facilitating learning with verbs? [Electronic Version]. The Greentree Gazette . Retrieved 11/26/2008 from http://www.greentreegazette.com/articles/load.aspx?art=985 . </li></ul><ul><li>Squire, K., & Jenkins, H. (2003). Harnessing the power of games in education [Electronic Version]. IN>>SIGHT , 3, 5-33. Retrieved 11/24/2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Trey, L., & Khan, S. (2008). How science students can learn about unobservable phenomena using computer-based analogies. Computers & Education, 51 (2), 519-529. </li></ul>
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