Elements From Stars

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Slide presentation for MS chemistry unit describing formation of the elements. Presentation uses photos from Hubble Space Telescope. Ends with open writing exercise.

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Elements From Stars

  1. 3. Hubble Space Telescope
  2. 4. The remnant of “Tycho’s Supernova”, a huge ball of expanding plasma. The blue outer shell arises from X-ray emission by high-speed electrons .
  3. 5. <ul><li>Plasma: </li></ul><ul><li>a state of matter that consists of a gas-like mixture of free electrons and nuclei of atoms that have been stripped of electrons </li></ul>
  4. 6. Plasma Lamp Lightning is a form of plasma
  5. 8. <ul><li>On the basis of scientific evidence… </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is estimated to be over 10 billion years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Current theory is that its entire contents expanded explosively from a hot, dense, chaotic mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Stars condensed by gravity out of clouds of molecules of the lightest elements until nuclear fusion of the light elements into heavier ones began to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion released great amounts of energy over millions of years. Eventually, some stars exploded, producing clouds of heavy elements from which other stars and planets could later condense. The process of star formation and destruction continues. </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Fusion: A nuclear process that releases energy when light atomic nuclei combine to form heavier nuclei. Fusion is the energy source for stars like our Sun. </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Fusion: A nuclear process that releases energy when light atomic nuclei combine to form heavier nuclei. Fusion is the energy source for stars like our Sun. </li></ul>
  8. 13. Bigger stars have more mass, which means that when the helium is exhausted, they can have a new round of collapse and produce the pressure to start a new round of fusion, creating yet heavier elements. This can potentially go on until iron is reached.
  9. 14. Stardust <ul><li>STARDUST </li></ul><ul><li>All matter in the universe heavier than hydrogen is the result of nuclear fusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Truly heavy elements, such as gold, lead or uranium, can only be created through supernova explosions. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, all the substances we are familiar with on Earth are compounds built out of the debris of some past stellar demise. </li></ul>
  10. 15. The Butterfly Nebula
  11. 16. <ul><li>Supernova(e): The explosive death of a massive star whose energy output causes its expanding gases to glow extraordinarily bright for weeks or months. </li></ul>
  12. 19. The Helix Nebula – Planetary Nebula “ We are stardust contemplating stardust.”
  13. 20. The Crab Nebula
  14. 21. Image credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) and J. Green (University of Colorado, Boulder) Supernova Remnant (SNR), known as &quot;E0102 &quot;
  15. 23. The atoms we are made from were formed in the stars billions of years ago. We are alive for less than 100 years, and then our atoms go back to the Earth and eventually into the universe. What is one thing you hope to accomplish while alive on Earth? Why? Explain.

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