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Instructional technology

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  • 1. ZOLKEFLI BAHADOR /23 1
  • 2. Instructional Design as a Process: Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. Itincludes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concernedwith research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.
  • 3. . Instructional Design as a Science: Instructional design is the science of creating detailedspecifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. Instructional Design as Reality:Instructional design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the "science" have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.
  • 4. Instructional System: An instructional system is an arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning. Instructional design is the systematic process of developing instructional systems and instructional development is the process of implementing the system or plan. Instructional Technology: Instructional technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems.Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development. Instructional Technology = Instructional Design + Instructional Development Instructional Development: The process of implementing the design plans.
  • 5.  The computer like any other technology is merely a tool, albeit a powerful one. The software that is being developed is crucial and must be suitable for use in education. To ensure that we have software that meet educators requirement, we have to go through a systematic process called instructional design. 5
  • 6. Instructional Design “A systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and learning.” (Kemp et.al,1998) “Instructional Design (also known as Instructional Development) is a process which is followed throughout the development of an online lesson, activity or course.” (LTS, 1998)“How to plan, construct, analyze, evaluate and manage the instructional process effectively so that it will ensure competent performance from students. This is based on learning theories and styles and information technology use.” 6
  • 7. Key Players In The Instructional Design Instructor Key Instructional Evaluator- Players designer- Subject Matter Expert /23 7
  • 8. Instructional Design Models Guidelines or sets of strategies of teaching approaches. Effective instructional models are based on learning theories - people learn new ideas and concepts. Learning theories explain the relationship between information we already know and the new information we are trying to learn. Instructional models organize combinations of instructional strategy components and integrate them to produce a course of instruction. /23 8
  • 9. Instructional Design ModelsExamples:  Dick & Carey  Model ADDIE  Hanaffin & Peck  Model Jerrold Kemp  Rapid Prototyping  Waterfall Model 9
  • 10. Hanaffin & Peck (1998) FASA 3 FASA 1 FASA 2 Pembangunan dan Analisa Keperluan Reka bentuk Perlaksanaan Penilaian dan Penyemakan Aliran kerja pembangunan WBI berdasarkan model rekabentuk instruksi Hanaffin dan Peck (1998) 10
  • 11. 1. Analisa Keperluan Analisis keperluan – pembangunan lebih terancang dan sistematik. Mengenalpasti masalah dan keperluan Memahami syarat-syarat dan ciri-ciri utama yang akan dilaksanakan. Kefahaman tentang:  Pengguna aplikasi  Persekitaran di mana ia hendak digunakan  Matlamat dan objektif  Bahan atau alat pengukuran  Kekuatan dan kekangan 11
  • 12. 2. Perancangan / Rekabentuk Informasi Interaksi Antaramuka 12
  • 13.  Informasi  Maklumat atau bahan yang akan dibangunkan  Strategi yang akan dilaksanakan Interaksi / Navigasi  Fungsi dan operasi aplikasi  Papan cerita / storyboard Antaramuka  Stail paparan dan susunatur  Pemilihan warna, media, bentuk, saiz dsbgnya. 13
  • 14. 3. Pembangunan / Pelaksanaan Proses memindahkan segala maklumat yang telah disediakan Diterjemahkan dalam bentuk aplikasi lengkap (cth: laman web) Berdasarkan prosedur dan rekabentuk yang telah disediakan dalam fasa rekabentuk. 14
  • 15.  Proses-proses:  Pengaturcaraan / Pengarangan  Pemilihan dan penyediaan elemen-elemen multimedia (grafik, animasi, audio, video)  Memasukkan elemen-elemen multimedia ke dalam aplikasi (import audio, video, fail animasi) 15
  • 16. 4. Penilaian dan Penyemakan Proses pengujian, penyemakan dan penambahbaikan secara berterusan. Proses kerja yang merentas semua fasa kerja yang lain. Dua jenis penilaian dan penyemakan  Pengujian  Penilaian 16
  • 17.  Pengujian  Memeriksa perjalanan aplikasi berdasarkan spesifikasi  Dilakukan sebelum aplikasi disebarkan / dipasarkan  Uji kod aturcara, struktur dan kandungan program, antaramuka, interaktiviti, sistem navigasi dan fungsi- fungsi lain. 17
  • 18.  Bagaimana pengujian dilakukan?  pengujian terhadap kumpulan sasaran,  pengujian menerusi penggunaan prototaip,  semakan semula oleh rakan,  ujian kepenggunaan,  kajian rekabentuk,  percubaan lapangan dan  ujian penerimaan. 18
  • 19.  Penilaian  Membentuk pengadilan mengenai kualiti sesuatu aspek yg dinilai berdasarkan kriteria2 tertentu.  Pelengkap kpd pendidikan dan syarat kepada rekabentuk pembangunan dan pembinaan aplikasi yg berkualiti.  Penilaian formatif dan sumatif. 19
  • 20.  Penilaian Formatif  Proses penilaian sepanjang proses pembangunan sesebuah aplikasi.  Menilai halangan, perubahan dlm keperluan pengguna, masalah2 dihadapi pengguna.  Penilai – pakar mata pelajaran, pakar psikologi, pengguna sebenar.  Hasil penilaian membolehkan pembangun mengenalpasti bhgn yg perlu dibaiki atau dikemaskini. 20
  • 21.  Penilaian Sumatif  Penilaian ke atas aplikasi yg telah siap sepenuhnya.  Melihat dan menyemak sama ada sesuatu aplikasi yg telah dibina menepati permintaan dan keperluan pengguna.  Mengesahkan kesesuaian aplikasi yg tlh dihasilkan.  Memastikan matlamat pembangunan aplikasi tercapai.  Titik rujukan menjamin kualiti dan standard. 21
  • 22.  Teknik / pengumpulan maklumat dlm penilaian formatif dan sumatif  Pemerhatian ke atas pengguna  Pengumpulan data dari markah latihan / ujian yg disediakan dlm aplikasi  Borang soal-selidik  Temubual  Ulasan pakar 22
  • 23. Waterfall Model 23
  • 24.  Feasibility  Purpose  Deciding whether a web site is needed, or whether an existing web as interviewing the organization’s site needs modification. If “yes” determining rough costs and benefits.  Principal Tools  Fact-gathering techniques such as interviewing the organization’s management and proposed visitors.  Cost-benefit analysis that ascertains whether the benefits are worth the associated costs. 24
  • 25.  Analysis  Purpose  Determining the purpose, target audience, and proposed content and functionality for the entire site. In short, deciding what is needed.  Principal Tools  Fact-gathering techniques.  Cost-benefit analysis.  Preliminary site architecture models. 25
  • 26.  Design  Purpose  Designing a site (both organizationally and visually) that fulfills the requirements determined in the analysis phase. In short, creating a “how” that provides the “what” from the analysis phase.  Principal Tools  Site architecture models.  HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and integrated web development environments (such as Adobe Dreamweaver) for site prototyping.  Image editors such as Adobe Photoshop or Fireworks for creating site graphics. 26
  • 27.  Construction and Testing  Purpose  Building and testing the web site. (Note that construction and testing can’t be separated into independent phases, since testing should begin as soon as the first few lines of code are written. That way, problems are identified early in the process, rather than at the end when the entire site might end up needing major modifications to correct those problems.)  Principal Tools  HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and integrated web development environments (such as Adobe Dreamweaver) for site prototyping.  Image editors such as Adobe Photoshop or Fireworks for creating site graphics.  Accessibility validators.  Live testing with prospective visitors. 27
  • 28.  Launch  Purpose  Uploading the site to the server, performing final site-wide tests, and bringing the site live.  Principal Tools  FTP or its equivalent. Maintenance  Purpose  Repairing, upgrading, and overhauling the system as necessary.  Principal Tools  All of the tools mentioned in the prior phases. 28

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