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CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
CSS Methodology
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CSS Methodology

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  • 1. CSS Methodology by Zohar Arad
  • 2. What is CSS?
    • CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is the language used for implementing designs on HTML documents.
    • CSS is a declarative language, not a programmable language.
    • Currently the main-stream version of CSS supported by all major browsers is CSS 2.1
  • 3. CSS Basics - Selectors
    • CSS declarations are comprised of "selectors" and "properties".
    • Selectors are used to select the element(s) in the page the declaration is applied to.
    • Properties are used to denote which styling properties should be applied to the selected element(s)
    • Example:
    • selector{
    •      property:value;
    • }
  • 4. CSS Basics - Selectors Selector Pattern Description Universal * Matches any element Type (element) E Matches any E element Class .class Matches any element with class="class" ID #id Matches any element with id="id" Descendant E D Matches any element D who is a descendant of element E Child E > D Matches any element D who is a direct child of element E Sibling E + D Matches any element D who is a direct sibling (adjacent) of element E Attribute E[attr] E[attr=val] E[attr~=val1 val2] E[attr|=val] Match element with attr attribute is equal to val attribute is equal to val1 or val2 attribute is not equal to val Pseudo-classes :hover, :active, :visited, :link, :first-child, :first-line, :first-letter :before, :after
  • 5. CSS Basics - Selectors
    • The following selectors are not supported in IE6:
      • Child selectors - E > D
      • Sibling selectors - E + D
      • Attribute selectors - E[attr] ...
      • Multiple class selectors - E.myclass.active
      • Pseudo-classes - :before, :after, :first-child, :focus, :lang
      • :hover pseudo-class only works on <a> elements
    •  
    • You can use this to target IE6 specific CSS:
    •  
    • #myID #container { background-image:url(/transparent.gif); } /* IE6 */
    • #myID > #container { background-image:url(/transparent.png); }
  • 6. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • When two CSS selectors target the same element(s), how does the browser know which declaration (CSS block) should be applied?
    • This problem is known as CSS Conflict Resolution and is resolved on three levels:
      • Cascade - selector level
      • Importance - declaration level
      • Specificity - selector level
  • 7. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution p - 0,0,0,1   p.class - 0,0,1,1   #nav li.active - 0,1,1,1 .ie .menu a:hover - 0,0,3,1 form input[type=submit] - 0,0,0,2 inline styles ID selectors Class selectors Type selectors 1 1 1 1
  • 8. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • Using the specificity table above we can determine how the browser will choose between two selectors that target the same element(s).
    • Specific selectors will always take precedence over less specific selectors.
    • Specificity works at the selector level .
    •  
    • If two selectors with different specificity contain different CSS properties, there will be no conflict between them.
  • 9. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • For example:
    •  
    • a:hover{ /* specificity 0,0,0,1 */
    •     color:blue; /* affects link color */
    • }
    • li a:hover{ /* specificity 0,0,0,2 */
    •     text-decoration:underline; /* affects link decoration */
    • }
    • #post a:hover{ /* specificity 0,1,0,1 */
    •     color:red; /* affects link color - conflicts with a:hover */
    • }
  • 10. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • When two or more CSS selectors have the same specificity and target the same element(s), how will the browser choose which will take precedence?
    • According to the cascade, selectors are evaluated in the order they appear in the document.
    •  
    • Therefore, selectors that appear late in the document will take precedence over selectors that appear early in the document.
  • 11. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • When a browser evaluates CSS document it does so in the following order:
      • User-agent CSS - lowest precedence
      • Developer CSS - second-lowest precedence
      • User-defined CSS - highest precedence
    •  
    • The rules of the cascade will be applied to the above CSS in ascending order.
    • Like specificity, the cascade works at the selector level.
    • Two overlapping selectors with different CSS properties will not cause a conflict.
  • 12. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • When two conflicting selectors contain the same CSS property / properties, how does the browser choose which property to apply?
    • CSS properties can be marked as &quot;important&quot; which will mean they should take precedence over identical properties in conflicting selectors.
    • For example:
    • body { color:black !important; }
    • div a { color:blue; }
  • 13. CSS Basics - Conflict Resolution
    • Putting everything together:
    • When two or more selectors target the same element(s) the browser will:
      • Try to resolve conflicting properties using specificity
      • Try to resolve conflicting selectors using the cascade
      • Try to resolve conflicting selectors using importance
    •  
    • Specificity has the lowest precedence and importance has the highest precedence.
    • When resolving conflicts using importance, the rules of the cascade still apply!
  • 14. CSS Basics - The Box Model
    • The box model defines how the browser should handle the rectangular boxes that are generated for elements.
    •  
    • See image below or a 3D diagram
    •  
  • 15. CSS Basics - The Box Model
    • In simple terms we can say that the box model defines the calculation of box dimensions as following:
    • total width = border-right + padding-right + width + padding-left + border-left
    • total height = border-top + padding-top + height + padding-bottom + border-bottom
    •  
    • Why is this important you ask?
    • Simple - So we can calculate element dimensions when planning our layout.
  • 16. CSS Basics - The Box Model
    • A few things to remember:
    • Block-level elements have explicit dimensions
    • Inline-level elements have implicit dimensions
    • Floating an element will cause an element to lose its width, unless set explicitly (as required by CSS specifications)
    • Vertical margins are collapsed by the browser only so the larger of the two will take effect.
  • 17. CSS Basics
    • Feedback and 5min break
  • 18. CSS Best Practices & Tips
    • Reset styles to eliminate browser inconsistencies ( example )
    •  
    • Use meaningful markup
    • Separate content from display
    • Use meaningful class and ID names
    • Use specific selectors for faster parsing
    • Harness the power of the cascade and CSS inheritance to your advantage
    •  
    •  
  • 19. CSS Best Practices & Tips
    • Plan your layout carefully during the HTML coding stage
    • Group similar-styled page components together
    • Define typography once at the beginning of your CSS document
    • Use browser-specific CSS handicap to your advantage when trying to handle browser-specific problems
    • #nav li a { ...some css for ie6 }
    • #nav li > a { ...some css for all browsers }
  • 20. CSS Best Practices & Tips
    • Use IE conditional comments to apply global IE selectors:
    •  
    • <!--[if lt IE 7 ]> <body class=&quot; ie &quot; id=&quot; ie6 &quot;> <![endif]--> <!--[if IE 7 ]> <body class=&quot; ie &quot; id=&quot; ie7 &quot;> <![endif]--> <!--[if IE 8 ]> <body class=&quot; ie &quot; id=&quot; ie8 &quot;> <![endif]--> <!--[if !IE]><!--> <body> <!--<![endif]-->
  • 21. Design Deconstruction
    • When approaching a new project, it might be useful to deconstruct the design as follows:
      • Look at content without design - Analyze what's the site's content structure so you can plan your HTML accordingly
      • Analyze the proposed layout and identify common patterns and pitfalls
      • Analyze the design's typographic structure and implement at the beginning of your CSS
      • Identify graphic patterns that should be grouped into a CSS sprite. Use as few sprites as possible. If needed separate pattern sprites from icon sprites.
  • 22. Design Deconstruction
      • Try to identify browser-specific pitfalls in the design and either account for them in your plan or remove from design
      • Try to identify what kind of interaction effects you should implement in the design and opt for CSS-driven effects whenever possible.
      • Implement your UI once! If there are UI inconsistencies, either ignore or educate your designer.
      • Identify resource-hungry decorations and put them on low-graphics diet.
      • Reuse! Reuse! Reuse!
    •  
    • Lets look at Ars Technica , Smashing Mag. and Linux.com
  • 23. Break...
    •  
  • 24. Javascript
    • Javascript is a fickle friend!!!
    • Its a bit old, its a bit off-standard, it sort-of has an OOP model, but when you get to know it, its oodles of fun!
  • 25. Javascript - The basics
    • Javascript runs on the client which means that execution speed depends on the rendering engine and the user's computer
    • In other words - The same Javascript code will run differently on two computers.
  • 26. Javascript - The basics
    • If you can't beat them, join them!
      • Minimize DOM complexity
      • Include your Javascript where appropriate in the DOM
      • Load Javascript on-demand if possible
      • Cache your Javascript whenever possible
      • Reduce file size to reduce initial parsing time
      • Reduce network traffic to minimum
      • Simplify your code to optimize execution time
      • Validate your code with JSLint or similar
  • 27. Javascript - The basics
    • Understand Javascript variable-scope.
      • Javascript variables has no private/public name-spaces
      • Variables can be either global or local - beware of collision
      • Declare variables explicitly to denote type and initial value and avoid name collisions
      • Optionally, use Javascript Objects as variable containers
    •  
    • var params = {
    •     name : 'zohar',
    •     age : 34,
    •     height : 187,
    •     skills : ['css', 'js', 'xhtml']
    • }
  • 28. Javascript - The basics
    • Know thy DOM
    • DOM is the mechanism we use to reference and manipulate our document's HTML.
    •  
    • The DOM is a programmatic, object-oriented way to represent and handle HTML (XML) structure.
    •  
    • In relation to text manipulation, DOM and XML parsing are very slow.
    •  
    • Each rendering engine implements the DOM a bit differently.
  • 29. Javascript - The basics
    • Know thy DOM
      • DOM calls are expensive. Use the when appropriate
      • Be specific in your DOM calls. Use getElementById when possible
      • Cache DOM calls
      • Although considered &quot;less&quot; elegant, innerHTML is much faster than document .appendChild()
  • 30. Javascript - The basics
    • Understand the meaning of &quot;this&quot;
    • &quot;this&quot; refers to the scope of code execution at any given point in the code, during execution time (not parse time).
    • The easiest way to remember what is &quot;this&quot; is as follows:
    • &quot;this&quot; will always refer to the object before the &quot;.&quot; sign in the calling code.
  • 31. Javascript - The basics
    • function test(){
    •     var _this = this ; //this points to the window object
    • }
    • myObj = {
    •     run : function (){
    •          console.log( this .name); // this points to myObj
    •     } ,
    •     name : 'zohar'
    • }
    • myObj.run();
    • myElement. onclick = function (){
    •     this .className = 'active'; // this points to myElement
    • }
  • 32. Javascript - Programming Tips
    • Javascript short-hand is cool. Use it!
    • //one-line variable assignment
    • var i = 0, arr = [], el = document .getElementById(' id ');
    •  
    • // default value assignment
    • //arg1 is passed to the function
    • var status = arg1 || ' active '; 
    • //variable assignment in if statement
    • var el;
    • if ( el = document .getElementById(' id ') ){ ..... }
  • 33. Javascript - Programming Tips
    • // selective method execution
    • myObj = {
    •     func1 : function () {},
    •     func1 : function () {}
    • }
    • function test( status ){
    •     myObj[ status == 'active' ? ' func1 ' : ' func2 ']();
    • }
  • 34. Javascript - Programming Tips
    • Use JSON for both parameters and code clusters to make your code more ordered and readable.
    • var tabManager = {
    •     init : function (){ ... }
    •      onTabChange : function () { ... }
    •     params : {
    •         active : 'active',
    •         inactive : 'inactive'
    •         tabsParentID : 'tabs'
    •     }
    • }
  • 35. Javascript - Programming Tips
    • Try thinking OOP in Javascript:
    •  
    • var Class = function (obj){     return function (){         if( typeof obj.initialize === 'function' ){             obj.initialize. apply (obj,arguments);         }         return obj;     } } Function . prototype .bind = function (tgt){     var self = this ;     return function (){         self. apply (tgt, arguments);     }(); }
  • 36. Javascript - Programming Tips
    • Try thinking OOP in Javascript:
    •  
    • var Test = new Class({      initialize : function (){         console.log('starting', arguments , this );          this .run.bind( this );         bindTest.bind( this );     },      run :function(){         console.log( this ,'running');     } }); function bindTest(){     console.log( this ,'bindTest'); } var t = new Test(true,10);
  • 37. Javascript
    • Questions Time

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