Water Distribution System
Submitted By:: Muhammad Zohair
Department Of Civil Engineering
University of South Asia Lahore (Rawind Campus)
Letter of Transmittal
Date: 19 May ,2014
Prof.Dr. Javed Anwar Aziz
Department Of Civil Engineering
University of South Asia, Lahore
Subject:- Water Distribution System Report Of Future Vision Housing Society
I am presenting you the final report of water distribution
system of “Future vision Housing Society” that is located on left side of Jehulm
road near upper Chenab. This report contains complete informations of the
design. This design is prepared by using Loop Software and AZIZ, J.A (2014)
I am fully confident that the design of water distribution system will full fill all
the requirements of the housing society.
B-15086 (Sec# A)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. Design Criteria
2.1. Design Period
2.2. Design Population
2.3. Water Consumption
2.4. Max day Consumption
2.5. Peak Hour Consumption
2.6. Water Requirement For
o Commercial Area
o Open Spaces
2.7. Capacity of OHR
2.8. Design Pressure
2.9. Capacity of the Pump
2.10. Max and Min Velocity
2.11. Size of Pipes and Types Of Pipes
2.12. Placing Of Pipes
3. Water Distribution System Design
3.1. Loop Method
3.2. Procedure for Design
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Brief Description Of Housing Scheme:
The name of the scheme is “Future Vision Housing Society”. The scheme
consist of 282 plots of different sizes e.g. 5 Marla’s, 10 Marla’s and 1 Kanal.
This scheme also has 3 flats of double story, 3 apartments, 2 parks, open
spaces, graveyard, school and 4 commercial areas.
The estimated population of the society is 7587 persons.
2 tube wells are provided at the central park of the society with over head
reservoir (OHR) which 20m high from the ground surface.
The Future Vision Housing Society Situated at Left side of Jehlum road near
upper Chenab canal.
1.3. Important Salient Features:
In this housing society following important salient features are provided.
Climate of the area in summer season is very hot. Temperature ranges
from 30˚C to 45˚C.While in winter season the temperature fall up to 0˚C.
Due to hot condition in summer the water consumption is very high and in
winter water consumption is low.
1.5. Topography of the area:
The surface area of the society is almost flat. The maximum reduce level is
100.8m and minimum reduce level is 98.0m.There is very small difference
2.1. Design Period:
The design period of water distribution system of “Future Vision
Housing Society” is 25 years.
2.2. Design Population:
Present (2014) population of the society is 4374 persons.
Future (2039) population of the society is 7587persons.
2.3. Water Consumption:
It is the amount of water in volume that is consumed for different
purposes.Generally it is expressed in liter/capita/day (lpcd).
Per capita water consumption = 500+20(14)
= 500+20(8+6) = 780 lpcd
Where Y = Sum of digits of my registration No.
Average day W.C : Max day W.C = 1 : 1.5
Average day W.C : Peak Hour W.C= 1: 2.25
2.4. Maximum Day Consumption:
Max day water consumption = 1.5 X avg. day W.C
= 8949638 L/d
2.5. Peak Hour Consumption:
Peak hour water consumption = 2.25 X avg. day W.C
2.6. Water Requirement For;
Water consumption for school = 60 X 200 = 12000 L/d
Present (2014) Future (2039)
Persons/Plot 7 11
Persons/Apartment 400 645
Persons/Flat 200 425
o Commercial Area:
Commercial Area = 5.5 cm2
Water consumption for commercial area = 3 X 550 = 1650 L/d
Water consumption for dispensary = 50 X 20 =1000 L/d
o Open Spaces/Parks:
Water consumption for open spaces/parks = 4845 X 7 = 33915 L/d
o Total W.C:
Total W.C = 48565 L/d
2.7. Maximum Head Loss Per Km:
In design the assumption for maximum head loss is 10 m/km.
Chapter3. Design Criteria
3.1. Design Flows for WDS:
Average design Flow = (7587 X 780) + 48565
= 5966425 L/d
Design Flow For T/W = 1.5 X 5966425
3.2. Design Equation Used:
Here “Hazen William” Equation is used to findout Head losses.
HL = 10.65 (Q/C)1.85
H = Head loss (m/km)
Q = Discharge (m/sec)
C = Roughness Coefficient
L = Length of pipe (m)
D = Diameter of pipe (m)
3.3. Height Of OHR And Capacity of OHR:
Height of over head reservoir is 20 m from the ground surface.
Capacity of over head reservoir is 1/6 of the daily avg. W.C.
Capacity of OHR = 1/6 X 5966425
= 994404.17 L/d
= 994.4 m3
3.4. Number of T/w Installed:
There are two tube wells are installed in the central park of the society.
One of them runs on electricity and other on diesel.
3.5. Types of Pipes Used in the Scheme:
In this design two types of pipes are used for the water supply system.
o Cast Iron Pipes:
These pipes are from tubewell to OHR and from OHR to node #1.
The HWC for cast iron pipe is 100.
Cast Iron Pipe
o Asbestos Cement Pipe:
From node #1 to node #23 all the pipes that are used are asbestos
The HWC for asbestos cement pipe is 140.
3.6. Diameter of Pipes:
In water supply system pipes of various diameter are used.The minimum
diameter of the pipe is 80mm.And also pipes of various diameter are used
in this water supply system i.e. 100mm,150mm,200mm,250mm,300mm,
350mm,400mm and 450mm.
3.7. Increment in dia size:
The increment in diameter size of the pipe is about 50mm.
3.8. Max and Min Velocity in W/S Pipes:
The maxium velocity in this water supply system is in pipe no.22 which
and minimum velocity is in pipe no.10 which is 0.33 m/sec
3.9. Pressure in Pipes:
In water supply system the minimum pressure in pipes is 15 and max
Pressure is 20.
In this design
Max Pressure =
Min Pressure =
3.10. Cover on Pipes:
Cover on pipes are provided for the safety of the pipes.For water supply
System the pipes are installed in 1m depth of ground.
3.11. Placing of Valves:
Valves are provided to regulate the flow,control of pressure and to cut
off of the water supply. There are 2 valves are provided at each node
and one valve for fire hydrent.
3.12. Placing of Fire Hydrant:
Fire hydrants are used to supply water for fire fighting.
Fire hydrants should have at least 2 hose outlets and a larger pump
outlet.Fire hydrant is provided at 1m from the edge of the road.
In this design there is one fire hydrant is provided.
Chapter4. Design of Water Distribution System
4.1 Loop Programme:
Loop is a computer program in BASIC for Hydraulic Simulation of Looped
Water Distribution Networks.
o Brief History:
Loop programme is the computer software developed by the University
of North California, USA.This software is developed in 1986. This software uses
the algorithm of Hardy Cross which is based on two principles
Inflow at node = Out flow at node
This software has following limitations
a. Max Number of nodes = 400
b. Max Number of pipes = 500
c. Can handle 10 nodes with known HGL
o Input Data Required:
Following input data is required to run the programme.
a. Pipe number
b. Node number
c. Diameter of pipe
d. Pipe number
e. HWC of the pipe
o Output Informations Provided:
Following output informations are provided by the programme.
a. Head loss in pipes
b. Pressure at nodes
c. Flow in pipes
d. Velocity in pipes
e. Direction of flow
o Units Employed in Loop for Various Parameters:
The units used in this software are
a. Length in m
b. Diameter in mm
c. Flow in L/sec
d. Velocity in m/sec
e. Elevation in m
f. HGL in m
g. Head Loss in m
o Node Fixation:
In this loop programme node #100 is fixed due to constant discharge.
o Signs applied for input and output flows:
+ve sign indicates input flow
-ve sign indicates output flow
First of all draw the layout of water distribution system.
Represent each node with the help of a dot.
Allocate plots or area to each node. The allocation of plots to the
nodes should be as realistic and balanced as possible.
Using per capita water consumption value (lpcd), calculate avg. water
consumption at each node in liter/second.
Take a tracing paper equal in size to your map and trace the pipe and
nodes network on it. Now represent each node with a small circle.
Give number to each pipe and node (inside the circle). Give such
numbers to T/W and OHR so that these two nodes can easily be
distinguished from other network nodes.
Measure the lengths of pipes according to the scale and write the
lengths on the tracing sheet. Also write reduce levels with each node
on tracing sheet.
Write nodal flows in lit/sec on tracing sheet using an arrow head.
4.2. Design Input Data: