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# HBMT 3103

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HBMT3103 TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR

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### HBMT 3103

1. 1. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 FAKULTI BAHASA DAN PENDIDIKAN PROGRAM SARJANA MUDA PENGAJARAN (KOHORT 5) HBMT 3103 TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR ZAMATUN NASRAH BINTI MARWAN TUTOR MRS. TEY KAI WEAN tkwean@oum.edu.my PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN Pusat Pembelajaran Wilayah Johor Semester Mei 2010
2. 2. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 A ssalamualaikum warahmatullahiwabarakatuh, , Thank god for His permission I have finish my assignment for the Teaching Mathematics in Year Four that have been given to me. Many thankful to my tutor Mrs. Tey Kai Wean for her helpness to give me more easier to finish my assignment. Many challenges that I have to face to finish this assignment and also thank to my friends that have gave me motivation and also lend their hands to help me and also share their knowledges. More thanks and love to my family and also my parents, who gave me support and pray to give me more strength to finish my assignment. Hope all of you will be happy and may god bless you. Thank you.
3. 3. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Acknowledgements 2. Introductions 3. Definitions of Fractions 4. Compare and Contrast : (i) Differences (ii) Similarities 5. Modification and Justification 6. Summary 7. References INTRODUCTION
4. 4. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 Learning about fractions is one of the most difficult tasks for primary school children. Children seeing the fractions as a number that have unique factors. It is different with the whole numbers that they have learnt. These unique factors make the children hard to understand in learning of fractions especially in addition of fractions in different denominators. The objective of this article is to describe various ways of teaching fractions, focus on how to teach fractions with different denominators. These three articles are to compare and find the differences and also the similarities. One of the articles that have the best method will be choose and can be modified or justified to get suit with our own students. DEFINITIONS OF FRACTIONS There are many definitions of fractions such as part of a whole. In arithmetic, a number expressed as a quotient, in which a numerator is divided by a denominator. In a simple fraction, both are integers. A complex fraction has a fraction in the numerator or denominator. In a proper fraction, the numerator is less than the denominator. If the numerator is greater, it is called an improper fraction and can also be written as a mixed number where a whole-number quotient with a proper-fraction remainder. Any fraction can be written in decimal form by carrying out the division of the numerator by the denominator. The result may end at some point, or one or more digits may repeat without end. COMPARE AND CONTRAST
5. 5. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 DIFFERENCES TEACHING FRACTIONS HELP WITH KIDSPIRATION {cross-product method} FRACTIONS {Kidspiration Fraction {Least Common Boxes} Denominator (LCD)} 1) Traditional way to teach 1) Using and working with 1) Teaching using resources addition of fractions. concrete models. and tools in teaching and learning sessions. 2) It is a traditional algorithm 2) Students have to find 2) It is requires tools to that requires paper and „common denominator‟ build fractions and pencils and also employs and also „least common dynamically search for mental mathematics. denominator‟. equivalent fractions and common denominators. 3) Steps 3) Steps 3) Steps a) ½ + 1/3 a) Build each fractions so Open the lesson by Find the sum of two that both denominators presenting a situation that fractions by cross are equal. involves the addition of multiply. Remember, when fractions with different 1x3=3 adding fractions, the denominators. 2x1=2 denominators must be Eg: Nani bought 5/6 of b) Add the two cross- equal. So, this is the a kg of fudge and Jerry products : 3 + 2 = 5. first step. We have to bought ½ of a kg of The result becomes the find common fudge. Write both new numerator. denominator. fractions in the board. c) The new denominator b) Re-write each First, ask which is the product of the equivalent fraction students, Nani or Jerry denominators: using this new bought more fudge. 2x3=6 denominator. How do they know? d) The sum is 5/6. TEACHING FRACTIONS HELP WITH KIDSPIRATION
6. 6. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 {cross-product method} FRACTIONS {Kidspiration Fraction {Least Common Boxes} Denominator (LCD)} c) Now, we can add the Inform students that numerators and keep Nani and Jerry would the denominator of the like to figure out how equivalent fractions. much fudge they have d) Re-write the answer as altogether. Does the a simplified or reduced situation call for fraction, if needed. addition, subtraction, multiplication or division? Why? Then ask students to estimate much fudge the two students purchased altogether. a) Some students might suggest that 3/6 can “fit inside” of 1/2, or that 3/6 of Nani‟s kilograms of fudge can be “combined with Jerry‟s 1/2 kg to make 1 whole kg.” This concept of transferring a fractional quantity to “make a whole” can be demonstrated by multi- selecting 3/6 and TEACHING FRACTIONS HELP WITH KIDSPIRATION
7. 7. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 {cross-product method} FRACTIONS {Kidspiration Fraction {Least Common Boxes} Denominator (LCD)} dragging them to the empty 1/2 cell. Note: A fraction box will only “accept” tiles if the fractional quantity being moved and the space to which it is moved are equivalent. Does the model help us see how much fudge Nani and Jerry have altogether? Allow students to determine that the total amount is 1 2/6 kg of fudge. If they are working on simplifying fractions, they can use the arrow buttons to “re-divide” the top fraction box and explore fractions that are equivalent to 2/6. TEACHING FRACTIONS HELP WITH KIDSPIRATION
8. 8. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 {cross-product method} FRACTIONS {Kidspiration Fraction {Least Common Boxes} Denominator (LCD)} Once they see that 2/6 is equivalent to 1/3, click on the button that says “3 Parts” to officially change the top fraction from sixths into thirds. b) A second way to show 5/6 + 1/2 is to use fraction boxes to model finding a common denominator. Begin by representing each fraction, as before. Can we find an equivalent fraction for 1/2 that would make all of the pieces the same size?
9. 9. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 TEACHING FRACTIONS HELP WITH KIDSPIRATION {cross-product method} FRACTIONS {Kidspiration Fraction {Least Common Boxes} Denominator (LCD)} Show students how they can explore equivalent fractions with the up and down arrow buttons. For example, 1/2 of a kg is equivalent to 2/4 of kg, but are Nani‟s and Jerry‟s pieces all the same size? Continue changing the divisions in the fraction box until students see that 1/2 is also equivalent to 3/6, and that both Nani and Jerry‟s portion can be thought of in terms of sixths.
10. 10. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 TEACHING FRACTIONS HELP WITH KIDSPIRATION {cross-product method} FRACTIONS {Kidspiration Fraction {Least Common Boxes} Denominator (LCD)} To officially re-cut the bottom fraction into sixths, instead of halves, click on the button that says “6 Parts.” Now that Nani‟s and Jerry‟s portions of fudge are both in sixths of a kg, the pieces can be easily combined. Drag tiles between fraction boxes to make 1 whole. Ask students to determine, based on the model, how much fudge Nani and Jerry have altogether. If the expectation is that students also simplify their answers, for example, from 1 2/6 to 1 1/3 kg, they can use fraction boxes to model simplification as described in step 1.
11. 11. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 SIMILARITIES 1) In the Teaching Fractions and Help With Fractions articles have a similar method especially in finding the equivalent fractions for denominator. Even the Teaching Fractions article using cross multiply and Help With Fractions using Least Common Denominator, both are still using multiplication to find equivalent denominators.
12. 12. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 MODIFICATION AND JUSTIFICATION The best method that I can use to teach my students which is in second class after streaming is using Kidspiration Fraction Boxes. Teaching addition of fractions with different denominator using Kidspiration Fraction Boxes is one way of the variety of interesting and interactive programmes that used to show how to add fractions with different denominators. This method will provide a graduated and conceptually supported framework for students to create a meaningful connection among concrete, representational and abstract levels of understanding. To justify some of the way, teacher also can use cards with Kidspiration Fraction Boxes. This is to create an activity with hands-on and learning experience. Beginning with visual, tactile and kinaesthetic experiences to establish understanding, students expand their understanding through pictorial representations of concrete objects and move to the abstract level of understanding. "Hands-on and learning by experience are powerful ideas, and we know that engaging students actively and thoughtfully in their studies pays off in better learning (Rutherford, 1993, p. 5).” This activity also provides students with a similar set of experiences so everyone can participate in discussions on a level playing field regardless of their socio-economic status. In this way, special benefits are not awarded to those who, by virtue of their wealth or background, have a greater number of experiences under their belts. It is also forces student thinking by requiring interpretation of the observed events, rather than memorization of correct responses. Let the pupils do as many things by himself or herself. Young children need to be watched closely. However, they learn to be independent and to develop confidence by doing tasks. Its important to let them make choices, rather than deciding everything for her. Encourage them to play with other children and to be with adults who are not family members. The pupils need social opportunities to learn to see the point of view of others. Young children are more likely to get along with teachers and classmates if they have had experiences with different adults and children.
13. 13. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 SUMMARY The importance of providing children with direct experiences with materials, objects, and phenomena is supported by experience and understanding of how learning takes place. While information can be remembered if taught through books and lectures, true understanding and the ability to use knowledge in new situations requires learning in which children study concepts in-depth, and over time and learning that is founded in direct experience. Therefore, the justification for hands-on learning is that it allows students to build understanding that is functional and to develop the ability to inquire them, in other words, to become independent learners. There are a plethora of benefits that teachers and curriculum developers adduce to hands-on learning to justify the approach in science. Benefits for students are believed to include increased learning; increased motivation to learn; increased enjoyment of learning; increased skill proficiency, including communication skills; increased independent thinking and decision making based on direct evidence and experiences; and increased perception and creativity.
14. 14. 770218-01-5450[Pick the HBMT 3103: TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FOUR date] SEMESTER MEI 2010 References M.Othman.(2010). HBMT3103,Teaching Mathematics in Year Four.Seri Kembangan : Meteor Doc. Sdn Bhd. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=library_talks http://www.ehow.com/facts_5192514_hands_on-learning-children.html http://www.helpwithfractions.com/adding-fractions-different-denominators.html http://www.inspiration.com/lessonplan/addingfractions http://www.resourceroom.net/math/denominators.asp http://74.6.146.127/search/cache?ei=UTF- 8&p=teaching+fractions+%3A+rules+and+reason&fr=ffds1&u=www.math.ccsu.edu/mitchell/math40 9tcmteachingfractionsrulesandreasons.pdf&w=teaching+fractions+fraction+rules+reason+reasoning& d=Y72--rZfVC9u&icp=1&.intl=us&sig=LCfyTi8jM6fvGLIQx0tjVA--