Affirmative action chapter team IV


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This is Team IV's presentation on Affirmative Action for MBAC 5113 at LeTourneau University for Fall 2010.

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Affirmative action chapter team IV

  1. 1. Discrimination and Affirmative Action MBAC 5113OL: Leadership and Ethics Dr. Ray Scott Team IV – Cimberly Lawernce, Don McCormack, Sonia Miller, Christi Quintanilla
  2. 2. Summary of discrimination <ul><li>What is discrimination? It is the unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Why does discrimination exists? The majority of humans are afraid of change or what is different. Instead of embracing change and determining what is best for all, people are adamant “their way” is the only right way”. </li></ul><ul><li>What the Bible says about discrimination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leviticus 19:34 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luke 10: 25-37 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Summary of discrimination <ul><li>What can be done to avoid discrimination? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both the government and employers must be proactive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government: EEOC and laws specifically related to discrimination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers: Detailed policies and continual education and communication. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Statistics of discrimination in the United States- 1992 2009 No. of Charges % of Population No. of Charges % of Population Race 26,287 0.010% 33,579 0.011% Gender 23,813 0.009% 28,028 0.009% Nationality 6,687 0.003% 11,134 0.004% Religion 1,564 0.001% 3,386 0.001% Age 15,719 0.006% 22,778 0.007% Disability 18,046 0.007% 21,451 0.007% Equal Pay 969 0.0004% 942 0.0003%
  5. 5.          Summary of affirmative action - <ul><li>“ Affirmative action” refers to policies designed to increase the presence of “underrepresented” demographic groups – such as racial or ethnic minorities and women – in specific sectors of the workforce or in the student bodies of American universities. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1961 President John F. Kennedy's Executive Order (E.O.) 10925 used affirmative action for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1964 the Civil Rights Act was signed into law. This was landmark legislation prohibiting employment discrimination by large employers (over 15 employees), whether or not they have government contracts.) </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after the 1964 Civil Rights Act was passed, President Lyndon Johnson issued Executive Order 11246, which required federal contractors to adopt color-blind hiring practices. </li></ul>
  6. 6.          Summary of affirmative action - <ul><li>Affirmative action can be divided into 2 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Weak affirmative action – Encourages employers to increase the pool of applicants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Strong affirmative action – Grants preferences to groups of people in hiring and/or promotions. Critics fear this leads to reverse discrimination. Supporters use 3 different justifications for it; 1) proportional representation, 2) social insurance and 3) compensatory justice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proportional </li></ul><ul><li>Social insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory justice </li></ul>
  7. 7. Statistics on Affirmative Action <ul><li>Before the Civil Rights Act of 1964: </li></ul><ul><li>The median black male worker earned only about 60 percent as much as the median white male worker </li></ul><ul><li>By 1993, the median black male earned 74 percent as much as the median white male. The male-female wage gap has also narrowed since the 1960s: median female earnings relative to median male earnings rose from about 60 percent during the 1960s to 72 percent in 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the U.S. Labor Department, affirmative action has helped millions of minorities move up in the workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1974 and 1980 federal contractors (who were required to adopt affirmative action goals) added Black and female officials and managers at twice the rate of non-contractors. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Racial Discrimination and statistics <ul><li>The tendency to categorize people by ethnic stereotypes is a universal human flaw. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination based on race can be due to ignorance and/or economic differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Much racial prejudice is subconscious and driven by rejection of “different” for the preference of those who are like “us.” </li></ul>U.S. Census Projections 2008 2050 White 66% 46% Hispanic 15% 30% Black 14% 15% Asian 5% 9%
  9. 9. More on racial discrimination… <ul><li>When job searching, those with obviously ethnic names (on resumes and job boards, etc.) are often discriminated against sight unseen. </li></ul><ul><li>Racial discrimination is not a black-white issue and is not one way. </li></ul><ul><li>Major U.S. Corporations have settled large racial discrimination suits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola $192.5M in November 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daimler-Chrysler $3.5M in 2004 (yet in the same year they were voted best place to work by Working Mother magazine). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Gender Discrimination and statistics <ul><li>Women continue to struggle for equal pay and promotion in the work place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are continually relegated to clerical positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2003 women earned 75.5 ¢ for every $1earned by men (gap increased from 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women that are able to break the glass ceiling are often subjected to indirect and direct harassment by male counterparts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 50% of Master Degrees are awarded to women. 95% of senior-level managers are men. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Within the last decade Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley and Smith Barney paid large sums to settle sex discrimination claims. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Age/Handicapped Discrimination <ul><li>What is Age Discrimination? Age discrimination is discrimination on the basis of age. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Handicap Discrimination? Handicap discrimination means treating individuals differently in employment because of their disability, perceived disability, or association with an individual with a disability. </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Bible say? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leviticus 19:32 “Show your fear of God by standing up in the presence of elderly people and showing respect for the aged. I am the Lord.” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Restitution <ul><li>Requires damages be paid for breaching others’ rights, especially when discrimination results in economic harm. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory Justice (nondiscrimination and restitution) is most directly linked to biblical principles. </li></ul><ul><li>When entire groups seek restitution, non-victims may be inadvertently compensated. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Probing Question to initiate class discussion <ul><li>Question – According to Hill on page 204, &quot;Marketplace prejudice is alive and well, taking a variety of forms.&quot; Do you agree or disagree with his statement? As a second part of this question consider your current organization. Are you now more aware of possible scenarios or events past or present that support Hill's statement? Explicate your answer. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Works Cited <ul><li>Affirmative Action. (2005, February, 14). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action:Empiracal Research (1993, July 19). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> ( </li></ul><ul><li>Census Bureau Statistics Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Statistics FY 1992 Through FY 1996 , Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Chrysler Settles., (2003, February, 3). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola Settles Race Suit. (2000, November, 16). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination (2010, September 3). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Hill, A. (2008). Just Business, Christian Ethics for the Marketplace. Downers Grove, Il. Intervarsity Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Myths About Affirmative Action. (2003). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The History of Affirmative Action Policies. (2003, October, 12). Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>