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R. Frank Jones Urologic SocietyAUA Meeting May 5, 2013San Diego, CA
RFJUS Members
Richard Francis Jones, MDThe First African-American Diplomate of theAmerican Board of Urology - 1936
Outline• History Lane– Milestones – African Americans in Medicine– Howard Surgical Legacy• A.A. Experience during urologic...
Milestones – Diversifying Medicine• 1837 – James Smith- 1st African American toreceive the MD Degree– University of Glasgo...
HUCM - Surgical Legacy• Howard University Surgery ResidencyProgram• Early 1900s – achievement of boardcertification, becam...
African American SurgeonsPioneers - Board Certification• R Frank Jones MD Urology 1936• J Richard Laurey MD– Thoracic Surg...
Assessing the AfricanAmerican UrologyExperience During TrainingTracy M. Downs MD FACSAssociate Professor
Introduction• RFJUS – is the society of African AmericanUrologists in North America• Members have diverse backgrounds ofur...
Diversity – Urologic Surgery• Primary Objective– Evaluate the extent of diversity and perceivedbarriers to multicultural t...
Diversity – Urologic Surgery• Results– 62 (55%) program directors responded– Respondents: 92% Male, 90% > 40 y.o.– As Facu...
Diversity – Urologic Surgery• ResultsVemulakonda, Sorensen and Joyner BD et al. J Urol 2008;180:668-672.
Diversity – Orthopaedic Surgery• Primary Objective– Diversity in the field of orthopaedics vs othersurgical and nonsurgica...
Diversity – Orthopaedic Surgery• Primary Objective– Diversity in the field of orthopaedics vs othersurgical and nonsurgica...
Orthopaedic SurgeryResidency Applicant Pool vs Resident Workforce
Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesRace/Ethnicity - Resident Workforce
Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesGender - Resident Workforce
Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesRace/Ethnicity - Faculty Workforce
Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesGender - Faculty Workforce
Diversity – Radiation OncologyPhysican Workforce
Diversity – Radiation OncologyPhysician Workforce
Radiation Oncology – Residents in TrainingRace/Ethnicity and Gender 2003 - 2011
Radiation Oncology – Residents in TrainingRace/Ethnicity and Gender 2003 - 2011GUPEDSRadOncStart MedicalSchoolA R F
Radiation Oncology – Residents in TrainingRace/Ethnicity and Gender 2003 - 2011GURadOncPEDSStart MedicalSchool
Urology Residency ApplicantsERAS 2011• Total applicants 431By Gender• Male 325• Female 106By Race• White 242• Black 31ERAS...
Assessing the AfricanAmerican UrologyExperience During TrainingTracy M. Downs MD FACSAssociate Professor
African American ExperienceUrologic Residency• Electronic survey mailed to RFJUSmembers– November 2012– Emailed to 61 RFJU...
Medical Schools Attended – RFJUS• U. Michigan (2)• U. Pittsburgh• Morehouse• Temple• UCSD (2)• Yale• Stanford• Howard• U M...
Urology Training Programs– RFJUS• U. Michigan (4)• Emory University• Henry Ford• UT Southwestern• VCU (Virginia)• SUNY Buf...
African American ExperienceUrologic ResidencyRESPONDENTS: 22 of 22RESPONDENTS: 22 of 22Need to use the classic Analyze too...
African American ExperienceUrologic Residency• Were you the first African-American tocomplete your residency?45.5% Yes54.5...
African American ExperienceUrologic Residency
African American ExperienceUrologic Residency
African American ExperienceUrologic Residency
How to improve the “UrologicPipeline” for AfricanAmericans
Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Why?• Who?• Where?• How?
Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Why?–US Demographics are changing–Reduce Disparities in HealthCare
US Census Bureau ProjectionsChanges in the US Population Race/Ethnicity2008 and 2050
Race/Ethnic Composition of MedicalSchool Graduates 2002 - 2012
Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Who?–Medical School Applicants–Urologic Personality
Accepted U.S. Medical Student % byGender and Race
U.S. Medical Student Graduates by Gender
What Traits Make up a GoodUrologist?
Canadian Urologic Association Journal 2011;5(3):182-1855 Dimensions of Personality were analyzed using the Validated perso...
Urologic “Pipeline” Considerations• Gender Gap in undergraduate degreestudents is Wider for AfricanAmericans than Caucasia...
Urologic “Pipeline” Considerations• Estimated by 2020– 60% of Latino medical school applicants(Females)– 70% of African Am...
Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Where?–Undergraduate Strategy–Medical School Strategy
Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 200 Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 20 Black Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 50 Asian Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 140 White Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
Undergraduate Institutions> 8 Medical School Graduatesin 2011 (Black)• Xavier Univ. 60• Howard Univ. 32• U. Florida 26• Ha...
Journal of Urology 2011;185(2):647-
Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• How?–Identify model programs toemmulate or createpartnerships
Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans
Current Programs to ImproveDiversity in GME• UCSF Graduate Medical EducationDiversity Program– Residency Diversity Committ...
Current Programs to ImproveDiversity in Physician Workforce• American Association of OrthopaedicsSurgeons• American Colleg...
Current Programs to ImproveDiversity in Physician Workforce• American Association of OrthopaedicsSurgeons• American Colleg...
Diversity
Conclusion• R. Frank Jones, MD and HowardDepartment of Surgery have been pivotalin the training of African AmericanUrologi...
R. Frank Jones Urologic Society• Intentional undergraduate and medicalschool strategies will need to be employedto continu...
RFJUS Members
THE ENDTHANK YOU
R frank jones assessing the african american urology experience during training-aua 2013 san diego
R frank jones assessing the african american urology experience during training-aua 2013 san diego
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Transcript of "R frank jones assessing the african american urology experience during training-aua 2013 san diego"

  1. 1. R. Frank Jones Urologic SocietyAUA Meeting May 5, 2013San Diego, CA
  2. 2. RFJUS Members
  3. 3. Richard Francis Jones, MDThe First African-American Diplomate of theAmerican Board of Urology - 1936
  4. 4. Outline• History Lane– Milestones – African Americans in Medicine– Howard Surgical Legacy• A.A. Experience during urologic training– Diversity in Medicine – Outside of Urology– Diversity in the field of Urology• Urologic “Pipeline” steps to insure AfricanAmericans at the forefront of urologicpatient care
  5. 5. Milestones – Diversifying Medicine• 1837 – James Smith- 1st African American toreceive the MD Degree– University of Glasgow in Scotland• 1847 – 40 medical schools in the U.S.A.– David Jones Peck – 1st African American tograduate from an American medical school– Rush Medical School in Chicago• 1864 – The 1st African American womanphysician graduated from New England FemaleMedical College (now Boston University Schoolof Medicine)
  6. 6. HUCM - Surgical Legacy• Howard University Surgery ResidencyProgram• Early 1900s – achievement of boardcertification, became one of theprogram’s standards of excellence• Five of the first African Americans toreceive board certification in asurgical specialty were HowardFaculty Members
  7. 7. African American SurgeonsPioneers - Board Certification• R Frank Jones MD Urology 1936• J Richard Laurey MD– Thoracic Surgery 1949• Robert Gladden MD– Orthopedic Surgery 1949• Clarence S. Greene Sr.– Neurological Surgery 1953• Samuel Rosser MD– Pediatric Surgery, 1975
  8. 8. Assessing the AfricanAmerican UrologyExperience During TrainingTracy M. Downs MD FACSAssociate Professor
  9. 9. Introduction• RFJUS – is the society of African AmericanUrologists in North America• Members have diverse backgrounds ofurologic training• Other surgical specialties havedocumented the experience ofRace, Ethnicity and Gender– Orthopaedic Surgery– Vascular Surgery– General Surgery• No formal analysis for the field of Urology
  10. 10. Diversity – Urologic Surgery• Primary Objective– Evaluate the extent of diversity and perceivedbarriers to multicultural training in Americanurology programs• Methods– 25 question nonvalidated diversityquestionnaire was distributed to 112 AmericanUrology residency program directors• Results– 62 (55%) program directors respondedVemulakonda, Sorensen and Joyner BD et al. J Urol 2008;180:668-672.
  11. 11. Diversity – Urologic Surgery• Results– 62 (55%) program directors responded– Respondents: 92% Male, 90% > 40 y.o.– As Faculty members• 40% No female colleagues• 49% No colleagues of color• 75% No formal process to recruit faculty ofcolor– Current resident training• 36% 1 or fewer female residents• 66% at least 1 black resident• 42% at least 1 Hispanic residentVemulakonda, Sorensen and Joyner BD et al. J Urol 2008;180:668-672.
  12. 12. Diversity – Urologic Surgery• ResultsVemulakonda, Sorensen and Joyner BD et al. J Urol 2008;180:668-672.
  13. 13. Diversity – Orthopaedic Surgery• Primary Objective– Diversity in the field of orthopaedics vs othersurgical and nonsurgical fields• Variables - Race, Ethnicity and Gender• Residents and Faculty Data– 2007 JAMA Education Supplements– 2007 AAMC Faculty Roster• Residency applicants Data– 2007 Electronic Residency Application Service(ERAS)Day CS et al. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 2010;92(13):2328-2335
  14. 14. Diversity – Orthopaedic Surgery• Primary Objective– Diversity in the field of orthopaedics vs othersurgical and nonsurgical fields• Variables - Race, Ethnicity and Gender• Residents and Faculty Data– 2007 JAMA Education Supplements– 2007 AAMC Faculty Roster• Residency applicants Data– 2007 Electronic Residency Application Service(ERAS)Day CS et al. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 2010;92(13):2328-2335
  15. 15. Orthopaedic SurgeryResidency Applicant Pool vs Resident Workforce
  16. 16. Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesRace/Ethnicity - Resident Workforce
  17. 17. Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesGender - Resident Workforce
  18. 18. Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesRace/Ethnicity - Faculty Workforce
  19. 19. Surgical and Medical SpecialtiesGender - Faculty Workforce
  20. 20. Diversity – Radiation OncologyPhysican Workforce
  21. 21. Diversity – Radiation OncologyPhysician Workforce
  22. 22. Radiation Oncology – Residents in TrainingRace/Ethnicity and Gender 2003 - 2011
  23. 23. Radiation Oncology – Residents in TrainingRace/Ethnicity and Gender 2003 - 2011GUPEDSRadOncStart MedicalSchoolA R F
  24. 24. Radiation Oncology – Residents in TrainingRace/Ethnicity and Gender 2003 - 2011GURadOncPEDSStart MedicalSchool
  25. 25. Urology Residency ApplicantsERAS 2011• Total applicants 431By Gender• Male 325• Female 106By Race• White 242• Black 31ERAS 2012• Total applicants 507By Gender• Male 385• Female 122By Race• White 291• Black 39`Number of Black Applicants by Year 2008 – 2012:(Range : 31-39)
  26. 26. Assessing the AfricanAmerican UrologyExperience During TrainingTracy M. Downs MD FACSAssociate Professor
  27. 27. African American ExperienceUrologic Residency• Electronic survey mailed to RFJUSmembers– November 2012– Emailed to 61 RFJUS Members– Response rate 36%– 10 questions (Survey)• Respondents (N = 22)– 77% Male 23% Female
  28. 28. Medical Schools Attended – RFJUS• U. Michigan (2)• U. Pittsburgh• Morehouse• Temple• UCSD (2)• Yale• Stanford• Howard• U Minnesota• U. Kanasas• U. Miami• Cornell• Albany MedicalCollege• Meharry (2)• Northwestern• Johns Hopkins (3)• Columbia
  29. 29. Urology Training Programs– RFJUS• U. Michigan (4)• Emory University• Henry Ford• UT Southwestern• VCU (Virginia)• SUNY Buffalo (2)• AlbertEinstein/Montefiore• Columbia (2)• Harvard (BWH)• U. Kanasas• Medical College ofWisconsin• NYU• Johns Hopkins• UCSF• United States Navy• UT Houston• Eastern Virginia
  30. 30. African American ExperienceUrologic ResidencyRESPONDENTS: 22 of 22RESPONDENTS: 22 of 22Need to use the classic Analyze tool? Switch backAnalyze ResultsCollect ResponsesDesign SurveyExport AllExport All0% 04.55% 122.73% 531.82% 740.91% 9PAGE 1Q1Q1How many years have you been in practicefollowing residency or fellowship?Answered: 22 Skipped: 02-5 years5-10 years10-20 years> 20 years0-2 years0-2 years2-5 years2-5 years5-10 years5-10 years10-20 years10-20 years> 20 years> 20 yearsTotalTotal 2222Q2Q2What is your gender?ExportChart TypeChart Type Display OptionsDisplay OptionsAnswer Choices ResponsesExportChart TypeChart Type Display OptionsDisplay Options22.73% 577.27% 174.55% 181.82% 189.09% 20% 09.09% 2FemaleFemaleMaleMaleTotalTotal 2222Q3Q3How would you describe your ethnicbackground?Answered: 22 Skipped: 00% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%AfricanAfrican-AmericanAfrican-CaribbeanAfrican-EuropeanOther (pleasespecify)AfricanAfricanAfrican-AmericanAfrican-AmericanAfrican-CaribbeanAfrican-CaribbeanAfrican-EuropeanAfrican-EuropeanOther (please specify) ExpandTotal Respondents:Total Respondents: 2222Answer Choices ResponsesExportChart TypeChart Type Display OptionsDisplay OptionsAnswer Choices Responses
  31. 31. African American ExperienceUrologic Residency• Were you the first African-American tocomplete your residency?45.5% Yes54.5% No
  32. 32. African American ExperienceUrologic Residency
  33. 33. African American ExperienceUrologic Residency
  34. 34. African American ExperienceUrologic Residency
  35. 35. How to improve the “UrologicPipeline” for AfricanAmericans
  36. 36. Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Why?• Who?• Where?• How?
  37. 37. Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Why?–US Demographics are changing–Reduce Disparities in HealthCare
  38. 38. US Census Bureau ProjectionsChanges in the US Population Race/Ethnicity2008 and 2050
  39. 39. Race/Ethnic Composition of MedicalSchool Graduates 2002 - 2012
  40. 40. Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Who?–Medical School Applicants–Urologic Personality
  41. 41. Accepted U.S. Medical Student % byGender and Race
  42. 42. U.S. Medical Student Graduates by Gender
  43. 43. What Traits Make up a GoodUrologist?
  44. 44. Canadian Urologic Association Journal 2011;5(3):182-1855 Dimensions of Personality were analyzed using the Validated personality inventory – NEO PI-R
  45. 45. Urologic “Pipeline” Considerations• Gender Gap in undergraduate degreestudents is Wider for AfricanAmericans than Caucasian Americans• Post baccaculaureate degrees “ Pool”of eligible medical school applicants– Whites Women > Men (12.8%)– Blacks Women > Men (31.7%)
  46. 46. Urologic “Pipeline” Considerations• Estimated by 2020– 60% of Latino medical school applicants(Females)– 70% of African American medical schoolapplicants (Females)• Recruitment strategies into FutureUrology Programs for AfricanAmericans will need to account forthis Gender gap
  47. 47. Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• Where?–Undergraduate Strategy–Medical School Strategy
  48. 48. Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 200 Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
  49. 49. Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 20 Black Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
  50. 50. Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 50 Asian Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
  51. 51. Undergraduate InstitutionsSupplying > 140 White Applicants toUS Medical Schools, 2011
  52. 52. Undergraduate Institutions> 8 Medical School Graduatesin 2011 (Black)• Xavier Univ. 60• Howard Univ. 32• U. Florida 26• Harvard 22• Duke 20• Stanford 20• Spelman 18• Univ Michigan 18• Univ. North Carolina 18• Yale 18> 20 Medical SchoolApplicants in 2011 (Black)• Howard 87• Xavier 68• U. Florida 64• Spelman 57• U. Miami 56• U. Maryland 48• Hamptom Univ 45• U South Florida 42• Florida State Univ. 41• Cornell Univ. 40
  53. 53. Journal of Urology 2011;185(2):647-
  54. 54. Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans• How?–Identify model programs toemmulate or createpartnerships
  55. 55. Urologic Pipeline forAfrican Americans
  56. 56. Current Programs to ImproveDiversity in GME• UCSF Graduate Medical EducationDiversity Program– Residency Diversity Committee• MGH Multicultural Affairs Office– Started in 1992– Focus on residency recruitment andpipeline development (i.e. Summerresearch training program)• Vanderbilt University SOM– Associate Dean for Diversity
  57. 57. Current Programs to ImproveDiversity in Physician Workforce• American Association of OrthopaedicsSurgeons• American College of Surgeons• NIH Diversity in Biomedical Research(http://acd.od.nih.gov/dbr.htm)• Robert Wood Johnson• American Gastroenterological Association– NIH R25 Grant to support minorityundergraduates and medical students
  58. 58. Current Programs to ImproveDiversity in Physician Workforce• American Association of OrthopaedicsSurgeons• American College of Surgeons• NIH Diversity in Biomedical Research(http://acd.od.nih.gov/dbr.htm)• Robert Wood Johnson• American Gastroenterological Association– NIH R25 Grant to support minorityundergraduates and medical students
  59. 59. Diversity
  60. 60. Conclusion• R. Frank Jones, MD and HowardDepartment of Surgery have been pivotalin the training of African AmericanUrologic Surgeons• 46% of our members were the firstAfrican American in their residencytraining program• 55% trained with other African-Americanurology residents during their training• 50% did experience racial challenges as aresident or fellow.
  61. 61. R. Frank Jones Urologic Society• Intentional undergraduate and medicalschool strategies will need to be employedto continue to attract African Americansinto the field of urology• A Gender gap exists between no. male vsfemale African American medical students– Needs to be considered in therecruitment of African AmericanUrologists
  62. 62. RFJUS Members
  63. 63. THE ENDTHANK YOU
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