War On Drugs


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  • War On Drugs

    1. 1. The Wars on Crime and Drugs: Origins and Implications Where did the most recent wars on crime and drugs come from, and what have been their primary effects?
    2. 2. The Wars on Crime and Drugs <ul><li>Waging ‘war’ on crime and drugs is not new… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But the consequences of today’s ‘wars’ are unprecedented. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today’s questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did these campaigns emerge in recent decades? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why have they had such a significant impact on the number of people moving through the criminal justice system? What are the consequences of this? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Main components of the criminal justice system <ul><li>Police/law enforcement—federal, state & local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many jurisdictional issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Courts— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main actors? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Correctional” institutions </li></ul>
    4. 4. Origins of the War on Crime: The Reaction to the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Opponents equated civil disobedience with street crime. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued that “law and order” was breaking down as a result of political protest. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But images suggested that violence was the result of state response to protest. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Police Maintain Racial Segregation at a South Carolina Beach, 1964.
    6. 6. Rabbi Arthur Lelyveld, Hattiesburg, MS, 1964.
    7. 7. Arrest of a Civil Rights Protestor in Nashville, 1964
    8. 8. Police Respond to a Civil Rights Protest
    9. 9. Civil Rights March, 1965
    10. 10. The 1960s: Growing Concern about ‘Lawlessness’ <ul><li>Widespread support for civil rights outside of the south continued. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No increase in public concern about crime prior to 1964. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965--: Black Power movement, student movement, and urban riots create a different image. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public becomes more receptive to conservative rhetoric regarding “lawlessness.” </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Black Panther Party Members, 1965
    12. 12. Black Panther Party Leaders, 1968
    13. 13. Watts Riot, 1965
    14. 14. Chicago, August 1968.
    15. 15. The whole world was watching.
    16. 16. 1968 <ul><li>Assassination of MLK triggers riots around the country. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Detroit Riots, 1968
    18. 18. Framing the Events of the 1960s <ul><li>Political protest was defined as crime, evidence of the breakdown of ‘law and order.’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protest did take less orderly forms after 1965. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protest and crime merged in people’s minds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservatives blamed courts (i.e. lenient judges) and welfare programs for ‘breakdown of law and order.’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociological theories of crime were discredited. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public opinion became more receptive to conservative rhetoric on crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But was still quite divided and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong support for rehabilitation continued. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 1960s and 1970s: The Liberal Critique of Rehabilitation <ul><li>Liberals and progressives expressed concerned about discretion inherent in in-determinant sentencing laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Also began to argue that rehabilitation efforts failed and only enhanced state power. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Crime and Politics <ul><li>President Nixon (1968) intensified rhetoric of the war on crime. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But found that crime control largely a local responsibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsequently shifted attention to drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War on drugs officially declared in 1970. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially ignored after Watergate (until 1980s). </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Reagan’s War on Crime and Drugs, 1980-88 <ul><li>Like Nixon, declared war on crime in election campaign; shifted attention to drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued tradition of blaming crime and drug abuse on lenient judges and welfare programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated legislation that reflected the view that intensified law enforcement and enhanced punishments would reduce crime. </li></ul>
    22. 22. 1980s Legislation <ul><li>Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the United States Sentencing Commission to establish sentencing policies and practices &quot;by promulgating detailed guidelines prescribing appropriate sentences for offenders convicted of federal crimes.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Represents beginning of shift toward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determinant sentencing laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing federal control influence over sentencing policy. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 1980s Legislation Continued: Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 & 1988 <ul><li>Enhanced anti-drug funds by several billion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely spent on border control efforts and domestic policing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allowed use of illegally obtained evidence in some drug trials. </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted judicial discretion in sentencing of drug defendants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence determined by type & weight of drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed mandatory minimum sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crack vs. powder cocaine discrepancy added in 1988. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 1994 Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act <ul><li>Also enjoyed bipartisan support. </li></ul><ul><li>Key features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Truth-in-Sentencing” provisions—no parole at federal level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More mandatory minimum sentencing laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on right to appeal conviction & death sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$13.8 billion for local law enforcement. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Review: Crime Policy in the 1980s and 1990s <ul><li>Bipartisan support for getting “tough on crime.” </li></ul><ul><li>Shift toward tough and determinant sentencing laws at federal level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many states and localities follow suit. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased funding for law enforcement efforts, especially drug law enforcement. </li></ul>
    26. 26. U.S. Incarceration Rate
    27. 27. U.S. Incarceration Rates in International Context
    28. 28. Drug Arrest Rate by Race
    29. 29. Understanding the Shift in U.S. Crime and Drug Policy <ul><li>A shift from the due process model & toward the crime control model. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A shift away from sociological theories of crime and toward individualistic approaches. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A increase in federal influence over crime policy. </li></ul><ul><li>A shift toward the view that more enforcement and harsher punishments will solve the crime problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction rates increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jail and prison sentences more common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average sentence length increased </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Consequences of the Shift For Criminal Justice Institutions <ul><li>Police </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources grow, particularly for drug policing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of paramilitary units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caseloads increase dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug cases increase the most </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge increase in the number of prison and jail facilities, many in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive overcrowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probation and parole populations also surge </li></ul></ul>
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