Prologue to Chapter 14 <ul><li>This chapter is about abnormal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and depression proble...
Abnormal behavior <ul><li>Abnormal behavior consists of those actions, thoughts, or feelings that are harmful to the perso...
Abnormal behavior <ul><li>Contemporary views of abnormal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it has become increasingly clear t...
Abnormal behavior <ul><li>The concept of “insanity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insanity: a legal term with different meanings i...
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders <ul><li>Anxiety disorders involve excessive worry, nervousness, tension, or fear </li></ul><ul><li>Types...
Phobias and Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Phobias: intense, unrealistic fears of stimuli that generally do not elicit intense ...
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder <ul><li>PTSD is a response to the stress of such events as war, rape, natural disasters, an...
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders <ul><li>Obsession: anxiety-provoking thought that refuses to go away despite efforts to mak...
Somatoform Disorders
Somatoform disorders <ul><li>Experiencing physical health problems with a psychological etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Somatiz...
Somatoform disorders <ul><li>Conversion Disorder and Somatoform Pain Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion Disorder: e...
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Amnesia and Fugue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychogenic amnesia: involves loss of memory of all...
Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Depersonalization and Multiple Personality Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depersonalization...
Mood Disorders
Mood disorders <ul><li>Characterized by disturbances in a person’s mood </li></ul><ul><li>Mood disorders include major dep...
Mood disorders <ul><li>Cognitive factors in depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-image, self-esteem, and thought processe...
Mood disorders <ul><li>Bipolar Affective Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manic-depression as alternate times of elation and...
Schizophrenias
Schizophrenias and delusional disorders <ul><li>Schizophrenia: a psychotic state typified by extreme cognitive and emotion...
Schizophrenia <ul><li>Paranoid schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type of schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person...
Schizophrenia <ul><li>Disorganized schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characterized by shallow silliness; formerly called...
Schizophrenia <ul><li>Catatonic schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characterized by long periods of catatonic stupor; wax...
Delusional disorder <ul><li>Delusional disorders are rare disorders typified by paranoid delusions of grandeur and persecu...
Personality Disorders
Personality disorders <ul><li>Personality disorders are believed to result from personalities that improperly developed du...
Schizoid personality disorder <ul><li>This personality disorder is typified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blunted emotions in ...
Antisocial personality disorder <ul><li>This personality disorder is typified by a person with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very...
A word about other personality disorders <ul><li>Paranoid personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic personality ...
Application of Psychology
Application of psychology <ul><li>Abnormal psychology and civil liberties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What limits are there on c...
Application of psychology <ul><li>Jack Kavorkian’s “physician-assisted suicide” is a step toward what happened in Nazi Ger...
Questions? <ul><li>Any questions over Chapter 14? </li></ul>
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Psy101 13

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Psy101 13

  1. 1. Prologue to Chapter 14 <ul><li>This chapter is about abnormal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and depression problems are very common in our society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is estimated that between 30-40% of all adults in our society have problems with anxiety and/or depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of the population will, at one time or another, require medical intervention as a result of psychological problems </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Abnormal behavior <ul><li>Abnormal behavior consists of those actions, thoughts, or feelings that are harmful to the person or others </li></ul><ul><li>Historical views of abnormal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supernatural causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biological causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological causes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Abnormal behavior <ul><li>Contemporary views of abnormal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it has become increasingly clear that both biological and psychological causes are involved in the origin of many psychological disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supernatural causes are not in the realm of study of the science of psychology, only psychological and biological causes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Abnormal behavior <ul><li>The concept of “insanity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insanity: a legal term with different meanings in different United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“not guilty by reason of insanity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“not competent by reason of insanity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“committed to a mental institution by reason of insanity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the term is relatively meaningless is psychology because it is too vague </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Anxiety Disorders
  6. 6. Anxiety disorders <ul><li>Anxiety disorders involve excessive worry, nervousness, tension, or fear </li></ul><ul><li>Types of anxiety disorders include phobias, generalized and panic anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll briefly discuss each of these anxiety disorders </li></ul>
  7. 7. Phobias and Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Phobias: intense, unrealistic fears of stimuli that generally do not elicit intense fear in the general population </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized and Panic Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GAD: experienced as relentless, free-floating anxiety, a general sense of foreboding, doom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAD: experienced as periods of calm punctuated by periods of sharp, intense anxiety that are extremely frightening </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder <ul><li>PTSD is a response to the stress of such events as war, rape, natural disasters, and urban crimes </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD may suddenly appear years after the stressor, e.g., the Vietnam War, has happened </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD seen in Viet vets and in U.S. Post Office workers that kill their supervisors </li></ul>
  9. 9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders <ul><li>Obsession: anxiety-provoking thought that refuses to go away despite efforts to make it go away </li></ul><ul><li>Compusion: an irresistable urge to engage in specific behaviors and actions despite efforts to not do them </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” had an obsessive-compulsive disorder </li></ul>
  10. 10. Somatoform Disorders
  11. 11. Somatoform disorders <ul><li>Experiencing physical health problems with a psychological etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Somatization disorders and hypochondriasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>somatization disorders involve numerous symptoms of somatic illnesses with physical cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypochondriasis: excessive concern about health; looking out for any little problem as a major health disorder/disease </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Somatoform disorders <ul><li>Conversion Disorder and Somatoform Pain Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion Disorder: experience of extreme physiological disorders, e.g., blindness or paralysis, without physical cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatoform Pain Disorder: primary problem is pain with no physical cause, e.g., back pain or neck pain with no physical injury or apparent physical cause </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Dissociative Disorders
  14. 14. Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Amnesia and Fugue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychogenic amnesia: involves loss of memory of all or part of a stressful experience for no physical reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fugue state: involves a much more complete loss of memory; person may establish an entire new identity in a new location after a fugue </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Depersonalization and Multiple Personality Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depersonalization: situation in which person perceives distortions or sense of unreality in their bodies or environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple personality disorder: personality shifts abruptly and repeatedly from one personality to another; e.g., Sybil or Eve </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mood Disorders
  17. 17. Mood disorders <ul><li>Characterized by disturbances in a person’s mood </li></ul><ul><li>Mood disorders include major depression and bipolar affective disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Major depression: characterized by deep unhappiness, loss of interest in life, a negative opinion of self and others, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mood disorders <ul><li>Cognitive factors in depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-image, self-esteem, and thought processes associated with these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinking yourself out of a depression… is it possible? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medications in depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-partum depression and its association with hormone imbalances </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mood disorders <ul><li>Bipolar Affective Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manic-depression as alternate times of elation and severe depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treatment with lithium bicarbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person must have a manic episode to be considered bipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unusual behavior often occurs in bipolar affective disorder when not under lithium </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Schizophrenias
  21. 21. Schizophrenias and delusional disorders <ul><li>Schizophrenia: a psychotic state typified by extreme cognitive and emotional disturbance as well as social withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Types of schizophrenia include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoid schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catatonic schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusional disorders </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Paranoid schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type of schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person may experience delusions of persecution and/or delusions of grandeur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often accompanied by halucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person is often not hospitalized as they often may hide their illness in their paranoia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person is suspicious of everything and everybody and feels life is a “covert action” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Disorganized schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characterized by shallow silliness; formerly called hebephrenic schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characterized by extreme social withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fragmented halucinations and delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes seen in homeless people who jibber to themselves and others and seem to be carrying on a conversation with somebody when no one is there </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Catatonic schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characterized by long periods of catatonic stupor; waxy flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual may remain in a fixed position for hours or longer only suddenly to become violent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recovered catatonics report that they felt that if they moved the world would end or some other doom would occur </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Delusional disorder <ul><li>Delusional disorders are rare disorders typified by paranoid delusions of grandeur and persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions are less logical in these individuals than those delusions suffered by paranoid schizophrenics </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions are faulty ideas, e.g., a person wears tin foil on head to protect from Martian thought waves </li></ul>
  26. 26. Personality Disorders
  27. 27. Personality disorders <ul><li>Personality disorders are believed to result from personalities that improperly developed during childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Several types: schizoid, antisocial, paranoid, narcissistic, dependent, and passive-aggressive to list a few </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll look at schizoid and antisocial personality disorders now </li></ul>
  28. 28. Schizoid personality disorder <ul><li>This personality disorder is typified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blunted emotions in the person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a general lack of interest in establishing or maintaining social relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the person is a strict “loner” and will resist or reject friendship efforts made toward them by others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person appears to be devoid of attachment motivation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Antisocial personality disorder <ul><li>This personality disorder is typified by a person with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very “smooth” social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a charming person who can convince you by flattery or other charms of just about anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this person has absolutely no sense of guilt about anything they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these individuals are predators and see others as objects to be used and abused </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. A word about other personality disorders <ul><li>Paranoid personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Passive-aggressive personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>It is near-to-impossible to provide therapy/treatment to individuals with personality disorders; what you see is what you’re going to get... </li></ul>
  31. 31. Application of Psychology
  32. 32. Application of psychology <ul><li>Abnormal psychology and civil liberties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What limits are there on civil liberties to those that are “abnormal?” What is “abnormal” anyway? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “homelessness” problem is, to a large extent, the result of abolishing state mental institutions in which were housed many simple and disorganized schizophrenics and other “abnormal” people </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Application of psychology <ul><li>Jack Kavorkian’s “physician-assisted suicide” is a step toward what happened in Nazi Germany where the “abnormals” (mentally incompetent) were euthanized by the state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the costs of caring for abnormals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the morality/ethics of a society and its “abnormal” population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what do you think? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Questions? <ul><li>Any questions over Chapter 14? </li></ul>

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