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Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
Personality 1
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Personality 1

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    • 1. Personality “She felt that those who prepared for all the emergencies of life beforehand may equip themselves at the expense of joy.” E.M. Forster “ Howards End”
    • 2. Personality <ul><li>Unique, relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferences – for how you handle situations, your sense of humor, or your expectations of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ You have a strong need for other people to like &amp; admire you. You have a tendency to be critical of yourself. You have a great deal of unused capacity, which you have not turned to your advantage…disciplined &amp; controlled on the outside, you tend to be worrisome &amp; insecure inside…at times, you’re extraverted, affable, &amp; sociable; at other times, you’re introverted, wary, &amp; reserved” </li></ul>
    • 3. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Josef Breuer’s “talking cure” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catharsis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of the Victorian era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repressed sexuality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationality &amp; self-control distinguish us from the animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eros and Thanatos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibited sexuality &amp; inhibited aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Iceberg Metaphor </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Freud’s Structure of Personality Conscious — Acute awareness Preconscious — Just under awareness; easily known Unconscious — Well below awareness; Difficult to know but very influential Superego Consciousness <ul><li>Ego </li></ul>Id
    • 5. How the iceberg works <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions on ‘pleasure principle’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate gratification of needs to reduce tension &amp; discomfort regardless of consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions on ‘idealistic principle’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our moral guide/conscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by internalizing our parents’ values &amp; the voice of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works against the Id by inflicting guilt </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. How the iceberg works (cont.) <ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions on ‘reality principle’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves to balance the demands the Id and the Superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses what is realistically possible in satisfying the Id and/or Superego (i.e., what society will deem acceptable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego uses defense mechanisms to protect itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality is result of the battle for control between id, ego &amp; superego </li></ul>
    • 7. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denying the anxiety outright </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking out/prevention of anxiety – forcing anxiety back into unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating false reasons or explanations for anxiety in the form of a shortcoming </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. Defense Mechanisms (cont.) <ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing in others unacceptable feelings that reside in one’s own unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acting out your anxiety on an innocent party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scapegoating </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Defense Mechanisms (cont.) <ul><li>Reaction formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversing the nature of the anxiety so that it feels like its opposite nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggerated love for someone you unconsciously hate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channeling anxiety into socially-acceptable activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing sexual energy into art, music, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages <ul><li>Periods of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for adult personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral (Birth to 1½ yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gratification is centered around the mouth (e.g., breast-feeding, sucking, biting) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anal (1½ to 3 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gratification is centered around the pleasure of defecation; toilet-training is issue for resolution and development </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Stages <ul><li>Phallic (3 to 6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gratification manifests itself through masturbation; resolution for development lies in identification w/ same-sex parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oedipus Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boys have unconscious jealous love for mother and desire to kill the father; fear of castration by father leads to resolution with acceptance of/identification with father and internalization of father’s values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong superego results in this resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electra Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls discover that they do not have a penis and desire one (“penis envy”); they direct their anger toward the mother for not providing a penis; jealous of mother forefather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual realization that these desires are self-defeating; identification with mother results </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Stages <ul><li>Latency (6 to puberty) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual urges are repressed and transformed into socially acceptable activities, such as schoolwork and peer activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genital (puberty – adulthood) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful resolution and development into a mature sexual relationship </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Criticisms of Freud <ul><li>Sexist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud’s theory was thought to be sexist against women (e.g., “penis envy”, underdeveloped superego) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Description rather than prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective description, solely by Freud, and “after the fact” on a relatively small sample of patients, including himself! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His patients were mostly females from upper classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unverifiable concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the heck can you directly confirm, disconfirm, or even observe the Oedipus Complex?! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels more mythical than scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too many hypotheses for reactions to anxiety </li></ul>
    • 14. But… <ul><li>Freud’s theory…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was rich and comprehensive in description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st comprehensive theory of personality: every personality theory since can be seen as a reaction to Freud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparked psychoanalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many still believe that psychoanalysis is the best treatment for mental illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was controversial and stretched the boundaries for creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freud: “I am actually not a man of science, not an observer, not an experimenter, not a thinker. I am by temperament nothing but a conquistador—an adventurer…with all the curiosity, daring, and tenacity characteristic of a man of this sort.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you think his theory is still popular today? What do you like about it and why? </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. Beyond Freud…Dispositional Approaches <ul><li>Principles of dispositional approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality is stable over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality is consistent across situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences of these principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must have enduring personal characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 16. Allport’s Trait Theory <ul><li>Trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively enduring, consistent personality characteristics - inferred from behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 types of traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinal traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect every area of the individual’s life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mother Theresa – altruistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence many aspects of our lives, but not quite as pervasive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone you think of as “kind” or “funny” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect narrower aspects of our lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preference for cowboy hats or always wearing perfume </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 17. Type Theories <ul><li>5-factor model of personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we fall on 5 different dimensions determines personality type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity, flexibility, imagination, artistic sensibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline, organization, dependable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing, upbeat, friendly, assertive, gregarious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, straightforward </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticsm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxious, hostile, self-conscious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 18. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Bandura </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take his ideas of observational learning and add cognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing we can actually perform behaviors successfully, in the way we wish to behave, leads to self-praise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mischel’s controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our behavior is mostly a function of a given situation, not of stable, internal traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactionism: both traits and situations interact to produce behavior, thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura’s reciprocal determinism: behavior also influences traits and situations – all 3 factors influence each other </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 19. Humanistic Psychology <ul><li>Focuses on the positive aspects of being human (e.g., goodness, creativity, free will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of the scientific goal of predicting and controlling human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The major aim should be to discover things that expand and enrich human experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should strive to seek info that will help solve human problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of what it means to be a human being in terms of meaningful experience, such as values, language, and emotions </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Humanistic perspectives <ul><li>Rogers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person-centered therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence vs. incongruence </li></ul></ul></ul>Lots of overlap between self and experience Little overlap between self and experience
    • 21. Evolutionary perspective <ul><li>Evolutionary perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disregards both conscious &amp; unconscious determinants of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality is a function of your unique combination of genes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining the Big Five </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining individual differences </li></ul></ul>
    • 22. Assessing Personality Provide a story here : What does this look like? What features make you think this? What does this remind you of?
    • 23. Projective Tests <ul><li>Ask about meaningless, ambiguous stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory behind it that we will give an answer consistent with the inner workings of our minds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rorschach Inkblots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best used to measure how people process information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity, coping resources, emotional processing, relationships with others, thought disorders, psychoses </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. TAT-like Card <ul><li>Provide a story here : What is happening in this picture? What led up to it? What are the people here thinking and feeling? What will happen to these people here? </li></ul>
    • 25. Thematic Apperception Test <ul><li>Black &amp; white pictures of people in vague/ambiguous situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asked to make up a dramatic story about the picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best used to learn the motivation behind people’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that person will identify with one of the characters on each card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In their stories, people are thought to express their own circumstances, needs, environmental demands, emotions, and perceptions of reality </li></ul></ul></ul>

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