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Pc 03 A

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  • 1. Main Characteristics of Anthropology
  • 2. The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio / cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio / cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html Texas A &amp; M
  • 5. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
  • 6. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &amp;quot;humankind&amp;quot; as a whole , as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  • 7. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &amp;quot;humankind&amp;quot; as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  • 8. Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmitted from generation to generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ cultures” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interact and change </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not inherited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ( i.e. , is not biological) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not “instinct” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &amp;quot;humankind&amp;quot; as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  • 12. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a major approach to the study of human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the comparative method compares things </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Chicago) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954) </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Chicago) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954) </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods . . . </li></ul></ul>compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process
  • 16. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods . . . </li></ul></ul>compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process
  • 17. Main Characteristics <ul><li>the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheat – Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rice – China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maize – Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manioc – Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>millet – Africa </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheat – Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rice – China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maize – Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manioc – Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>millet – Africa </li></ul></ul>Main Characteristics
  • 19. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 333. Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Neolithic Chapter 14 Food Production
  • 20. Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 342. rice 7,000 ybp manioc 4,200 ybp maize 4,200 ybp wheat 10,500 ybp millet 4,000 ybp
  • 21. <ul><li>Tehuac án Valley, Puebla, Mexico </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed. , p. 432. maize 4,200 ybp
  • 22. <ul><li>Early Neolithic sites </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 349.
  • 23. <ul><li>Mehrgarh One of the earliest Neolithic settlements of southern Asia, Pakistan </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 352.
  • 24. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &amp;quot;humankind&amp;quot; as a whole , as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  • 25. The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio / cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
  • 27. &nbsp;
  • 28. holism
  • 29. holism
  • 30. difficult terms
  • 31. Glossary <ul><li>ethno graphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific description of cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (“a portrait of a people”) </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Glossary <ul><li>ethno – graphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graph from the Greek, meaning something “written” or “drawn” </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Glossary <ul><li>ethn ology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comparative study of cultures </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Glossary <ul><li>eth ology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific study of the social behavior of animals, especially in their natural environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>note that there is no n in ethology </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Glossary <ul><li>primatology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific study of the social behavior of primates, especially (non-human primates) apes and monkeys </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. Glossary <ul><li>“ primates” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monkeys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and also humans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 37. http:// www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1602/pcprim.html
  • 38. Glossary <ul><li>“ non-human primates” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apes </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. “ non-human primates”
  • 40. Glossary <ul><li>“ primatologist” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually refers to one who studies the behavior and social lives of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Jane Goodall, Diane Fossy, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birute Galdikas-Brindamour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 41. Glossary <ul><li>ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Glossary <ul><li>cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another </li></ul></ul>
  • 43. Glossary <ul><li>absolute cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perspective that says a person from one culture should not question the rightness or wrongness of behavior or ideas in other cultures because that would be ethnocentric </li></ul></ul>
  • 44. Glossary <ul><li>critical cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offers an alternative view that poses questions about cultural practices and ideas in terms of who accepts them and why, and who they might be harming or helping </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. Multiple Cultural Worlds people live in multiple cultural worlds
  • 46. multiple cultural worlds <ul><li>class </li></ul><ul><li>race </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul><ul><li>age </li></ul><ul><li>institutions </li></ul>
  • 47. the three major contemporary debates <ul><li>Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism (“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Agency vs. Structuralism (“free will” vs. “power structures”) </li></ul>
  • 48. &nbsp;

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