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Pc 03 A

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  • 1. Main Characteristics of Anthropology
  • 2. The Fields of General Anthropology
      • archaeology
      • physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology)
      • socio / cultural anthropology
      • linguistic anthropology
  • 3. The Fields of General Anthropology
      • archaeology
      • physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology)
      • socio / cultural anthropology
      • linguistic anthropology
  • 4. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html Texas A & M
  • 5. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
  • 6. Main Characteristics
    • culture as a primary concept
    • comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure
    • holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole , as a primary goal of anthropology
  • 7. Main Characteristics
    • culture as a primary concept
    • comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure
    • holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology
  • 8. Main Characteristics
    • “ culture”
      • learned
      • shared
      • transmitted from generation to generation
      • based on symbols
      • integrated
  • 9. Main Characteristics
    • “ cultures”
      • are integrated
      • interact and change
  • 10. Main Characteristics
    • “ culture”
        • is not inherited
      • ( i.e. , is not biological)
        • is not “instinct”
  • 11. Main Characteristics
    • culture as a primary concept
    • comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure
    • holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology
  • 12. Main Characteristics
    • comparative method
      • as a major approach to the study of human behavior
      • the comparative method compares things
  • 13. Main Characteristics
    • comparative method
      • One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan
      • (University of Chicago)
    • “ Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison”
      • American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954)
  • 14. Main Characteristics
    • comparative method
      • One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan
      • (University of Chicago)
    • “ Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison ”
      • American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954)
  • 15. Main Characteristics
    • comparative method
      • Other methods . . .
    compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process
  • 16. Main Characteristics
    • comparative method
      • Other methods . . .
    compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process
  • 17. Main Characteristics
    • the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization
      • wheat – Turkey
      • rice – China
      • maize – Mexico
      • manioc – Brazil
      • millet – Africa
  • 18.
    • the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization
      • wheat – Turkey
      • rice – China
      • maize – Mexico
      • manioc – Brazil
      • millet – Africa
    Main Characteristics
  • 19. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 333. Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Neolithic Chapter 14 Food Production
  • 20. Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 342. rice 7,000 ybp manioc 4,200 ybp maize 4,200 ybp wheat 10,500 ybp millet 4,000 ybp
  • 21.
    • Tehuac án Valley, Puebla, Mexico
    Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed. , p. 432. maize 4,200 ybp
  • 22.
    • Early Neolithic sites
    Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 349.
  • 23.
    • Mehrgarh One of the earliest Neolithic settlements of southern Asia, Pakistan
    Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 352.
  • 24. Main Characteristics
    • culture as a primary concept
    • comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure
    • holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole , as a primary goal of anthropology
  • 25. The Fields of General Anthropology
      • archaeology
      • physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology)
      • socio / cultural anthropology
      • linguistic anthropology
  • 26. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
  • 27.  
  • 28. holism
  • 29. holism
  • 30. difficult terms
  • 31. Glossary
    • ethno graphy
      • scientific description of cultures
      • (“a portrait of a people”)
  • 32. Glossary
    • ethno – graphy
      • graph from the Greek, meaning something “written” or “drawn”
  • 33. Glossary
    • ethn ology
      • comparative study of cultures
  • 34. Glossary
    • eth ology
      • scientific study of the social behavior of animals, especially in their natural environments
      • note that there is no n in ethology
  • 35. Glossary
    • primatology
      • scientific study of the social behavior of primates, especially (non-human primates) apes and monkeys
  • 36. Glossary
    • “ primates”
        • prosimians (“pre-monkeys”)
        • monkeys
        • apes
        • and also humans
  • 37. http:// www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1602/pcprim.html
  • 38. Glossary
    • “ non-human primates”
      • prosimians (“pre-monkeys”)
      • monkeys
      • apes
  • 39. “ non-human primates”
  • 40. Glossary
    • “ primatologist”
      • usually refers to one who studies the behavior and social lives of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, etc.
          • e.g., Jane Goodall, Diane Fossy,
          • Birute Galdikas-Brindamour
  • 41. Glossary
    • ethnocentrism
      • judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture
  • 42. Glossary
    • cultural relativism
      • the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another
  • 43. Glossary
    • absolute cultural relativism
      • the perspective that says a person from one culture should not question the rightness or wrongness of behavior or ideas in other cultures because that would be ethnocentric
  • 44. Glossary
    • critical cultural relativism
      • offers an alternative view that poses questions about cultural practices and ideas in terms of who accepts them and why, and who they might be harming or helping
  • 45. Multiple Cultural Worlds people live in multiple cultural worlds
  • 46. multiple cultural worlds
    • class
    • race
    • ethnicity
    • gender
    • age
    • institutions
  • 47. the three major contemporary debates
    • Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism (“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)
    • Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism
    • Individual Agency vs. Structuralism (“free will” vs. “power structures”)
  • 48.