Main Characteristics of Anthropology
The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology ...
The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology ...
http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html Texas A & M
http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture  as a primary  concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods  as  major approaches  t...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture  as a primary  concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods  as major approaches to ...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared </li></ul></ul><ul...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ cultures” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interact and chan...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not inherited   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ( i...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture  as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods  as  major approaches  to...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a major  approach  to the study of human behavior...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods .  .  . </li></ul></ul>compare things ...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods .  .  . </li></ul></ul>compare things ...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>the comparative method  compares  things, for e.g.,  process  of domestication / civilization...
<ul><li>the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wh...
Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 333. Time line for Ch. 14  Food Production. Neolithic Ch...
Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 342. rice 7,...
<ul><li>Tehuac án Valley, Puebla, Mexico </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed. , p. 432. ...
<ul><li>Early Neolithic sites </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 349.
<ul><li>Mehrgarh One of the earliest Neolithic settlements of southern Asia, Pakistan </li></ul>Understanding Physical Ant...
Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture  as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods  as major approaches to t...
The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology ...
http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
 
holism
holism
difficult terms
Glossary <ul><li>ethno graphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific  description  of cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  (“a ...
Glossary <ul><li>ethno –  graphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graph  from the Greek, meaning something “written” or “drawn” </li>...
Glossary <ul><li>ethn ology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comparative  study  of cultures </li></ul></ul>
Glossary <ul><li>eth ology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific  study of the social  behavior of animals,  especially in  the...
Glossary <ul><li>primatology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific study of the social  behavior of  primates,  especially  (no...
Glossary <ul><li>“ primates” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monk...
http:// www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1602/pcprim.html
Glossary <ul><li>“ non-human primates” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monkeys...
“ non-human primates”
Glossary <ul><li>“ primatologist” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually refers to one who studies the behavior and social lives of...
Glossary <ul><li>ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather t...
Glossary <ul><li>cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms o...
Glossary <ul><li>absolute cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perspective that says a person from one culture sh...
Glossary <ul><li>critical cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offers an alternative view that poses questions about ...
Multiple Cultural Worlds people live in   multiple cultural worlds
multiple cultural worlds <ul><li>class </li></ul><ul><li>race </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>gender </li></...
the three major contemporary debates <ul><li>Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism (“nature vs. nurture”) (“...
 
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Pc 03 A

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Pc 03 A

  1. 1. Main Characteristics of Anthropology
  2. 2. The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio / cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio / cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html Texas A & M
  5. 5. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
  6. 6. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &quot;humankind&quot; as a whole , as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &quot;humankind&quot; as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  8. 8. Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmitted from generation to generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ cultures” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interact and change </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Main Characteristics <ul><li>“ culture” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not inherited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ( i.e. , is not biological) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not “instinct” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &quot;humankind&quot; as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  12. 12. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a major approach to the study of human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the comparative method compares things </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Chicago) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Chicago) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods . . . </li></ul></ul>compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process
  16. 16. Main Characteristics <ul><li>comparative method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods . . . </li></ul></ul>compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process
  17. 17. Main Characteristics <ul><li>the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheat – Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rice – China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maize – Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manioc – Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>millet – Africa </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheat – Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rice – China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maize – Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manioc – Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>millet – Africa </li></ul></ul>Main Characteristics
  19. 19. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 333. Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Neolithic Chapter 14 Food Production
  20. 20. Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 342. rice 7,000 ybp manioc 4,200 ybp maize 4,200 ybp wheat 10,500 ybp millet 4,000 ybp
  21. 21. <ul><li>Tehuac án Valley, Puebla, Mexico </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed. , p. 432. maize 4,200 ybp
  22. 22. <ul><li>Early Neolithic sites </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 349.
  23. 23. <ul><li>Mehrgarh One of the earliest Neolithic settlements of southern Asia, Pakistan </li></ul>Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. , p. 352.
  24. 24. Main Characteristics <ul><li>culture as a primary concept </li></ul><ul><li>comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure </li></ul><ul><li>holism or the study of &quot;humankind&quot; as a whole , as a primary goal of anthropology </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Fields of General Anthropology <ul><ul><li>archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio / cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. http:// www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html 1 2 3 4
  27. 28. holism
  28. 29. holism
  29. 30. difficult terms
  30. 31. Glossary <ul><li>ethno graphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific description of cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (“a portrait of a people”) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Glossary <ul><li>ethno – graphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graph from the Greek, meaning something “written” or “drawn” </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Glossary <ul><li>ethn ology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comparative study of cultures </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Glossary <ul><li>eth ology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific study of the social behavior of animals, especially in their natural environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>note that there is no n in ethology </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Glossary <ul><li>primatology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific study of the social behavior of primates, especially (non-human primates) apes and monkeys </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Glossary <ul><li>“ primates” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monkeys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and also humans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. http:// www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1602/pcprim.html
  37. 38. Glossary <ul><li>“ non-human primates” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apes </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. “ non-human primates”
  39. 40. Glossary <ul><li>“ primatologist” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually refers to one who studies the behavior and social lives of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Jane Goodall, Diane Fossy, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birute Galdikas-Brindamour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Glossary <ul><li>ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Glossary <ul><li>cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Glossary <ul><li>absolute cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perspective that says a person from one culture should not question the rightness or wrongness of behavior or ideas in other cultures because that would be ethnocentric </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Glossary <ul><li>critical cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offers an alternative view that poses questions about cultural practices and ideas in terms of who accepts them and why, and who they might be harming or helping </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Multiple Cultural Worlds people live in multiple cultural worlds
  45. 46. multiple cultural worlds <ul><li>class </li></ul><ul><li>race </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul><ul><li>age </li></ul><ul><li>institutions </li></ul>
  46. 47. the three major contemporary debates <ul><li>Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism (“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Agency vs. Structuralism (“free will” vs. “power structures”) </li></ul>

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