Iraq 6

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Iraq 6

  1. 1. Comparative Politics <ul><li>Islamic Republic of Iran </li></ul><ul><li>PoliSci Department </li></ul><ul><li>SUNY @ Stony Brook </li></ul><ul><li>POL 103 (Section 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: Udi Sommer </li></ul>
  2. 2. Geography - Borders <ul><li>East - Pakistan (909km of border) and Afghanistan (936km) </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast - Turkmenistan (1000km) </li></ul><ul><li>North - the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan (500km) and Armenia (35km) </li></ul><ul><li>West - Turkey (500km) and Iraq (1458km) </li></ul><ul><li>South - Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman </li></ul>
  3. 3. Political history <ul><li>World War I </li></ul><ul><li>British interests in the Middle East (oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian oil company is founded </li></ul><ul><li>Reza Khan – a modernizing tyrant with nationalist tendencies (builds roads, railways, unversities, student exchange) </li></ul><ul><li>Unpopularity at home, and suspicion he might join the Nazis abroad, lead to his fall </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political history <ul><li>Role during World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Following WWII – heavy Soviet involvement in northern Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Marks the beginning of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Shah is replaced by his son under British influence </li></ul><ul><li>Hopes that Iran would be a constitutional monarchy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political history <ul><li>Politics quickly becomes unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Mussadegh rises to power </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates nationalization of oil industry </li></ul><ul><li>CIA makes efforts to depose Mussadegh </li></ul><ul><li>Under British and American influence the Shah forces Mussadegh from office. </li></ul><ul><li>Profits of oil company are shared evenly with foreign nations </li></ul>
  6. 6. The White Revolution <ul><li>White as opposed to the Bolshevik revolution in Soviet Union which was red </li></ul><ul><li>A revolution from above </li></ul><ul><li>Shah wants to win progress economically and socially. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Elements of the Reform <ul><li>Importing western economic ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Massive government financed heavy industries </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in education </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problems <ul><li>No increase in democratic representation </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough land to allow farmers to make their living </li></ul><ul><li>Shiite clergy displeased with reduction of their influence in education </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a major division in Iranian politics (reality in villages and reality in big cities) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2 types of opposition to the Shah <ul><li>From the middle class – aspiring to establish a constitutional monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition from religious sects – despise reforms and the White Revolution, and perceive the Shah to be an American puppet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ayatollah Khomeini <ul><li>Leader of opposition to the Shah. </li></ul><ul><li>Exile </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, Iraq, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes a broader populist movement, using recorded speeches on cassettes, and through mosques. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978 it is the Islamic groups rather than the middle class that rally masses against the Shah. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Key elements of Iranian constitution <ul><li>Establish and facilitate people’s ability to live Muslim life </li></ul><ul><li>Opposes monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with non-Islamic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision by Islamic judges </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Supreme Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy – independence from USA and the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>Shiia Islam –official religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Leader: </li></ul><ul><li>Head of state </li></ul><ul><li>Elected and (potentially) deposed by Assembly of Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Appoints the 6 religious members of the Council of Guardians. </li></ul><ul><li>May dismiss president. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>The President: </li></ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>4 year terms </li></ul><ul><li>Appoints and supervises Council of Ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates government </li></ul><ul><li>Selects policies </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Guardians screens candidates to the job. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>The parliament – the Majles </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and secret ballot </li></ul><ul><li>All its legislation is reviewed by the Council of Guardians </li></ul><ul><li>No members of parliament are members of any of the councils or vice versa. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>The Guardian Council of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Authority to interpret constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional review of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Not a legislative body, but a power to veto. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of 6 Islamic clerics (selected by the Supreme Leader), and 6 memebers who are lawyers. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not change with a change in Supreme Leader position </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>The Assembly of Experts: </li></ul><ul><li>Selects Supreme Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Supervises the activities of the Supreme Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Popularly elected </li></ul><ul><li>Currently this is a conservative stronghold and thus considered a threat to the reform movement </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>The Expediency Council </li></ul><ul><li>Resolves legislative issues that Majles and Council of Guardians fail to agree upon </li></ul><ul><li>Advises Supreme Leader on matters of national policy </li></ul><ul><li>Oversees important policies </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as a cabinet of Supreme Leader </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Constitution – its elements <ul><li>Judicial Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Vested in the Head of the Judiciary, who is appointed by the Supreme Leader </li></ul><ul><li>As an administrative position a Minister of Justice is appointed by the president </li></ul><ul><li>Supervises enforcement of laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes judicial and legal policies </li></ul>
  19. 19. The constitution – institutional arrangement Supreme Leader Assembly of Experts Armed Forces Judic ial Authority Expediency Council Council of Guardians 6 Religious Members 6 Lawyers Majles (The Parliament) Council of Ministers President voters Key - supervise - advise - approval
  20. 20. Economy <ul><li>3 components: </li></ul><ul><li>State economy </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative economy </li></ul><ul><li>Private economy </li></ul><ul><li>Growth since revolution has slowed (due to revolution, war, oil price, management, inability to establish market economy) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Latest developments <ul><li>Reformers in the Majles and presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives in the Council of Guardians and the Expediency Council </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of War in Iraq, war in Afghanistan, and ‘Axis of Evil’ </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with Turkey </li></ul>
  22. 22. Final comments <ul><li>The importance of the geographical location to the centrality of Iran in world affairs – consequential to domestic politics (e.g. relations with the USA). </li></ul><ul><li>The level of democracy – some democratic features, defined as a non-democracy </li></ul>

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