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Iraq 6

Iraq 6






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    Iraq 6 Iraq 6 Presentation Transcript

    • Comparative Politics
      • Islamic Republic of Iran
      • PoliSci Department
      • SUNY @ Stony Brook
      • POL 103 (Section 2)
      • Spring 2005
      • Instructor: Udi Sommer
    • Geography - Borders
      • East - Pakistan (909km of border) and Afghanistan (936km)
      • Northeast - Turkmenistan (1000km)
      • North - the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan (500km) and Armenia (35km)
      • West - Turkey (500km) and Iraq (1458km)
      • South - Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman
    • Political history
      • World War I
      • British interests in the Middle East (oil)
      • Iranian oil company is founded
      • Reza Khan – a modernizing tyrant with nationalist tendencies (builds roads, railways, unversities, student exchange)
      • Unpopularity at home, and suspicion he might join the Nazis abroad, lead to his fall
    • Political history
      • Role during World War II
      • Following WWII – heavy Soviet involvement in northern Iran.
      • Marks the beginning of the Cold War
      • Shah is replaced by his son under British influence
      • Hopes that Iran would be a constitutional monarchy
    • Political history
      • Politics quickly becomes unstable
      • Mussadegh rises to power
      • Initiates nationalization of oil industry
      • CIA makes efforts to depose Mussadegh
      • Under British and American influence the Shah forces Mussadegh from office.
      • Profits of oil company are shared evenly with foreign nations
    • The White Revolution
      • White as opposed to the Bolshevik revolution in Soviet Union which was red
      • A revolution from above
      • Shah wants to win progress economically and socially.
    • Elements of the Reform
      • Importing western economic ideas
      • Massive government financed heavy industries
      • Land reform
      • Women’s rights
      • Investment in education
    • Problems
      • No increase in democratic representation
      • Corruption
      • Not enough land to allow farmers to make their living
      • Shiite clergy displeased with reduction of their influence in education
      • Creates a major division in Iranian politics (reality in villages and reality in big cities)
    • 2 types of opposition to the Shah
      • From the middle class – aspiring to establish a constitutional monarchy.
      • Opposition from religious sects – despise reforms and the White Revolution, and perceive the Shah to be an American puppet.
    • Ayatollah Khomeini
      • Leader of opposition to the Shah.
      • Exile
      • Turkey, Iraq, Paris
      • Organizes a broader populist movement, using recorded speeches on cassettes, and through mosques.
      • In 1978 it is the Islamic groups rather than the middle class that rally masses against the Shah.
    • Key elements of Iranian constitution
      • Establish and facilitate people’s ability to live Muslim life
      • Opposes monarchy
      • Relations with non-Islamic groups
      • Supervision by Islamic judges
      • Representation of minorities
      • Islamic Supreme Leader
      • Foreign policy – independence from USA and the Soviet Union.
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • Shiia Islam –official religion.
      • The Supreme Leader:
      • Head of state
      • Elected and (potentially) deposed by Assembly of Experts
      • Appoints the 6 religious members of the Council of Guardians.
      • May dismiss president.
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • The President:
      • Universal suffrage
      • 4 year terms
      • Appoints and supervises Council of Ministers.
      • Coordinates government
      • Selects policies
      • Council of Guardians screens candidates to the job.
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • The parliament – the Majles
      • Direct and secret ballot
      • All its legislation is reviewed by the Council of Guardians
      • No members of parliament are members of any of the councils or vice versa.
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • The Guardian Council of the Constitution
      • Authority to interpret constitution
      • Constitutional review of laws
      • Not a legislative body, but a power to veto.
      • Composed of 6 Islamic clerics (selected by the Supreme Leader), and 6 memebers who are lawyers.
      • Does not change with a change in Supreme Leader position
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • The Assembly of Experts:
      • Selects Supreme Leader
      • Supervises the activities of the Supreme Leader
      • Popularly elected
      • Currently this is a conservative stronghold and thus considered a threat to the reform movement
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • The Expediency Council
      • Resolves legislative issues that Majles and Council of Guardians fail to agree upon
      • Advises Supreme Leader on matters of national policy
      • Oversees important policies
      • Functions as a cabinet of Supreme Leader
    • The Constitution – its elements
      • Judicial Authority
      • Vested in the Head of the Judiciary, who is appointed by the Supreme Leader
      • As an administrative position a Minister of Justice is appointed by the president
      • Supervises enforcement of laws.
      • Establishes judicial and legal policies
    • The constitution – institutional arrangement Supreme Leader Assembly of Experts Armed Forces Judic ial Authority Expediency Council Council of Guardians 6 Religious Members 6 Lawyers Majles (The Parliament) Council of Ministers President voters Key - supervise - advise - approval
    • Economy
      • 3 components:
      • State economy
      • Cooperative economy
      • Private economy
      • Growth since revolution has slowed (due to revolution, war, oil price, management, inability to establish market economy)
    • Latest developments
      • Reformers in the Majles and presidency
      • Conservatives in the Council of Guardians and the Expediency Council
      • Effects of War in Iraq, war in Afghanistan, and ‘Axis of Evil’
      • Relations with Turkey
    • Final comments
      • The importance of the geographical location to the centrality of Iran in world affairs – consequential to domestic politics (e.g. relations with the USA).
      • The level of democracy – some democratic features, defined as a non-democracy